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Encyclopedia > American Dream
The Statue of Liberty was for many immigrants their first glimpse of the United States. It signifies freedom and personal liberty and is iconic of the American Dream.
The Statue of Liberty was for many immigrants their first glimpse of the United States. It signifies freedom and personal liberty and is iconic of the American Dream.

The American Dream can be described as a belief in some sort of freedom that allows all citizens and residents of the United States of America to achieve their goals in life through hard work. Today, in America it generally refers to the idea that one's prosperity depends upon one's own abilities and hard work, not on a rigid class structure, though the meaning of the phrase has changed over America's history. For some, it is the opportunity to achieve more prosperity than they could in their countries of origin; for others, it is the opportunity for their children to grow up with an education and career opportunities; for others, it is the opportunity to be an individual without the constraints imposed by class, caste, race, or ethnicity. The American Dream is a term referring to success and satisfaction in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (521 × 781 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Statue of Liberty front shot, on Liberty Island. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (521 × 781 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Statue of Liberty front shot, on Liberty Island. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Believe. ... Look up freedom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Citizen redirects here. ... A resident is a person who lives in a particular place permanently, or for an extended period of time, i. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... Social hierarchy is a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... For other uses, see Race. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ...


The definition of the American Dream is now under constant discussion and debate.[1] Also "The package of beliefs, assumptions, and action patterns that social scientists have labeled the American Dream has always been a fragile agglomeration of (1) individual freedom of choice in life styles, (2) equal access to economic abundance, and (3) the pursuit of shared objectives mutually advantageous to the individual and society."[2] In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... Freedom of Choice is the third album by New Wave musicians Devo, released in 1980 (see 1980 in music). ... In sociology, a lifestyle is the way a person lives. ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


While the term "American Dream" today is often associated with immigrants, native-born Americans can also be described as "pursuing the American Dream," "living the American Dream" or "living the Dream." 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ...

Contents

Historical background

Historical American flags in Washington, D.C.: the Betsy Ross flag hangs on both ends and the classic Old Glory is to each side of the current 50-state version.
Historical American flags in Washington, D.C.: the Betsy Ross flag hangs on both ends and the classic Old Glory is to each side of the current 50-state version.

The generic definition of the term "American Dream" appears in a history book by James Truslow Adams entitled The Epic of America (1931): Image File history File linksMetadata American_flags. ... Image File history File linksMetadata American_flags. ... Union Jack. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Betsy Boss, see Betsy Boss (disambiguation). ... Old Glory is a common nickname for the Flag of the United States, bestowed by William Driver, an early 19th century American sea captain. ... James Truslow Adams (1878 - 1949) was a U.S. historian. ...


However, the concept of the American Dream goes back to the 16th century. As 16th and 17th century English promoters were attempting to persuade Englishmen to move to the colonies. Their promises about what the colonies were like were simultaneously laying the groundwork for three separate, but interrelated persistent myths of America: America as the land of plenty, America as the land of opportunity, and America as the land of destiny.[3] America as the land of plenty figured more prominently in 18th and 19th century definitions of the American Dream than it does today. Central to the dream was the presence of the (still untamed) American land, along with the question how to deal with nature and how to live with other people on the land.[4] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... British colonization of the Americas (including colonization under the Kingdom of England before the 1707 Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain) began in the late 16th century, before reaching its peak after colonies were established throughout the Americas, and a protectorate was established in Hawaii. ...


Ideology

The American Dream is deep rooted in the concepts found in liberal thought. It is an American adaptation of the norm of private property as a means of liberty, ultimately bringing happiness to the individuals. Classic liberal thought stipulates that liberty is guaranteed by free trade and competition, as these conditions let all individuals maximize their gains, derived from their needs and desires, through trade (the market). Furthermore, there is the hypothesis that all citizens are born with equal rights and opportunities, and only effort (work) differentiates them in the long term, hence the saying that those with will succeed and those without do not. This excerpt of the United States Declaration of Independence is an excellent formal example of the origins of the concept: The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to...

[...] We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. [...]

Regardless of the content of each individual version of the American dream they all include the belief in the opportunity to achieve some form of quantitative or qualitative success. Therefore, in order to better understand the existence of so many different versions of the American dream it would first be helpful to define the different ways in which success can be measured. In her book Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul of the Nation, Jennifer Hochschild[5] states that definitions of success involves measurement as well as content. She classifies success into the following three categories which have important normative and behavioral consequences:


Absolute success- "In this case achieving the American dream implies reaching some threshold of well being, higher than where one began but not necessarily dazzling."[6]


Competitive success- requires "achieving victory over someone else. My success implies your failure. Competitors are usually people, whether known and concrete (opponents in a tennis match) or unknown and abstract (all other applicants for a job)".[7]


Relative success- "Here achieving the American dream consists in becoming better off than some comparison point, whether one's childhood, people in the old country, one's neighbors, a character from a book, another race or gender-anything or anyone that one measures oneself against. Relative success implies no threshold of well-being, and it may or may not entail continually changing the comparison group as one achieves a given level of accomplishment.[6]


Though some may believe that America is an unequal society and that one's race, sex, class and family background have a great deal to do with one's life chances, many Americans continue to hold on to their belief in the American dream. One way to better understand the meaning of the American dream is to examine it within the framework provided by Hochschild, who places the ideology of the American dream within four tenets of success. According to Hochschild these tenets define the American dream as well as its intrinsic flaws by answering the following questions about the pursuit of success:


Question Who may pursue success?


Answer-"everyone regardless of ascriptive traits, family background or personal history"(18). Flaws- fail to account for aspects of inequality such as race and sex discrimination (26).


Question What does one pursue?


Answer-"the reasonable anticipation , though not the promise of success" (18). Flaws- fail to acknowledge the shortage of resources and opportunities which prevent everyone from having a reasonable chance of having their expectations met (27).


Question How does one pursue success?


Answer- "through actions and traits under one's own control"(18). Flaws- ignore the fact that if one may claim responsibility for success one must accept responsibility for failure. Therefore people who fail are presumed to lack talent or will (30).


Question Why is success worth pursuing?


Answer- "true success is associated with virtue" (18). Flaws- Failure implies sin. Also devaluing losers allows people to believe the world is just even when it is not (30).


In addition to the individual flaws of each tenet Hochschild asserts that the overall flaw of the American dream ideology is its emphasis on "individual people's behavior rather than on economic processes, environmental constraints, or political structures as the causal explanation for social orderings"(36). She further states that social ordering takes place because our institutions are designed to ensure that some fail and the American dream ideology does not "help Americans cope with or even to recognize that fact"(37).


Early immigration

Early immigrants to the United States landed on a lightly settled and undeveloped continent. Until the end of the 19th century, the sheer amount of land available for settlement, the absence of a land-owning aristocracy, and federal policies to encourage settlement (exterminating or resettling the natives, and in some cases offering free land to settlers) meant land ownership was within reach for many immigrants. Land speculation, as described in Mark Twain's The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, as well as land grants to railroad magnates, made some rich. During the 19th century, the transcontinental railroads that opened the West to trade and settlement, the development of mass production through industrialization, and the discovery that oil was abundant and could be used as the basic energy source for manufacturing, greatly increased economic opportunities for workers and businesspeople, as well as raising the American standard of living. In the 19th century, "rags to riches" stories of business tycoons like Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, as well as popular fiction writers like Horatio Alger, contributed to the belief that talent and hard work could lead to riches. Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... A land grant is a gift of land made by the government for projects such as roads, railroads, or especially academic institutions. ... A Transcontinental Railroad is a railway that crosses a continent typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... The term Rags to Riches refers to any situation in which a person rises from poverty to wealth. ... Andrew Carnegie (properly pronounced , but commonly or )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which was later merged with Elbert H. Garys Federal Steel Company and several smaller companies to create U... John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. ... Horatio Alger, Jr. ...


Spurred by the potato famines in Ireland, the Highland clearances in Scotland and the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, impoverished Western Europeans emigrated to America. Scandinavian and German immigrants of the mid 1800s mainly settled the Midwest as farmers. In the late 19th century, southern and eastern Europeans were recruited as laborers for the new American industries. Jews fled religious persecution and mandatory military service in the late 19th and early 20th century Russian Empire. Asians began crossing the Pacific Ocean in the 19th century to find work in the American West. At present, immigrants from regions like Southern Asia, Latin America and the former USSR come to America in search of the American Dream. Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... This article is about the country. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... The Western United States, also referred to as the American West or simply The West, traditionally refers to the region constituting the westernmost states of the United States (see geographical terminology section for further discussion of these terms). ... This is a region of the continent of Asia that can have the following interpretations: The Indian Subcontinent and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean; see South Asia India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka All of Asia that is considered to be Southwest, South and Southeast Asia. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ...


The "land of opportunity"

The American dream as the literary expression of 'America: the land of opportunity' has been expressed by many authors including William Bradford, Walt Whitman, Crevecour, Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin.[8] There is more than one person sharing this name. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Michel Guillaume Jean de Crèvecoeur (December 31, 1735 – November 12, 1813), naturalized in New York as John Hector St. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ...


The 'land of opportunity' component of the American dream was boosted by the G.I. Bill after World War II. The G.I. Bill was "the greatest social program the country has ever seen," paying for veterans' college educations and guaranteeing their mortgages. The result was a huge increase in the middle class.[9] The Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 (better known as the G.I. Bill) provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G.I.s) as well as one year of unemployment compensation. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Even when America is considered the "land of opportunity" for all, this is not always the case. Restrictions on opportunity have meant that all residents of the United States have not had a 'level playing field.' Black men did not have the right to vote until the United States Constitution was amended in 1870. Women did not have the right to vote until 1920. As the first large non-WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) group of immigrants, the Irish faced employment discrimination in the 19th century. "Second-wave" feminists in the 1960s and 1970s sought to overturn long-standing laws that had prevented women from taking an equal part in the economy. A level playing field is a concept about fairness, not that each player has an equal chance to succeed, but that they all play by the same set of rules. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Amendment XIX in the National Archives The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution provides that neither any individual state or the federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of that citizens sex. ... White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, commonly abbreviated to the acronym WASP, is a term which originated in the United States. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Feminists redirects here. ...


Aspects

The American Dream has implications in a variety of aspects of life.


Race

America has become a multiracial country through both forced and voluntary immigration. Many immigrants came to the United States with hopes and aspirations that have become known as the American Dream. The U.S. Declaration of Independence states that Americans are entitled to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness". This is something that was denied to some of them in their home countries. Once in America, the American Dream was not as easily attainable as they had thought. The following quotation exemplifies this idea: Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose parents are not the same race. ... “The pursuit of happiness” redirects here. ...

"I arrived in America thinking the streets were paved with gold. I learned 3 things: 1. The streets were not paved with gold, 2. The streets were not paved at all, and 3. I was expected to pave them." - Unknown Italian Immigrant

[citation needed]


In America today, there are a multitude of race and ethnicities that are constantly adapting the American dream in order to achieve relative success. The vision of the American Dream is different from person to person, but there is a general consensus about what it consists of across all races. A person's race, however, does affect the way they view the American Dream and how to go about achieving it.


According to Josh Sides, the African American Dream was to escape the poor ghettos that they were residentially segregated into. They wanted to move from these neighborhoods, where crime ran rampant, to the peaceful security of the suburbs. It is here that their children will receive the education to break the cycle of poverty. Jennifer Hochschild (2001) says that it is this idea that keeps poor African Americans believing in and striving for the American Dream. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... For other uses, see Ghetto (disambiguation). ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ...


According to a study performed by "The National Community for Leadership", Latino Americans have their own ideology of the American Dream. For them, being able to better yourself and provide better opportunities for your children is what the American Dream encompasses. It is much more than having a lot of money and material possessions. They want to ensure future equality and prospects for all Latinos. Hispanic Americans (Spanish: Hispano Americano) are Americans of Hispanic ethnicity who largely identify with the Hispanic cultural heritage. ...


Black intellectuals and militants in the 20th century rejected the conformity of the melting pot and the assumption in the American Dream that hard work will receive its just reward.[2] Blacks did not get the same benefits from the G.I. Bill as whites; the bill was administered locally, rather than by the federal government, and in the South blacks were steered to vocational schools or denied tuition assistance outright, and banks discriminated against black would-be homebuyers.[9] Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ...


In the early and mid 20th century, the use of the term "American Dream" to more narrowly refer to home ownership was promoted by Realtors in order to associate social success with home ownership.[10] For real-estate brokers, commonly known as realtors, see Real estate broker. ...


Education

Since America's founding, education has been a pillar of American success. Hochschild has written that "the American dream is the promise that all who live in the United States have a reasonable chance to achieve success as they understand it (material or otherwise) through their own efforts and resources".(Hochschild 2001:35) Many people believe that a significant resource in achieving the American Dream is by attaining an education. Education, for the most part, determines a person's job opportunities and level of income. It has become an understanding that without an education the idea of the "American Dream" seems out of reach. Education has become one of the central institutions in making the American Dream a reality. "Schools are expected to teach children enough so that they can choose their own vision of success and then to give them the skills they need to pursue that vision". (Hochschild 2001:36) However, not all public schools in the United States are equal in any aspect of education. This may lead to unequal opportunities for certain children based on their location or income level. The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ...


For example, in Jennifer Hochschild's article Public Schools and the American Dream (2001) and Heather Johnson's book The American Dream and the Power of Wealth: Choosing Schools and Inheriting Inequality in the Land of Opportunity (2006) both Hochschild and Johnson identify the role of public education as one that is supposed to level out what is initially an uneven playing field. However, both authors assert that economic inequality, racial segregation and inequalities created by inherited wealth result in public schools that are separate and unequal, a direct contradiction to the American ideology of meritocracy. (Johnson 2006:46) Therefore, as Hochschild asserts, a public school is the place where many of the lower class and minorities first encounter disadvantages in their pursuit of the dream because these schools don't equalize opportunities across generations but instead become the arena in which many Americans first fail. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein appointments are made *who* makes the appointments - ultimately, it is the people (all members of the group). ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...


Hochschild believes that educational policies that can help children with unequal opportunities achieve the goals of the American Dream are desegregation, inclusion, school choice, school finance reform and standards based reforms. However, these policies must be approved by individual state policymakers. Although the benefits from these policies would be great, the power is in the hands of the wealthy, which may not see a need to enhance education policies. Therefore the cycle of inequality remains for those on the lower end of the social ladder. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ...


Social class

would like to consider America as a merit-based society where individual effort and abilities determine how successful one will be in life (Johnson 2006: 150; Domhoff 2006: 200; Hochschild 1997: 18). The belief held by many Americans is that individuals themselves have the ability to choose their own destinies. Although the American Dream focuses on individualism and obtaining material, economic, and educational assets; evidence shows that hard work alone does not guarantee success, nor does merit alone determine a person's position in life. Johnson (2006) uses the working poor as an example of how some people work very hard and yet never achieve success.


Research has shown that social class is one factor that greatly impacts a person's privileges and advantages in life. "Class can shape, constrain, and mediate the development and expression of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, motives, traits, and symptoms" (Aries and Seider 2007: 138). In laymen's terms, the more money, wealth, or economic assets one obtains, the higher the class he or she will achieve. "Social class constrains the possibilities they [people] face and the decisions they make and it provides the possibilities and limits for his or her personal identity" (Aries and Seider 2007:138). Social class places people in different positions that either benefit or limit their advantages in pursuit of the American Dream. Poverty reduces opportunities and can greatly inhibit one's chances of success. Therefore, class greatly impacts the way people perceive and achieve the American Dream.


Wealth

The United States prides itself with being a merit-based nation that "assures all citizens that regardless of the circumstances to which you were born, with hard work and determination we all have equal chances in life" (Johnson 2006:102). In this merit-based system, all people are ensured that they are competing on a fair and level-playing field, allowing all to have equal chances and opportunities when achieving/pursuing the American Dream. No one group or person is placed ahead or below another group or person. The actions and behaviors of people directly influence the rewards/punishments they receive on a daily basis. But is this always the case? According to Johnson (2006) and her book The American Dream and the Power of Wealth, a direct contradiction to the American Dream's ideal of a society based on merit has to do with wealth, not income, and the way it is acquired, distributed and used. Wealth (financial assistance, intergenerational transfers and family security) is not merit-based and acquired through individual achievement. Rather, wealth is a "critical advantage [that is] passed along to the next generation [and is an] advantage often unearned by the parents themselves, and always unearned by their children" (2006:102). "A foundational conflict exists between the meritocratic values of the American Dream and the structure of intergenerational money inequality" (2006:102).


Working class

The Change to Win Federation is also known as "The American Dream for America's Workers" and "was founded in September 2005 by seven unions and six million workers devoted to building a movement of working people with the power to provide workers a paycheck that supports a family, universal, affordable health care, a secure retirement and dignity on the job" (Change to Win 2007). They are an organization made up of several affiliated unions such as, but not limited to, the Laborers' International Union of North America, the Service Employees International Union, and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. They strongly focus on the power of unions "to unite the 50 million workers in Change to Win affiliate industries whose jobs cannot be outsourced and who are vital to the global economy — but who are not given a chance to reach the middle class" (Change to Win 2007). The organization believes that the American Dream is being threatened as "CEO pay is skyrocketing and corporate profits go up and up. But most workers are being left behind — the gap between the rich and everyone else is gaping and growing" (Change to Win 2007). They believe that the only way to uphold the middle class and the American Dream is to unite American unions with other unions around the world who will all "negotiate with global corporations to raise living standards and win respect for workers' rights everywhere" (Change to Win 2007). The Change to Win Federation is a coalition of American labor unions originally formed in 2005 as an alternative to the AFL-CIO. The coalition is associated with strong advocacy of the organising model. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... The Laborers International Union of North America (LIUNA, often shortened to just the Laborers Union) is an American and Canadian labor union formed in 1903. ... Service Employees International Union (SEIU) is a labor union representing 1. ... The International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT), formerly known by the name International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America, is one of the largest labor unions in the United States. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


In order to achieve their goal the organization has created the American Dream Project, which is an "ongoing series of opinion surveys monitoring how Americans feel about their chances to achieve the American Dream" (Change to Win 2007). The newest survey in 2006 opened up to include all registered voters and found that "the respondents identified four elements as key to their conception of the American Dream:

  • having a job that pays enough to support a family;
  • having affordable quality health care;
  • being able to ensure your children have the opportunity to succeed; and
  • having a secure and dignified retirement.

On all four of these core issues, more than 90% of respondents said that having a union would help them do better. To take one example, when asked if having a union would help them achieve the American Dream goal of "having affordable quality health care", 94% said that it would help - with 67% going so far as to say it would "definitely" help" (Change to Win 2007).


Home ownership

Although wealth is a generally assumed characteristic of the American Dream, there are other aspects of the American Dream that some would argue are more important than the mere accumulation of wealth. Modarres (2007) explains that a major source of wealth and intergenerational transfer of wealth is real estate. Purchasing a home is perhaps the most important investment many Americans will make. With that statement, it can be assumed that the American Dream can be achieved, but can be achieved to its highest value with the investment in real estate. Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...


The home ownership rate of immigrants exceeds their rental rate within 13 years of their arrival in the United States. This confirms the findings of other researchers (e.g., Pitkin et al. 1997), but as an independent statistic, this is not very informative and may even be somewhat misleading. Explaining home ownership as a function of residency equates it with assimilation, thereby placing a burden of achieving the American Dream entirely on immigrants (Modarres 2007). Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ...


Being foreign-born, the socioeconomic status of that population is complicated when attempting to achieve the American dream. Political and economic conditions of American society shape and reshape one's identity and social position. These conditions include aspirations for equality and achievement of the American Dream. In this regard, housing becomes an important factor in immigrants' experience as the idea of home is redefined within an American context (Modarres 2007).


Reality

According to a study of The Pew Charitable Trusts, the intergenerational mobility in United States is quite low, comparatively to some other countries : mobility is 1.2 times higher in France, 1.5 in Germany, 2.5 in Canada and 3.2 in Denmark.[11] In the same way, the Center for American Progress reports that "Intergenerational mobility in the United States is lower than in France, Germany, Sweden, Canada, Finland, Norway and Denmark. Among high-income countries for which comparable estimates are available, only the United Kingdom had a lower rate of mobility than the United States".[12] The Center for American Progress is a progressive American political policy research and advocacy organization. ...


References

  1. ^ "As a force behind government New Political Dictionary by William Safire (New York: Random House, 1993).
  2. ^ a b Zangrando, Joanna Schneider and Zangrando, Robert L. "Black Protest: A Rejection of the American Dream". Journal of Black Studies, 1(2) (Dec., 1970), pp. 141-159.
  3. ^ Scouten, George Samuel. "Planting the American dream: English colonialism and the origins of American myth." PhD dissertation 2002, University of South Carolina; ISBN: 0-493-97159-9, Accession No: AAI3076792
  4. ^ L.L. Lee, "Walter Van Tilburg Clark's Ambiguous American Dream", College English, Vol. 26, No. 5. (Feb., 1965), pp. 382-387.
  5. ^ Hochschild, Jennifer (1995-08-21). Facing Up to the American Dream: Race, Class, and the Soul of the Nation. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691029573. 
  6. ^ a b Hochschild 1995:16
  7. ^ Hochschild 1995:17
  8. ^ Pearson, Roger L. "Gatsby: False Prophet of the American Dream". The English Journal, 59(5) (May, 1970), pp. 638-642+645.
  9. ^ a b Smith, Wendy. Unintended benefits (Review of Over Here: How the G.I. Bill Transformed the American Dream, by Edward Humes (San Diego: Harcourt Books, 2006)). Los Angeles Times, Oct 1, 2006. p. R.4
  10. ^ Hornstein, Jeffrey M. A Nation Of Realtors: A Cultural History Of The Twentieth-century American Middle Class. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005)
  11. ^ Isabel Sawhill et John E. Morton, Economic mobility : Is the American Dream Alive and Well?, The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2007
  12. ^ Tom Hertz, Understanding Mobility in America, Center for American Progress
  • "As a force behind government philosophy, it seems to be interpreted by most users as a combination of freedom and opportunity with growing overtones of social justice" - From Safire's New Political Dictionary by William Safire (New York: Random House, 1993).
  • Hochschild, Jennifer. 2001. "Public Schools and The American Dream." Dissent: 35-42.
  • Hornstein, Jeffrey M. A Nation Of Realtors: A Cultural History Of The Twentieth-century American Middle Class. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005)
  • Johnson, Heather Beth. 2006. The American Dream and the Power of Wealth: Choosing Schools and Inheriting Inequality in the Land of Opportunity. New York: Routledge.
  • L.L. Lee, "Walter Van Tilburg Clark's Ambiguous American Dream", College English, Vol. 26, No. 5. (Feb., 1965), pp. 382-387.
  • Miller, Kerby A. 1988. Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Pearson, Roger L. "Gatsby: False Prophet of the American Dream". The English Journal, 59(5) (May, 1970), pp. 638-642+645.
  • Scouten, George Samuel. "Planting the American dream: English colonialism and the origins of American myth." PhD dissertation 2002, University of South Carolina; ISBN: 0-493-97159-9, Accession No: AAI3076792
  • Sermons of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing. retrieved Oct. 2007. http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/publications/sermons/650704_The_American_Dream.html
  • Smith, Wendy. "Unintended benefits" (Review of Over Here: How the G.I. Bill Transformed the American Dream, by Edward Humes (San Diego: Harcourt Books, 2006)). Los Angeles Times, Oct 1, 2006. p. R.4
  • Zangrando, Joanna Schneider and Zangrando, Robert L. "Black Protest: A Rejection of the American Dream". Journal of Black Studies, 1(2) (Dec., 1970), pp. 141-159.

William L. Safire (born December 17, 1929) is an American author, semi-retired columnist, and former journalist and presidential speechwriter. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

See also

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American Dream
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The percentage of households and individuals in each income bracket. ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... The contemporary United States has no legally-recognized social classes. ... This graph shows the American definition of social class according to the New York Times using the quintiles as measurement for class. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... This article is about secularism. ... European Dream is a football song sang by Glentoran F.C.. It goes to the tune of Marching On which is a popular song played by [[Northern Irish|Northern Ireland] Flute Bands. ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... This article discusses the culture of the United States; for customs and way of life, see Culture of the United States. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators Labor unions in the United States function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... Political Compass. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... Wealth in the United States is commonly measured in terms of net worth which is the sum of all assets, including home equity minus all liabilities. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... American history redirects here. ... This is a timeline of United States history. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For colonies not part of the 13 colonies see European colonization of the Americas or British colonization of the Americas. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquisitions within the continental United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // 2000 282,338,631 2010 309,162,581 2020 336,031,546 2030 363,811,435 2040 392,172,658 2050 420,080,587 2060 450,505,985 2070 480,568,004 2080 511,442,859 2090 540,405,985 2100 571,440,474 The US population in 1900 was... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... theSeparation of powers is a political doctrine under which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are kept distinct, to prevent abuse of power. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... For other uses of NSA, see NSA (disambiguation). ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USAF redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Union Jack. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Political Compass. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Historic Southern United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states west, or for the most part west, of the mississippi river, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... The list of mountains of the United States shows the location of mountains in a given state. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... USD redirects here. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... The Fed redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Strictly speaking, the United States does not have national holidays (i. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863 by Albert Bierstadt, one of the Hudson River School painters Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... Affirmative action is a policy or a program of giving preferential treatment to certain designated groups allegedly seeking to redress discrimination or bias through active measures, as in education and employment. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay...

  Results from FactBites:
 
American Dream - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2176 words)
Historical American flags in Washington, DC: the Betsy Ross flag hangs on both ends and the classic Old Glory is to each side of the current 50 state version.
The American Dream was a driving factor not only in the gold rushes of the mid to late 1800s, but also in the waves of immigration throughout that century and the following.
Social Control: The American Dream has been criticized as a useful ideal for social control by encouraging people to spend their time and energy working hard for material possessions rather than working to change the balance of power and the way that society is structured.
America & Europe: Worlds Apart on the Vision Thing (1394 words)
In a partisan America, where virtually every value has become fair game for criticism and controversy, there is one value that remains sacrosanct: the American Dream -- the idea that anyone, regardless of the circumstances to which they're born, can make of their lives as they choose, by dint of diligence, determination and hard work.
That dream has now been codified in the form of a draft European constitution, and Europeans are currently debating whether to ratify its contents and accept its underlying values as the core values of a new Europe.
Americans are used to thinking of their country as the most successful on Earth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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