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Encyclopedia > American Civil Rights Movement

The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. It has been made up of many movements, though the term is often used to refer to the struggles between 1955 and 1968 to end discrimination against African-Americans and to end racial segregation, especially in the U.S. South. See African American for information on how various terms have been used at during that time period for African Americans. Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans, Black Americans, or simply blacks, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to West and sub-Saharan Africa. ... Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...


This article focuses on that particular struggle, rather than the comparable movements to end discrimination against other ethnic groups within the United States or those struggles, such as the women's liberation, gay liberation, and disabled rights movements, that have used similar tactics in pursuit of similar goals. The civil rights movement has had a lasting impact on United States society, both in its tactics and in increased social and legal acceptance of civil rights. Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... oops sorry External Links Not Dead Yet Unspeakable Conversations An article written by a disabled disability lawyer about her debates with controversial philosopher Peter Singer ...

Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

This focus on the years between 1955, when the Montgomery bus boycott began, and 1968, when Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated, is somewhat arbitrary; the civil rights movement continued in different forms after that, and continues today. Dr. Martin Luther King speaking at the Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Full size image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dr. Martin Luther King speaking at the Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Full size image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The Lincoln Memorial, built 1915 - 1922 The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, DC, is a memorial to United States President Abraham Lincoln. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a political rally that took place on August 28, 1963. ... The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political protest campaign in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama intended to oppose the citys policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... This is an incomplete list of persons that were assassinated for political and other reasons, and who have individual entries. ...

Contents


Background

See American Civil Rights Movement (1896-1954). The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. ...


The United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, citation: 347 U.S. 483 (1954) was a key turning point in United States history: after years of campaigning against Jim Crow laws and racial oppression, the civil rights movement had obtained a unanimous decision from the Supreme Court reversing the "separate but equal" doctrine that had justified official racism for the past half century. While Brown itself was only a first step toward disestablishing school segregation in the South—a process that would require decades of litigation to accomplish, with uncertain results—it was even more important for its immediate political significance, as it gave the civil rights movement the added legitimacy of a Supreme Court decision declaring that state-sponsored segregation was both unjustifiable and wrong. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding Racial segregation in public education violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; separate facilities are “inherently unequal. ... Court citation is a standard system used in common law countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada to uniquely identify the location of past court cases in special series of books called reporters. ... A depiction of Thomas D. Rices Jim Crow In the United States, the so-called Jim Crow laws were made to enforce racial segregation, and included laws that would prevent African Americans from doing things that a white person could do. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


The murder of Emmett Till

Murders of African-Americans at the hands of whites were still common in the 1950s and still unpunished in large areas of the South. The murder of Emmett Till, a teenaged boy from Chicago visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi in the summer of 1955 was different, however: the age of the boy, the pathetically innocent nature of his crime—allegedly whistling at a white woman in a store—and his mother's decision to have the casket open at his funeral, showing the beating that had been inflicted on her son by his two white abductors before he was shot and his body dumped in the Tallahatchie River on August 28 all made what might otherwise have been a routine statistic into a cause celebre. As many as 50,000 people may have viewed his body at the funeral home in Chicago and many thousands more were exposed to the evidence of his murder when a photograph of his corpse was published in Jet Magazine Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the... Emmett Louis Bobo Till (July 25, 1941–August 28, 1955) was an African-American youth native to Chicago, Illinois whose brutal lynching in Mississippi was one of the key events leading up to the American Civil Rights Movement. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tallahatchie River is located near Money, Mississippi. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Jet magazine is a popular African-American publication founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1951 by John H. Johnson of Johnson Publishing Company. ...


The two murderers were arrested the day after Till's disappearance. They were acquitted a month later after the jury deliberated for sixty-seven minutes. The murder and subsequent acquittal galvanized opinion in the North in the same way that the long campaign to free the "Scottsboro Boys" had in the 1930s. The case of the Scottsboro Boys arose in Alabama during the 1930s, when nine black teenagers, none older than nineteen, were accused of raping two white women on a train. ... // Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ...


Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

On December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks (the "mother of the civil rights movement") refused to get up out of her seat on a public bus to make room for white passengers. Rosa was arrested, tried, and convicted for disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance. After word of this incident reached the black community, 50 African-American leaders gathered and organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott to protest the segregation of blacks and whites on public buses. The boycott lasted for 382 days, until the local ordinance segregating African-Americans and whites on public buses was lifted. This instance is often credited as the spark of the Civil Rights movement. Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to make room for white people. ... The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political protest campaign in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama intended to oppose the citys policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. ...


Mass action replaces litigation

Up through 1955 the civil rights movement in the South had largely been fought in courtrooms: while the NAACP had chapters throughout the South that attempted to register voters and protested discrimination, those efforts were often uncoordinated, while local authorities regularly harassed those organizations and the activists in them. 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


That strategy shifted after Brown, however, to "direct action"—primarily bus boycotts, sit-ins, freedom rides, and similar tactics that relied on mass mobilization, nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience—from 1955 to 1965. In part this was the unintended result of the local authorities' attempt to outlaw and harass the mainstream civil rights organizations throughout the Deep South. The State of Alabama had effectively barred the NAACP from operating in Alabama in 1956 by requiring it to give the state a list of its members, then enjoining it from operating within the state when it failed to do so. While the United States Supreme Court ultimately reversed the order, for a few years in the mid-1950s the NAACP was unable to operate above-ground in Alabama. A boycott is a refusal to buy, sell, or otherwise trade with an individual or business who is generally believed by the participants in the boycott to be doing something morally wrong. ... A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for protest, often political, social, or economic change. ... The Freedom Rides were a series of student political protests performed in 1961 as part of the US civil rights movement. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Churches and local grassroots organizations stepped in to fill the gap, and brought with them a much more energetic and broad-based style than the more legalistic approach of groups such as the NAACP.


The most important step forward was in Montgomery, Alabama, where longtime NAACP activists Rosa Parks and Edgar Nixon prevailed on Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to lead the Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-1956. Activists and church leaders in other communities, such as Baton Rouge, Louisiana, had used the boycott in recent years, although those efforts often withered away after a few days. In Montgomery, on the other hand, the Montgomery Improvement Association created to lead the boycott managed to keep the boycott going for a year until a federal court order required Montgomery to desegregate its buses. The success in Montgomery made King a nationally known figure and triggered other bus boycotts, such as the highly successful Tallahassee, Florida boycott of 1956-1957. Montgomery is the capital of the state of Alabama, and is a city located in Montgomery County. ... Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to make room for white people. ... Edgar Daniel Nixon (July 12, 1899 – February 25, 1987) was an American civil rights leader and union organizer, and played an important role in organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political protest campaign in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama intended to oppose the citys policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. ... Capitol Building Baton Rouge (pronounced in English, and in French) is the capital of Louisiana, a state of the United States of America. ... Tallahassee is the capital of Florida, a state of the United States of America. ...


The leaders of the Montgomery Improvement Association, Dr. King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy, joined with other church leaders who had led similar boycott efforts, such as Rev. C. K. Steele of Tallahassee and Rev. T. J. Jemison of Baton Rouge, and other activists, such as Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, Ella Baker, A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin and Stanley Levison to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957. The SCLC, with its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, did not attempt to create a network of chapters, the way the NAACP did, but offered training and other assistance for local efforts to fight segregation, while raising funds, mostly from northern sources, to support these campaigns. It made non-violence both its central tenet and its primary method of confronting racism. Ralph David Abernathy (March 11, 1926 - April 17, 1990) was an American civil rights leader. ... Theodore Jefferson Jemison (b. ... Fred Shuttlesworth (b. ... Ella Baker (December 13, 1903 - December 13, 1986) was an African-American Civil Rights activist. ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 - May 16, 1979) was a socialist active in the labor movement and the US civil rights movement. ... Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 - August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the American civil rights movements of the 1960s and earlier. ... Stanley Levison was a New York lawyer and Jewish radical best known for his close work with Martin Luther King Jr. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC, first known as Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration) is a civil rights organization founded in January 1957. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... City nickname(s): The A-T-L, The Horizon City, The Capital of the South, The Phoenix City, The City Too Busy to Hate, Hotlanta, A-Town, The Big A, The New York of the South, The Big Peach County Fulton County, Georgia Area  - Total  - Water 343. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ...


In 1957, Septima Clarke, Bernice Robinson, and Esau Jenkins, with the help of the Highlander Folk School began the first Citizenship Schools in South Carolina's Sea Islands, to teach literacy to allow blacks to pass voting tests. The program was an enormous success, tripling the number of black voters on St. John Island. The program was taken over by the SCLC and copied in Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. We Shall Overcome is a protest song that became a key anthem of the US civil rights movement. ... In 1932, Myles Horton and Don West founded the Highlander Folk School (later changed to the Highlander Research and Education Center) outside the town of Mounteagle in Grundy County, Tennessee in order to provide an educational center in the South for the training of rural and industrial leaders, and for... State nickname: Palmetto State Other U.S. States Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford Official languages English Area 82,965 km² (40th)  - Land 78,051 km²  - Water 4,915 km² (6%) Population (2000)  - Population {{{2000Pop}}} (26th)  - Density 51. ... The Sea Islands are an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Desegregating Little Rock

Following the Supreme Court's decision in Brown, the Little Rock, Arkansas school board voted in 1957 to integrate the school system. The NAACP had chosen to press for integration in Little Rock, rather than in the Deep South, because Arkansas was considered a relatively progressive southern state. A crisis erupted, however, when Governor of Arkansas Orval Faubus called out the National Guard on September 4 to prevent the nine African-American students who had sued for the right to attend an integrated school from attending Little Rock's Central High School. City nickname: The City of Roses Location in the state of Arkansas Founded County Pulaski County Mayor Jim Dailey Area  - Total  - Water 302. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of governors of Arkansas. ... Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910–14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, famous for his 1957 stand against integration of Little Rock, Arkansas schools in defiance of U.S. Supreme Court rulings. ... The United States National Guard is a significant component of the United States armed forces military reserve. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ...


Faubus himself was not a dyed-in-the-wool segregationist, but he had received significant pressure from the more conservative wing of the Arkansas Democratic Party, which controlled politics in that state at the time, after he had indicated the previous year that he would investigate bringing Arkansas into compliance with the Brown decision. Faubus took his stand against integration and against the federal court order that required it.


Faubus's order set him on a collision course with President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was determined to enforce the orders of the Federal courts, even though he was lukewarm, at best, on the goal of desegregation of public schools. Eisenhower federalized the National Guard and ordered them to return to their barracks. Eisenhower then deployed elements of the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock to protect the students. Order: 34th President Vice President: Richard Nixon Term of office: January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961 Preceded by: Harry S. Truman Succeeded by: John F. Kennedy Date of birth: October 14, 1890 Place of birth: Denison, Texas Date of death: March 28, 1969 Place of death: Washington, D.C. First... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 101st Airborne Division, the Screaming Eagles. ...


The students were able to attend high school, although they had to pass through a gauntlet of spitting, jeering whites to arrive at school on their first day and to put up with harassment from fellow students for the rest of the year. Faubus was reelected Governor the following year and for three terms after that.


Sit-ins and freedom rides

The civil rights movement received an infusion of energy when students in Greensboro, North Carolina, Nashville, Tennessee and Atlanta, Georgia began to "sit-in" at lunch counters in local stores to protest those establishments' refusal to desegregate. Protesters were encouraged to dress up, sit quietly, and occupy every other stool so potential white sympathizers could join in. Many of these sit-in resulted in authority figures physically and brutally escorting them from the lunch facility. On February 1, 1960, four African-American students (Ezell Blair Jr. ... Downtown Nashville at dusk, viewed from the Gateway Bridge Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... City nickname(s): The A-T-L, The Horizon City, The Capital of the South, The Phoenix City, The City Too Busy to Hate, Hotlanta, A-Town, The Big A, The New York of the South, The Big Peach County Fulton County, Georgia Area  - Total  - Water 343. ...


The technique was not new—the Congress of Racial Equality had used it to protest segregation in the Midwest in the 1940s—but it brought national attention to the movement in 1960. The success of the Greensboro sit-in led to a rash of student campaigns all across the South. Probably the best organized and disciplined of these, and the most immediately effective, was in Nashville, Tennessee. By the end of 1960 the sit-ins had spread to every southern and border state and even to Nevada, Illinois, and Ohio. Demonstrators focused not only on lunch counters but also on parks, beaches, libraries, theaters, museums, and other public places. When they were arrested, student demonstrators made "jail-no-bail" pledges to call attention to their cause and to reverse the cost of protest, putting the financial burden of jail space and food on the jailers. The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. ... Events and trends The 1940s were dominated by World War II, the most destructive armed conflict in history. ... Downtown Nashville at dusk, viewed from the Gateway Bridge Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... State nickname: Silver State, Battle Born State (official) Other U.S. States Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Governor Kenny Guinn Official languages None Area 286,367 km² (7th)  - Land 284,396 km²  - Water 1,971 km² (0. ... State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Other U.S. States Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich Official languages English Area 149,998 km² (25th)  - Land 143,968 km²  - Water 6,030 km² (4. ... State nickname: The Buckeye State Other U.S. States Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft Official languages None Area 116,096 km² (34th)  - Land 106,154 km²  - Water 10,044 km² (8. ...


The activists who had led these sit-ins formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in 1960 to take these tactics of nonviolent confrontation further. Their first campaign, in 1961, was conducting freedom rides, in which activists traveled by bus through the deep South to desegregate these companies' bus terminals, as required by federal law. CORE's leader, James Farmer, supported the freedom rides, but backed out at the last minute. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the primary institutions of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Freedom Rides were a series of student political protests performed in 1961 as part of the US civil rights movement. ...


That proved to be an enormously dangerous mission. In Anniston, Alabama, one bus was firebombed, forcing its passengers to flee for their lives. In Birmingham, where an FBI informant reported that Public Safety Commissioner Bull Connor had encouraged the Ku Klux Klan to attack an incoming group of freedom riders "until it looked like a bulldog had got a hold of them," the riders were severely beaten. In eerily quiet Montgomery, a mob charged another bus load of riders, knocking John Lewis unconscious with a crate and smashing Life photographer Don Urbrock in the face with his own camera. A dozen men surrounded Jim Zwerg, a white student from Fisk University, and beat him in the face with a suitcase, knocking out his teeth. Anniston is a city located in Calhoun County in Alabama, a state of the United States of America. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Montgomery is the capital of the state of Alabama, and is a city located in Montgomery County. ... Categories: Stub | 1940 births | U.S. civil rights history | African American politicians | Members of the U.S. House of Representatives ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... Fisk University is a historically black college in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. It is the oldest college in the state. ...


The freedom riders did not fare much better in jail, where they were crammed into tiny, filthy cells and sporadically beaten. In Jackson, Mississippi, some male prisoners were forced to do hard labor in 100-degree heat. Others were transferred to Parchman Penitentiary, where their food was deliberately oversalted and their mattresses were removed. Sometimes the men were suspended by "wrist breakers" from the walls. Typically, the windows of their cells were shut tight on hot days, making it hard for them to breathe. Jackson is the capital and largest city in the U.S. state of Mississippi. ...


The student movement involved such celebrated figures as John Lewis, the single-minded activist who "kept on" despite many beatings and harassments; James Lawson, the revered "guru" of nonviolent theory and tactics; Diane Nash, an articulate and intrepid public champion of justice; Bob Moses, pioneer of voting registration in the most rural--and most dangerous--part of the South; and James Bevel, a fiery preacher and charismatic organizer and facilitator. Other prominent student activists included Charles McDew, Bernard Lafayette, Charles Jones, Lonnie King, Julian Bond (associated with Atlanta University), Hosea Williams (associated with Brown Chapel), and Stokely Carmichael, who later changed his name to Kwame Toure. Categories: Stub | 1940 births | U.S. civil rights history | African American politicians | Members of the U.S. House of Representatives ... Reverend James Lawson (born September 22, 1928 in Uniontown, Pennsylvania) was a leading theoretician and tactician of nonviolence within the American Civil Rights Movement. ... Diane Judith Nash (1938 - ) was one of the founders of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, a key force in the American civil rights movement. ... A Facilitator is someone who skillfully helps a group to reach a consensus on a topic without themselves taking any side of the argument. ... Charles Edward (Chuck) Jones (November 8, 1952 - September 11, 2001) was a computer programmer, a Manned Spaceflight Engineer, and a payload specialist for the Space Shuttle. ... External links Biography at NAACP.org Julian Bond at the Internet Movie Database Categories: People stubs | 1940 births | United States Senators | African Americans | Nashvillians ... Clark Atlanta University is a private, undergraduate and graduate institution educational institution in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Hosea Williams (January 5, 1926 – November 16, 2000) was an United States civil rights leader, ordained reverend, and later a politician. ... Stokely Carmichael Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American Black activist and leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panther Party. ...


Organizing in Mississippi

In 1962 Bob Moses, SNCC's representative in Mississippi, brought together the civil rights organizations in the state—SNCC, the NAACP, and CORE—to form COFO, the Council of Federated Organizations. Mississippi was the most dangerous of all the Southern states, yet Moses, Medgar Evers of the NAACP and local activists embarked on door-to-door voter education projects in rural Mississippi, while trying to recruit students to their cause. Evers was murdered the following year. 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Medgar Evers (July 2, 1925–June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist from Mississippi. ...


While COFO was working at the grassroots level in Mississippi James Meredith was successfully suing for admission to the University of Mississippi. He won that lawsuit in September, 1962 and attempted to enter the campus on September 20 and again on September 25 and September 26, 1962, only to be blocked by Mississippi Governor Ross R. Barnett, who proclaimed that "no school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your Governor". After the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held both Barnett and Lieutenant Governor Paul B. Johnson, Jr. in contempt, with fines of more than $10,000 for each day they refused to allow Meredith to enroll, Meredith, escorted by a force of U.S. Marshals, entered the campus on September 30, 1962. James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, although he vocally prefers not to be regarded as such. ... The Lyceum The University of Mississippi (also known as Ole Miss) is public, coeducational research university located near Oxford, Mississippi. ... Governors of Mississippi Territory, 1801–1817 Winthorp Sargent (Federalist) (7 May 1798–25 May 1801) William C. C. Claiborne (Democrat) (25 May 1801–1 March 1805) Robert Williams (Democrat) (1 March 1805–7 March 1809) David Holmes (Democrat) (7 March 1809–10 December 1817) Governors of the State of Mississippi... Ross Robert Barnett (January 22, 1898 – November 6, 1987) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of Mississippi from 1960 to 1964. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Louisiana Northern and Southern Districts of Mississippi Western, Eastern, Northern and Southern Districts of Texas The court is based at... Paul Burney Johnson, Jr. ...


White students and other whites began rioting that evening, throwing rocks at the U.S. Marshals guarding Meredith at Lyceum Hall, then firing on the Marshals. Two persons, including a French journalist, were killed, 28 Marshals suffered gunshot wounds and 160 others were injured. After the Mississippi Highway Patrol withdrew from the campus President Kennedy sent the regular Army to the campus to quell the uprising. Meredith was able to begin classes the following day after the troops arrived. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


The Albany movement

The SCLC, which had been criticized along with other mainstream civil rights organizations by some student activists for its failure to participate more fully in the freedom rides, committed much of its prestige and resources to a desegregation campaign in Albany, Georgia in November 1961. King, who had been criticized personally by some SNCC activists for his distance from the dangers that local organizers faced—and given the derisive nickname "De Lawd" as a result—intervened personally to assist the campaign led by both SNCC organizers and local leaders. Albany is a city located in Dougherty County, Georgia, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 76,939. ...


The campaign was a failure in the short run, largely due to the canny tactics of Laurie Pritchett, the local police chief, who successfully contained the movement without the sort of violent attacks on demonstrators that inflamed national opinion, and divisions within the black community. King left in 1962 without achieving any dramatic victories. The local movement, however, continued the struggle and obtained significant gains in the next few years.


The Birmingham campaign

The Albany movement proved to be an important education for the SCLC, however, when it undertook the Birmingham campaign in 1963. The campaign focused on one concrete goal—the desegregation of Birmingham's downtown merchants—rather than total desegregation, as in Albany. It was also helped by the brutal response of local authorities, in particular Eugene "Bull" Connor, the Commissioner of Public Safety who had lost a recent election for Mayor to a less rabidly segregationist candidate, but refused to accept the new Mayor's authority. 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Theophilus Eugene Bull Connor (11 July 1897 – 10 March 1973) was a police official in the Southern United States during the American Civil Rights Movement and a staunch advocate of racial segregation. ...


The campaign used a variety of nonviolent methods of confrontation, including sit-ins, kneel-ins at local churches, and a march to the county building to mark the beginning of a drive to register voters. The City, however, obtained an injunction barring all such protests. Convinced that the order was unconstitutional, the campaign defied it and prepared for mass arrests of its supporters. King elected to be among those arrested on April 12, 1963. An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that either prohibits or compels (enjoins or restrains) a party from continuing a particular activity. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


While in jail King wrote his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail on the margins of a newspaper, since he had not been allowed any writing paper while held in solitary confinement by jail authorities. Supporters pressured the Kennedy administration to intervene to obtain his release or better conditions; he was eventually allowed to call his wife, who was recuperating at home after the birth of their fourth child, and was released on April 19. The Letter From Birmingham Jail, commonly but incorrectly rendered Letter From a Birmingham Jail, was an open letter on April 16, 1963 written by Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Order: 35th President Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Term of office: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Preceded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Date of birth: May 29, 1917 Place of birth: Brookline, Massachusetts Date of death: November 22, 1963 Place of death: Dallas, Texas First... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ...


The campaign was, however, faltering at this time, as the movement was running out of demonstrators willing to risk arrest. SCLC organizers came up with a bold and controversial alternative, calling on high school students to take part in the demonstrators. When more than a thousand students left school on May 2 to join the demonstrations, Bull Connor unleashed police dogs on them, then turned the city's fire hoses, set at a level that would peel bark off a tree or separate bricks from mortar, on the children. Television cameras broadcast the scenes of fire hoses knocking down school children and dogs attacking individual demonstrators with no means of protecting themselves to the nation. May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ...


That forced the Kennedy administration to intervene more forcefully in the negotiations between the white business community and the SCLC. On May 10 the parties announced an agreement to desegregate the lunch counters and other public accommodations downtown, to create a committee to eliminate discriminatory hiring practices, to arrange for the release of jailed protesters and to establish regular means of communication between black and white leaders. May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ...


Not everyone in the black community approved of the agreement—Fred Shuttlesworth was particularly critical, since he had accumulated a great deal of skepticism about the good faith of Birmingham's power structure from his experience in dealing with them. The reaction from parts of the white community was even more violent: the Gaston Motel, which housed the SCLC's unofficial headquarters, was bombed, as was the home of King's brother, the Reverend A. D. King. Kennedy prepared to federalize the Alabama National Guard but did not follow through. Four months later, on September 15, Ku Klux Klan members bombed the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church (see 16th Street Baptist Church bombing) in Birmingham, killing four young girls. Arthur G. Gaston (July 4, 1892 – January 19, 1996) was an African-American businessman who established a number of businesses in Birmingham, Alabama and who played a significant role in the struggle to integrate Birmingham in 1963. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The 16th Street Baptist Church Bombing was a terrorist incident that proved to be a turning point of the US civil rights movement of the 1960s. ...


The March on Washington

A. Philip Randolph had planned a March on Washington in 1941 in support of demands for elimination of employment discrimination in defense industries; he called off the march when the Roosevelt administration met the demand by issuing Executive Order 8802 barring discrimination and creating an agency to oversee compliance with the order. 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Order: 32th President Vice President: John N. Garner Henry A. Wallace Harry S. Truman Term of office: March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 Preceded by: Herbert Hoover Succeeded by: Harry S. Truman Date of birth: January 30, 1882 Place of birth: Hyde Park, New York Date of death: April 12... Executive Order 8802 (also known as the Fair Employment Act) was signed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on June 25, 1941 to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry. ...


Randolph and Bayard Rustin were the chief planners of the second March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which they proposed in 1962. The Kennedy administration applied great pressure on Randolph and King to call it off, but without success. The march was held on August 28, 1963. Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a political rally that took place on August 28, 1963. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ...


Unlike the planned 1941 march, for which Randolph included only black-led organizations in the planning, the 1963 march was a collaborative effort of all of the major civil rights organizations, the more progressive wing of the labor movement, and other liberal organizations. The march had six official goals: "meaningful civil rights laws, a massive federal works program, full and fair employment, decent housing, the right to vote, and adequate integrated education." Of these, the March's real focus was on passage of the civil rights law that the Kennedy administration had proposed after the upheavals in Birmingham.


The march was a success, although not without controversy. More than 200,000 demonstrators gathered in front of the Lincoln Memorial, where King delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. While many speakers applauded the Kennedy Administration for the (largely ineffective) efforts it had made toward obtaining new, more effective civil rights legislation protecting the right to vote and outlawing segregation, John Lewis of SNCC took the Administration to task for how little it had done to protect Southern blacks and civil rights workers under attack in the Deep South. While he toned down his comments under pressure from others in the movement, his words still stung: The Deep South is a subregion of the American South, differentiated from the Old South as being the post colonial expansion of Southern States in the antebellum period. ...

”We march today for jobs and freedom, but we have nothing to be proud of, for hundreds and thousands of our brothers are not here--for they have no money for their transportation, for they are receiving starvation wages…or no wages at all. In good conscience, we cannot support the administration's civil rights bill.
This bill will not protect young children and old women from police dogs and fire hoses when engaging in peaceful demonstrations. This bill will not protect the citizens of Danville, Virginia who must live in constant fear in a police state. This bill will not protect the hundreds of people who have been arrested on trumped-up charges like those in Americus, Georgia, where four young men are in jail, facing a death penalty, for engaging in peaceful protest.
I want to know, which side is the federal government on? The revolution is a serious one. Mr. Kennedy is trying to take the revolution out of the streets and put it in the courts. Listen Mr. Kennedy, the black masses are on the march for jobs and for freedom, and we must say to the politicians that there won't be a 'cooling-off period.'”

After the march, King and other civil rights leaders met with President Kennedy at the White House. While the Kennedy administration appeared to be sincerely committed to passing the bill, it was not clear that it had the votes to do it. As it turned out, it was Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson, who followed through on this commitment. Lyndon Baines Johnson ( August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...


Mississippi Freedom Summer

COFO brought more than a hundred college students, many from outside the state, to Mississippi in the summer of 1964 ("Freedom Summer") to join with local activists to register voters, teach in "Freedom Schools" and organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. The work was as dangerous as ever: three civil rights workers, James Chaney, a young black Mississippian and plasterer's apprentice, and two white volunteers, Andrew Goodman, a Queens College anthropology student, and Michael Schwerner, a social worker from Manhattan's Lower East Side, were murdered by members of the Klan, some of them in the Neshoba County sheriff's department, on June 21, 1964. 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Freedom Summer was a campaign in the United States launched during the summer of 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in the southern states. ... The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was a political party created in 1964 by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, to win seats at the 1964 Democratic National Convention for a slate of delegates elected by disenfranchised black Mississippians and white sympathizers. ... James Earl Chaney was a civil rights worker who was murdered (along with Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman) by members of the Ku Klux Klan on June 21, 1964. ... Andrew Goodman (November 23, 1943 - June 21, 1964) was an American civil rights activist who was murdered by gun shot in 1964. ... Queens College is one of the senior colleges of the City University of New York. ... Michael Schwerner (1939 - June 21, 1964), called Mickey by friends and colleagues, was a CORE field worker kidnapped and killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi, by the Ku Klux Klan in response to the civil-rights work he coordinated, which included promoting registration to vote among Mississippi African Americans. ... Manhattan is an island bordering the lower Hudson River. ... Categories: Manhattan neighborhoods | Stub ... Neshoba County is a county located in the state of Mississippi. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The national uproar caused by their disappearance forced the Federal Bureau of Investigation to investigate, even though President Johnson had to use indirect threats of political reprisals against J. Edgar Hoover to force him to do so. After paying at least one participant in the crime for details about the murders, the FBI found their bodies on August 4 in an earthen dam outside Philadelphia, Mississippi. Schwerner and Goodman had been shot once; Chaney, the lone African-American, had been savagely beaten and shot three times. The FBI also discovered, in the course of its investigation, the bodies of a number of other Mississippi blacks whose disappearances had been reported over the past several years without attracting any attention outside their local communities. Official FBI Seal The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... People named Johnson Johnson is the second most common surname in the United States. ... Hoover in 1961 John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from May 10, 1924, until his death in 1972, having been appointed to that position for life by President John Calvin Coolidge. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... Philadelphia is a city located in Neshoba County, Mississippi. ...


The disappearance of these three activists remained in the public eye for the month and a half until their bodies were found. Johnson used the outrage over their deaths and his formidable political skills to bring about the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bars discrimination in public accommodations, employment and education. President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...


The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

COFO had held a Freedom Vote in Mississippi in 1963 to demonstrate the desire of black Mississippians to vote; more than 90,000 people voted in mock elections pitting candidates from the Freedom Party against the official State Party Candidates. In 1964 organizers launched the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party to challenge the all-white slate from the State Party. When Mississippi voting registrars refused to recognize their candidates, they held their own primary, selecting Fannie Lou Hamer, Annie Devine , and Victoria Gray to run for Congress and a slate of delegates to represent Mississippi at the 1964 national Democratic convention. Fannie Lou Hamer (October 6, 1917–March 14, 1977) was an American voting rights activist and civil rights leader. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


Their presence in Atlantic City, New Jersey was very inconvenient, however, for the convention organizers, who had planned a triumphal celebration of the Johnson Administration’s achievements in civil rights, rather than a fight over racism within the Democratic Party itself. Johnson was also worried about the inroads that Barry Goldwater’s campaign was making in what had previously been the Democratic stronghold of the "Solid South" and the support that George Wallace had received during the Democratic primaries in the North. Other all-white delegations from other Southern states had threatened to walk out if the all-white slate from Mississippi were not seated. Atlantic City is a city located in Atlantic County, New Jersey, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 40,517. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA. Goldwater personified the shift in balance in American culture from the Northeast to the West. ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919, Clio, Alabama, USA – September 13, 1998, Montgomery, Alabama, USA) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ...


Johnson could not, however, prevent the MFDP from taking its case to the Credentials Committee, where Fannie Lou Hamer testified about the beatings that she and others were given and the threats they faced for trying to register to vote. Turning to the television cameras, Hamer asked, "Is this America?"


Johnson attempted to preempt coverage of Hamer's testimony by calling a hastily scheduled speech of his own; when that failed to move the MFDP off the evening news, he offered the MFDP a "compromise" under which it would receive two non-voting at-large seats, while the white delegation sent by the official Democratic Party would retain its seats. The MFDP angrily rejected the compromise. As Aaron Henry, Medgar Evers' successor as President of the NAACP 's Mississippi affiliate, stated:

"Now, Lyndon made the typical white man's mistake: Not only did he say, "You've got two votes," which was too little, but he told us to whom the two votes would go. He'd give me one and Ed King one; that would satisfy. But, you see, he didn't realize that sixty-four of us came up from Mississippi on a Greyhound bus, eating cheese and crackers and bologna all the way there; we didn't have no money. Suffering the same way. We got to Atlantic City; we put up in a little hotel, three or four of us in a bed, four or five of us on the floor. You know, we suffered a common kind of experience, the whole thing. But now, what kind of fool am I, or what kind of fool would Ed have been, to accept gratuities for ourselves? You say, Ed and Aaron can get in but the other sixty-two can't. This is typical white man picking black folks' leaders, and that day is just gone."

Hamer put it even more succinctly:

"We didn't come all the way up here to compromise for no more than we’d gotten here. We didn't come all this way for no two seats, 'cause all of us is tired."

The MFDP kept up its agitation within the Convention, however, even after it was denied official recognition. When all but three of the "regular" Mississippi delegates left because they refused to pledge allegiance to the Party, the MFDP delegates borrowed passes from sympathetic delegates and took the seats vacated by the Mississippi delegates, only to be removed by the national Party. When they returned the next day to find that convention organizers had removed the empty seats that had been there yesterday, they stayed to sing freedom songs.


The 1964 convention disillusioned many within the MFDP and the civil rights movement, but it did not destroy the MFDP itself. The MFDP became more radical after Atlantic City, inviting Malcolm X to speak at its founding convention and opposing the war in Vietnam. // Malcolm X Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 – also: Malcolm Little, Detroit Red, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, and Omowale) was a spokesman for the Nation of Islam, and a founder of both the Muslim Mosque, Inc. ...


Selma and the Voting Rights Act

SNCC had undertaken an ambitious voter registration program in Selma, Alabama in 1965, but made little headway in the face of opposition from Selma's sheriff, Jim Clark. After local residents asked the SCLC for assistance, King came to Selma to lead a number of marches, at which he was arrested along with 250 other demonstrators. The marchers continued to meet violent resistance from police; a Selma resident, Jimmie Lee Jackson was killed by police at a later march in February. Selma is located on the banks of the Alabama River near Paul M. Grist State Park. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


On March 7, Hosea Williams of the SCLC and John Lewis of SNCC led a march of 600 people who intended to walk the fifty-four miles from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery. Only six blocks into the march, however, at the Edmund Pettus Bridge, state troopers and local law enforcement, some mounted on horseback, attacked the peaceful demonstrators with billy clubs, tear gas, rubber tubes wrapped in barbed wire and bull whips, driving them back into Selma. John Lewis was knocked unconscious and dragged to safety, while at least sixteen other marchers were hospitalized. March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... Hosea Williams (January 5, 1926 – November 16, 2000) was an United States civil rights leader, ordained reverend, and later a politician. ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge,March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ... Categories: Stub ...


The national broadcast of the footage of lawmen attacking unresisting marchers seeking only the right to vote provoked a national response similar to the scenes from Birmingham two years earlier. While the marchers were able to obtain a court order permitting them to make the march without incident two weeks later, local whites murdered another voting rights supporter in the period between the marches; four Klansmen murdered Detroit homemaker Viola Liuzzo as she drove marchers back to Selma after the second march. This article refers to the largest city of Michigan. ... Viola Gregg Liuzzo (April 11, 1925 - March 25, 1965) was a civil-rights activist who was murdered by the Ku Klux Klan while driving Leroy Moton, a young African-American, from a civil-rights march in Selma, Alabama. ...


Johnson delivered a televised address to Congress eight days after the first march in support of the voting rights bill he had sent to Congress. In it he stated:

But even if we pass this bill, the battle will not be over. What happened in Selma is part of a far larger movement which reaches into every section and State of America. It is the effort of American Negroes to secure for themselves the full blessings of American life.
Their cause must be our cause too. Because it is not just Negroes, but really it is all of us, who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. And we shall overcome.

Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 on August 6. The 1965 Act suspended literacy tests and other voter tests and authorized federal supervision of voter registration in states and individual voting districts where such tests were being used. African-Americans who had been barred from registering to vote finally had an alternative to the courts. If voting discrimination occurred, the 1965 Act authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to replace local registrars. Johnson reportedly stated to associates that signing the bill had lost the South for the Democratic Party for the foreseeable future. The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ...


The Act, however, had an immediate and positive impact for African-Americans. Within months of its passage on August 6, 1965, one quarter of a million new black voters had been registered, one third by federal examiners. Within four years, voter registration in the South had more than doubled. In 1965, Mississippi had the highest black voter turnout--74%--and led the nation in the number of black leaders elected. In 1969, Tennessee had a 92.1% turnout; Arkansas, 77.9%; and Texas, 73.1%. 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... State nickname: Magnolia State Other U.S. States Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Governor Haley Barbour Official languages English Area 125,546 km² (32nd)  - Land 121,606 km²  - Water 3,940 km² (3%) Population (2000)  - Population 2,697,243 (31st)  - Density 23. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis (largest metropolitan area is Nashville) Governor Phil Bredesen Official languages English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2. ... State nickname: The Natural State Other U.S. States Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Governor Mike Huckabee Official languages English Area 137,732 km² (29th)  - Land 134,856 km²  - Water 2,876 km² (2. ... State nickname: Lone Star State Other U.S. States Capital Austin Largest city Houston Governor Rick Perry Official languages None. ...


Winning the right to vote changed the political landscape of the South. When Congress passed the Voting Rights Act, barely 100 African-Americans held elective office in the U.S.; by 1989 there were more than 7,200, including more than 4,800 in the South. Nearly every Black Belt county in Alabama had a black sheriff, and southern blacks held top positions within city, county, and state governments. Atlanta boasted a black mayor, Andrew Young, as did Jackson, Mississippi--Harvey Johnson, and New Orleans, with Ernest Morial. Black politicians on the national level included Barbara Jordan, who represented Texas in Congress, and former mayor Young, who was appointed U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations during the Carter Administration. Julian Bond was elected to the Georgia Legislature in 1965, although political reaction to his public opposition to U.S. involvement in Vietnam prevented him from taking his seat until 1967. John Lewis currently represents Georgia's 5th Congressional District in the United States House of Representatives, where he has served since 1987. Lewis sits on the House Ways and Means and Health committees. 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Black Belt Region in the United States refers to the social and demographic crescent of 623 southern counties that contain a higher than average percentages of African American residents. ... Andrew Jackson Young, Jr. ... Jackson is the capital and largest city in the U.S. state of Mississippi. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Ernest Nathan Morial (known as Dutch) (1929 - 1989) was a U.S. political figure. ... Barbara Charline Jordan (February 21, 1936-January 17, 1996) was an American politician from Texas. ... This is a list of ambassadors from the United States. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... Order: 39th President Vice President: Walter Mondale Term of office: January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... External links Biography at NAACP.org Julian Bond at the Internet Movie Database Categories: People stubs | 1940 births | United States Senators | African Americans | Nashvillians ... 1967 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fraying of alliances

King reached the height of popular acclaim during his life in 1964, when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. His career after that point was filled with frustrating challenges, as the liberal coalition that had made the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 began to fray. 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes requested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


King was, by this point, becoming more estranged from the Johnson administration, breaking with it in 1965 by calling for peace negotiations and a halt to the bombing of Vietnam. He moved further left in the following years, embracing socialism and speaking of the need for thoroughgoing changes in American society beyond the granting of the civil rights that the movement had sought to that date. 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism,For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ...


King's attempts to broaden the scope of the civil rights movement were halting and largely unsuccessful, however. King made several efforts in 1965 to take the civil rights movement north to address issues of employment and housing discrimination. His campaign in Chicago failed, as Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley marginalized King's campaign by promising to study it. In 1966, white demonstrators holding "white power" signs in Cicero, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, threw stones at King and other marchers demonstrating against housing segregation, injuring King. 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Richard J. Daley Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 - December 20, 1976) was an American politician who served as Chairman of the Cook County Democratic Central Committee from 1953 and Mayor of Chicago from 1955, retaining both positions until his death in 1976. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Cicero is a town located in Cook County, Illinois. ...


Black power

At the same time that King was finding himself more and more at odds with the Democratic Party, he was facing challenges from within the civil rights movement to the two key tenets on which the movement had been based: integration and nonviolence. Black activists within SNCC and CORE had chafed for some time at the influence wielded by white advisors to civil rights organizations and to the disproportionate attention that was given to the deaths of white civil rights workers while black workers' deaths often went virtually unnoticed. Stokely Carmichael, who became the leader of SNCC in 1966, was one of the earliest and most articulate spokespersons for what became known as the "Black Power" movement after Carmichael used that slogan in Greenwood, Mississippi on June 17, 1966. Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ... Greenwood is a city located in Leflore County, Mississippi. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ...


King was not comfortable with the "Black Power" slogan, which sounded too much like black nationalism to his ears. SNCC activists, in the meantime, began embracing the "right to self-defense" in response to attacks from white authorities and booed King for advocating non-violence.


Memphis and the Poor People's March

Rev. James Lawson invited King to Memphis, Tennessee in March, 1968 to support a strike by sanitation workers who launched a campaign for union representation after two workers were accidentally killed on the job. A day after delivering his famous "Mountaintop" sermon at Lawson's church, King was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Riots broke out in over 110 cities across the United States in the days that followed, notably in Chicago, Baltimore, and in Washington, D.C. City nickname: The River City or The Bluff City Location in the state of Tennessee County Shelby County, Tennessee Area  - Total  - Water 763. ... Sanitation is a term for the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste materials, particularly human excrement. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The riots of April 4–8, 1968 devastated Washington, D.C. Washington, Chicago, and Baltimore were the cities most impacted by civil unrest in over 110 U.S. cities in the aftermath of the April 4 assassination of American Civil Rights Movement leader Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Ralph Abernathy succeeded King as the head of the SCLC and attempted to carry forth King's plan for a Poor People's March, which would have united black and whites to campaign for fundamental changes in American society and economic structure. The march went forward under Abernathy's leadership but is widely regarded as a failure.


See also

The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. ... This is a timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement. ...

External links

  • What Was Jim Crow? (The racial caste system that precipitated the Civil Rights Movement)
  • "You Don't Have to Ride Jim Crow!" PBS documentary on first Freedom Ride, in 1947
  • At the River I Stand California Newsreel documentary on Civil Rights and labor rights in the 1968 Memphis Sanitation workers' strike. 56 minutes, 1993
  • The Georgia Movement

Further reading

  • Breitman, George The Assassination of Malcom X. New York: Pathfinder Press. 1976.
  • Carson, Clayborne. In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960's. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1980. ISBN 0374523568.
  • Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. 800 pages. New York: William Morrow, 1986. ISBN 0688047947.
  • Garrow, David J. The FBI and Martin Luther King. New York: W.W. Norton. 1981. Viking Press Reprint edition. February 1, 1983. ISBN 0140064869. Yale University Press; Revised & Expanded edition. August 1, 2006. ISBN 0300087314.
  • Horne, Gerald The Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960's. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. 1995. Da Capo Press; 1st Da Capo Press ed edition. October 1, 1997. ISBN 0306807920
  • Malcom X (with the assistance of Alex Haley). The Autobiography of Malcom X. New York: Random House, 1965. Paperback ISBN 0345350685. Hardcover ISBN 0345379756.
  • Marable, Manning. Race, Reform and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1982. 249 pages. University Press of Mississippi, 1984. ISBN 0878052259.
  • Minchin, Timothy J. Hiring the Black Worker: The Racial Integration of the Southern Textile Industry, 1960-1980. 342 pages. University of North Carolina Press. May 1, 1999. ISBN 0807824704.


Thesis

  • Westheider, James Edward. "My Fear is for You": African Americans, Racism, and the Vietnam War. University of Cincinnati. 1993.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Civil rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3733 words)
Civil rights are distinguished from "human rights" or "natural rights"; civil rights are rights that persons do have, while natural or human rights are rights that many scholars think that people should have.
For example, the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) argued that the natural rights of life, liberty, and property should be converted into civil rights and protected by the state as an aspect of the social contract.
Civil rights can in one sense refer to the equal treatment of all citizens irrespective of race, sex, or other class, or it can refer to laws which invoke claims of positive liberty.
Encyclopedia: American civil rights movement (10269 words)
The march had six official goals: "meaningful civil rights laws, a massive federal works program, full and fair employment, decent housing, the right to vote, and adequate integrated education." Of these, the March's real focus was on passage of the civil rights law that the Kennedy administration had proposed after the upheavals in Birmingham.
John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge,March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement.
This is a timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement.
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