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Encyclopedia > American Black Duck
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
American Black Duck
In flight
In flight
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Genus: Anas
Species: A. rubripes
Binomial name
Anas rubripes
Brewster, 1902

The American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) is a large-sized dabbling duck. American Black Duck in flight. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which do not qualify for any other category. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Digimon, the only known animals. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Cnemiornithidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Thalassorninae Anserinae Stictonettinae Plectropterinae Tadorninae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Oxyurinae and see text Anatidae is the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. ... Species Some 40-50; see text. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... William Brewster (July 5, 1851 - 1919) was an American ornithologist. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Genera Pteronetta Cairina Aix Nettapus Anas Callonetta Chenonetta Amazonetta See also Diving duck The dabbling ducks are a group of eight genera and about 55 species of ducks, including some of the most familiar Northern Hemisphere species. ...

Black Duck
Black Duck

The adult male has a yellow bill, a dark body, lighter head and neck, orange legs and dark eyes. The adult female has a similar appearance. Both sexes have a shiny purple-blue wing patch, which is not bordered with white as with the Mallard. The behaviour and voice are the same as for Mallard. Black Duck USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Black Duck USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A mallard hen. ... Binomial name Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies See Mexican Duck, Anas, and article text The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos[1]), also known as the wild duck, is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. ...


Their breeding habitat is lakes, ponds, rivers, marshes and other aquatic environments in eastern Canada including the Great Lakes, and the Adirondacks in the U.S. Black Ducks interbreed regularly and extensively with Mallard ducks, to which they are closely related. Some authorities even consider the Black Duck to be a dark-plumaged subspecies of the Mallard, not a separate species at all; this is in error as the extent of hybridization alone is not a valid means to delimitate Anas species (Mank et al. 2004). The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Binomial name Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies See Mexican Duck, Anas, and article text The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos[1]), also known as the wild duck, is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. ... In zoology, as in other branches of biology, subspecies is the rank immediately subordinate to a species. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... // In biology, hybrid has two meanings. ...


In the past, Black Ducks and Mallards were separated by habitat preference, with the dark-plumaged Black Ducks having a selective advantage in shaded forest pools in eastern North America, and the lighter plumaged Mallards in the brighter, more open prairie and plains lakes. In recent times, deforestation in the east, and tree planting on the plains, has broken down this habitat separation, leading to the high levels of hybridisation now seen.(Johnsgard 1967) Indeed, American Black Ducks and local mallards are now very hard to distinguish by means of microsatellite comparisons, even if many specimens are sampled (Avise et al. 1990[1], Mank et al. 2004[2]). Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Prairie refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically supported grasses and herbs, with few trees, and having generally a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... Microsatellites, or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), are polymorphic loci present in nuclear DNA that consist of repeating units of 1-4 base pairs in length [1]. They are typically neutral, co-dominant and are used as molecular markers which have wide-ranging applications in the field of genetics, including kinship...


The hybrids cannot be readily distinguished in the field and consequently, much of the species' hybridization dynamics remians unknown. It has been revealed in captivity studies, however, that the hybrids follow Haldane's Rule, with hybrid females often dying before they reach sexual maturity (Kirby et al. 2004); this underscores the case for the American Black Duck being a distinct species. Haldanes rule relating to hybrids of species and extended to speciation in evolutionary theory is easily stated: When in the offspring of two different animal races one sex is absent, rare, or sterile, that sex is the heterozygous (heterogametic) sex. ...


This species is partially migratory and many winter in the east-central United States, especially coastal areas; some remain year-round in the Great Lakes region. These birds feed by dabbling in shallow water, and grazing on land. They mainly eat plants, but also some molluscs and aquatic insects. The eggs are a greenish buff color. They lay from 6-14 eggs, and hatch in an average of 30 days. Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Many species of birds undertake seasonal journeys of various lengths, a phenomenon known as Bird migration. ... “Aves” redirects here. ...


This duck is a rare vagrant to Great Britain, where, over the years, several birds have settled in and bred with the local Mallards. The resulting hybrids can present considerable identification difficulties. Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ...

Comparison chart showing difference from female Mallard
Comparison chart showing difference from female Mallard

Black Duck Mallard Comparison, pub domain USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Black Duck Mallard Comparison, pub domain USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies See Mexican Duck, Anas, and article text The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos[1]), also known as the wild duck, is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. ...

Status

The Black Duck has long been valued as a game bird, being quite wary and fast on the wing. Although this is a species of least concern, it is slowly declining due to overhunting and habitat destruction. Some conservationists consider the hybridization and competition with the Mallard an additional source of concern, should this decline continue (Rhymer & Simberloff 1996, Rhymer 2006). It should be noted that the hybridization itself is not the major problem; natural selection will see to that the best-adapted individuals still have the most offspring. But the reduced viability of female hybrids will cause many broods to fail in the long run as the offspring die before reproducing themselves. While this is not a problem in the plentiful mallard, it will place an additional strain on the American Black Duck's population. Binomial name Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies See Mexican Duck, Anas, and article text The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos[1]), also known as the wild duck, is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


References

  • Avise, John C.; Ankney, C. Davison & Nelson, William S. (1990): Mitochondrial Gene Trees and the Evolutionary Relationship of Mallard and Black Ducks. Evolution 44(4): 1109-1119. DOI:10.2307/2409570 (HTML abstract and first page image)
  • BirdLife International (2004). Anas rubripes. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  • Johnsgard, Paul A. (1967): Sympatry Changes and Hybridization Incidence in Mallards and Black Ducks. American Midland Naturalist 77(1): 51-63. DOI:10.2307/2423425 (HTML abstract and first page image)
  • Kirby, Ronald E.; Sargeant, Glen A. & Shutler, Dave (2004): Haldane's rule and American black duck × mallard hybridization. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82(11): 1827–1831. DOI:10.1139/z04-169 (HTML abstract)
  • Mank, Judith E.; Carlson, John E. & Brittingham, Margaret C. (2004): A century of hybridization: Decreasing genetic distance between American black ducks and mallards. Conservation Genetics 5(3): 395–403. DOI:10.1023/B:COGE.0000031139.55389.b1 (HTML abstract)
  • Rhymer, Judith M. (2006): Extinction by hybridization and introgression in anatine ducks. Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(Supplement): 583–585. PDF fulltext

Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a bimonthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... This is the article on the publisher Annual Reviews whose titles are invariably called Annual review of . ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Contrary to this study's claims, the question whether the American haplotypes are an original Mallard lineage is far from resolved.
  2. ^ Their statement, "[N]orthern black ducks are now no more distinct from mallards than their southern conspecifics" of course only holds true in regards to the molecular markers tested. As birds indistinguishable according to the set of microsatellite markers still can look different, there are other genetic differences which were simply not tested in the study.

External Links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
American Black Duck - definition of American Black Duck in Encyclopedia (313 words)
The American Black Duck (Anas rubripes) is a medium-sized dabbling duck.
Black ducks interbreed regularly and extensively with Mallard ducks, to which they are closely related; some authorities consider that Black Duck is no more than a dark-plumaged race of Mallard, not a separate species at all.
In the past, Black Ducks and Mallards were separated by habitat, with the dark-plumaged Black Ducks having a selective advantage in shaded forest pools in eastern North America, and the lighter plumaged Mallards in the brighter, more open prairie and plains lakes.
Black Ducks (2329 words)
On the Atlantic coast and on the St. Lawrence estuary, the fl duck is particularly abundant in coastal marshes.
In flight, the fl duck is identifiable by the flash of its white underwings.
All ducks tend to return in fall and winter to the same marshes that they visited the previous year, but this trait is most pronounced in the fl duck.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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