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Encyclopedia > American Craftsman
Craftsman-style bungalow in San Diego, California. Craftsman style home are common in older neighborhoods of San Diego. Mainly near downtown.

The American Craftsman Style, or the American Arts and Crafts Movement, is an American domestic architectural, interior design, and decorative arts style popular from last years of the 19th century through the early years of the 20th century. As a design movement, its popularity remained strong until the 1930s, although in the decorative arts it continues to experience numerous revivals until the present day. Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 804 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) originally from http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 804 pixel, file size: 202 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) originally from http://www. ... A row of bungalows in Virginia A bungalow (Gujarati: , Hindi: ) is a type of single-story house. ... Nickname: Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: , Country United States State California County San Diego Founded July 16, 1769 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Mayor Jerry Sanders  - City Attorney Michael Aguirre  - City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... Interior design is the process of shaping the experience of interior space, through the manipulation of spatial volume as well as surface treatment. ... The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in ceramic, wood, glass, metal, or textile. ...

Contents

British origins

The American Craftsman style has its origins in the earlier British Arts and Crafts movement which dates back to the 1860s. The British movement, which spawned a wide variety of related but conceptually very distinct design movements throughout Europe, was a reaction to the degradation of the dignity of human labor resulting from the Industrial Revolution. In many ways it was a reaction against the over-decorated aesthetic and disregard for the worker of the Victorian era. Seeking to ennoble the craftsman once again, the movement emphasized the hand-made over the mass produced. While the British movement still contained some of the over-done decoration of its Victorian precursor, it was almost anti-Victorian in philosophy; the movement's founder, William Morris, was a staunch socialist and as such the philosophy behind the Arts and Crafts movement in the UK is clearly part of the materialist dialectic. The expensive materials and expensive hand-made techniques meant that the movement was in fact serving the wealthiest clients, however, a seeming contradiction to its roots in socialist philosophy. Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... William Morris, socialist and innovator in the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris (March 24, 1834 – October 3, 1896) was an English artist, writer, socialist and activist. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ...


American developments

While the British movement was a Victorian-era phenomenon, its translation to the American setting took place precisely at the moment when that era was coming to a close. It can be said that the American movement that also emphasized craftsmanship was also a design reform movement that encouraged originality, simplicity of form, local natural materials, and the visibility of handicraft, and was concerned with ennobling the more modest home of the rapidly expanding American middle class.


Interior design developments

Boston exhibitions

In America in the late 1890s, a group of Boston’s most influential architects, designers, and educators, determined to bring to this country the design reforms begun in England by William Morris, met to organize an exhibition of contemporary craft objects. The first meeting was held on January 4, 1897, at the Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) to organize an exhibition of contemporary crafts. When craftsmen, consumers, and manufacturers realized the aesthetic and technical potential of the applied arts, the process of design reform in Boston started. Present at this meeting were General Charles Loring, Chairman of the Trustees of the MFA; William Sturgis Bigelow and Denman Ross, collectors, writers and MFA trustees; Ross Turner, painter; Sylvester Baxter, art critic for the Boston Transcript; Howard Baker, A.W. Longfellow Jr.; and Ralph Clipson Sturgis, architect. William Morris, socialist and innovator in the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris (March 24, 1834 – October 3, 1896) was an English artist, writer, socialist and activist. ...


The first American Arts and Crafts Exhibition opened on April 5, 1897, at Copley Hall featuring over 1000 objects made by 160 craftsmen, half of whom were women. Some of the supporters of the exhibit were Langford Warren, founder of Harvard’s School of Architecture; Mrs. Richard Morris Hunt; Arthur Astor Carey and Edwin Mead, social reformers; and Will Bradley, graphic designer.


Society of Arts and Crafts

The huge success of this exhibition led to the incorporation of The Society of Arts and Crafts, on June 28, 1897, with a mandate to “develop and encourage higher standards in the handicrafts.” The 21 founders were interested in more than sales, and focused on the relationship of designers within the commercial world, encouraging artists to produce work with the highest quality of workmanship and design.


This mandate was soon expanded into a credo, possibly written by the SAC’s first president, Charles Elliot Norton, which read:

This Society was incorporated for the purpose of promoting artistic work in all branches of handicraft. It hopes to bring Designers and Workmen into mutually helpful relations, and to encourage workmen to execute designs of their own. It endeavors to stimulate in workmen an appreciation of the dignity and value of good design; to counteract the popular impatience of Law and Form, and the desire for over-ornamentation and specious originality. It will insist upon the necessity of sobriety and restraint, or ordered arrangement, of due regard for the relation between the form of an object and its use, and of harmony and fitness in the decoration put upon it.

Style

The style incorporated locally handcrafted wood, glass, and metal work that is both simple and elegant. A reaction to Victorian opulence and the increasingly common mass-produced housing elements, the style incorporated clean lines, sturdy structure, and natural materials. The name comes from a popular magazine published in the early 1900s by furniture maker Gustav Stickley called The Craftsman, which featured original house and furniture designs by Harvey Ellis, the Greene brothers, and others. The designs, while influenced by the ideals of the British movement, found inspiration in specifically American antecedants such as Shaker furniture and the Mission style. Emphasis on the orignality of the artist/craftsman led to the new design concepts of the Art Deco movement of the 1930s. Manchester Town Hall is an example of Victorian architecture found in Manchester, UK. The Carson Mansion is an example of a Victorian home in Eureka, California, USA The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles predominantly in the Victorian era. ... Gustav Stickley (March 9, 1858–April 21, 1942) was a furniture maker and architect as well as the leading spokesperson for the American Arts and Crafts movement. ... Brothers Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene, who established the architectural firm of Greene and Greene, were born in Brighton, Ohio, a suburb of Cincinnati, in 1868 and 1870, respectively. ... A shaker chair Shaker furniture is a distinctive style of furniture developed by the United Society of Believers in Christs Second Appearing (i. ... Postcard of the reconstructed Mission Santa Bárbara The California missions are a series of settlements established by Spanish Catholic Franciscans, to Christianize the local Native Americans, but with the added benefit of giving Spain a toehold in the frontier land. ... Asheville City Hall. ...


Architectural developments

Several developments in the American domestic architecture of the period are traceable not only to changes in taste and style but also to the shift from the upper- to middle-class patronage. The American Victorian typically took the form of a two-story square house with a hip roof disguised behind a variety of two-storied bays, with an assortment of gables as well as octagonal or round turrets and wraparound porches presenting a complex facade. Typically, the basic square house was also complemented by a back wing complete with its own entrances, and a stairwell that housed the kitchen, pantries, and scullery on the first floor and the servants' quarters on the second. Fitted with inferior-quality woodwork and hardware, and noticeably smaller bedrooms and lower ceiling heights, the Victorian kitchen-servants wing embodied the aristocratic class distinctions of the Old World. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ...


With the large bays, turrets, and rear wing removed, the front porch simplified, and the ceilings lowered somewhat, it is not difficult to see how the American Foursquare developed from the common American Queen Anne. The middle-class housewife of the era would not have domestic servants (at least not live-in ones) and would be doing much if not all of the housework herself, as well as watching the children. These added roles made it important that the kitchen be integrated into the main house with easy sight lines to the common areas of the main floor (the dining and living rooms) as well as to the back yard. Commonly, the butler's pantry of the Victorian Era was replaced with diningroom cabinetry that often consisted of "built-ins", which gave home designers the opportunity to incorporate wood and glass craftsmanship into the public aspects of the home. A type of house popular during the early part of the 20th century typified by a square, four room floor plan. ... The Buttermans, the historic home of John Newman, the butter king, is one of several Queen Anne mansions in Elgin, Illinois The Queen Anne style of British and American architecture reached its greatest popularity in the last quarter of the 19th century, manifesting itself in a number of different ways...


Another common design development arising from the class-shift of the time was the built-in "breakfast nook" in the kitchen. The Victorian kitchen of the previous era was separated from the family view and daily routine. It typically had a work table (having the equivalent purpose of the modern countertop) at which the servants would eat after the family meal was served and the kitchen tidied. The Victorian kitchen had no "proper" place for a family member to sit, eat, or do anything else. Again, as the housewife of the Craftsman era was now preparing the family meals, the Victorian kitchen gave way to one designed as the heart of the family's daily life. The breakfast nook often placed under a window or in its own bay provided a place for the family to gather at any time of the day or evening, particularly while food was being prepared.


Renowned architect David Owen Dryden designed and built many Craftsman bungalows in San Diego's North Park area, which is the site of the proposed Dryden Historic District. David Owen Dryden David Owen Dryden (July 1, 1877 - June 4, 1946), was a renowned San Diego architect best known for his craftsman-style bungalows in the suburbs north of San Diegos Balboa Park (today North Park), most of which were constructed from 1911 through 1919. ... A bungalow is any single story house. ... North Park is an urban neighborhood in San Diego, California, USA. It is situated to the northeast of Balboa Park, bounded on the north by El Cajon Blvd, on the south by a canyon extending eastward from the Balboa Park Golf Course, on the east by Interstate 805, and on... Thurston House, North Park, San Diego The Dryden Historic District is a proposed district of North Park, San Diego, along both 28th and Pershing Streets (bordered to the south by Upas Street and to the north by Landis Street) that features a high concentration of homes designed and built by...


Frank Lloyd Wright, one of the most important architects of the American home and whose career spanned the Victorian to the Craftsman to the Prairie School, which he in large part founded, is credited with much of the conceptual development of the middle-class home design in the first third of the 20th century. Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ...


Common architectural design features

Another craftsman house
Another craftsman house
  • Low-pitched roof lines, gabled or hipped roof
  • Deeply overhanging eaves,
  • Exposed rafters or decorative brackets under eaves
  • Front porch beneath extension of main roof
  • Tapered, square columns supporting roof
  • 4-over-1 or 6-over-1 double-hung windows
  • Frank Lloyd Wright design motifs
  • Hand-crafted stone or woodwork
  • Mixed materials throughout structure

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 871 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image was found at this address: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 871 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image was found at this address: http://www. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ...

Trivia

An American Craftsman can be seen as the home of the main character on the television series "NUMB3RS". Numb3rs (also capitalized as NUMB3RS and pronounced as Numbers) is an American television show produced by brothers Ridley Scott and Tony Scott. ...


Author Chris Van Allsburg features a large craftsman home in his book Zathura (also in the 2006 movie of the same name). Chris Van Allsburg (born June 18, 1949 in Grand Rapids, Michigan) is an American author and illustrator of childrens books. ... Zathura is an illustrated book by Chris Van Allsburg as well as a film based on the book. ...


Due to its dense concentration of high-quality bungalows, and its old-fashioned traditional ambiance, San Diego's North Park neighborhood is often chosen for various movie and TV show filming locations (eg., "The Laci Peterson Story", etc.). Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... North Park is an urban neighborhood in San Diego, California, USA. It is situated to the northeast of Balboa Park, bounded on the north by El Cajon Blvd, on the south by a canyon extending eastward from the Balboa Park Golf Course, on the east by Interstate 805, and on...


The Gamble House in Pasadena, California, is a well-known Arts and Crafts house. It was most famously featured as Doctor Emmett Brown's house in the Back to the Future movies. The Gamble House (constructed 1908 - 1909) is a National Historic Landmark and tourist attraction in Pasadena, California designed by the architect brothers Greene and Greene, Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene, for David B. Gamble of the Procter & Gamble company. ... Doctor Emmett Lathrop Doc Brown is a fictional character, one of the lead characters in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actor Christopher Lloyd in the three films and the live action sequences of the animated series. ... Back to the Future is a 1985 science fiction–comedy film directed by Robert Zemeckis and produced by Steven Spielberg. ...


See also

This is a list of styles in house construction. ... A typical Bungalow in Louisvilles Deer Park Neighborhood California Bungalows, commonly called simply bungalows in America, are a form of residential structure that were widely popular across America and, to some extent, the world around the years 1910 to 1925. ... A type of house popular during the early part of the 20th century typified by a square, four room floor plan. ... Dale Chihulys 30-foot blown-glass chandelier in the Victoria and Albert Museum in 2000. ... Gustav Stickley (March 9, 1858–April 21, 1942) was a furniture maker and architect as well as the leading spokesperson for the American Arts and Crafts movement. ... A Roseville jardiniere in the Pinecone pattern The Roseville Pottery Company was a popular American pottery manufacturer in the 19th and 20th centuries. ...

External links

  • North Park Historical Committee (San Diego, California)
  • Craftsman Perspective Site devoted to Arts and Crafts architecture, featuring over 220 house photos, including Craftsman and Mission styles
  • Hewn and Hammered dedicated to discussion of the American Arts & Crafts movement in art, architecture and design

 
 

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