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Encyclopedia > American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between A scientist is a person who is expert in an area of science and who uses scientific methods in research. ...scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports Science education is the field interested in sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the science community. ...scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. It is the world's largest general scientific society. The AAAS is also the publisher of the well-known scientific journal Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. ...Science.

Contents

History

Download high resolution version (533x720, 230 KB)William C. Redfield This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...
Download high resolution version (533x720, 230 KB)William C. Redfield This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Enlarge
William Redfield, First President

The American Association for the Advancement of Science was created on September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ...September 20, 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...1848 in State nickname: The Keystone State Other U.S. States Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell Official languages None Area 119,283 km² (33rd)  _ Land 116,074 km²  _ Water 3,208 km² (2. ...Pennsylvania. It was a reformation of the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists. The society chose Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: William C. Redfield Categories: Stub | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce ...William Redfield as their first president. According to the first constitution [1]  (http://archives.aaas.org/docs/documents.php?doc-id=413) which was agreed to at the September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ...September 20th meeting, the goal of the society was to promote scientific dialogue in order to allow for greater scientic collaboration. By doing so the association aimed use resources to conduct science with increased efficiency and allow for scientific progress at a greater rate. The association also sought to increase the resources available to the scientific community through active advocacy of science.


There were only 87 members when the AAAS was formed, but over the course of the next twelve years membership increased nearly 2300%. By 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...1860 there were over 2000 members. The course of Pre_Colonial America For details, see the main Pre_Colonial America article. ...American history, however, intervened to prevent the continued growth of the AAAS. The AAAS became dormant during the The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly_formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ...American Civil War after their August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...August 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...1861 meeting in For other cities named Nashville, see Nashville (disambiguation). ...Nashville, Tennessee was postponed indefinitly just after the outbreak of the first major engagement of the war at First Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date July 21, 1861 Place Fairfax County and Prince William County Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Bull Run, referred to as the First Battle of Manassas in the South, (July 21, 1861) was the first major land battle of...Bull Run. The AAAS was not, however, to become a casualty of the war. In 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ...1866, Frederick Barnard presided over the first meeting of the resurrected AAAS at a meeting in State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  _ Land 122,409 km²  _ Water 18,795 km² (13. ...New York.


Following the reformation of the AAAS, the group once again experienced a period of growth. The growth, however, was not unlimited as peace brought with it the expansion of other science_oriented group. The AAAS's focus on the unification of many fields of science under a single organization still yielded some novelty. A large subset of all new science organizations that were founded to promote a single dicipline. For example, The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ...American Chemical Society, founded in 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ...1876, promotes _1...chemistry. The The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in the United States is a government_established corporation supporting scientific research. ...National Academy of Sciences (NAS) was, however, founded by the The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...United States Congress in Events January_February January 11 _ The Whisky A Go_Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened. ...1963 which provided an alternative multi_diciplinary sciences organization. Unlike the NAS, which elects members, the AAAS permitted all people regardless of scientific credentials to join. The AAAS did, however, institute a policy of granting the title of "fellow" to well_respected scientists within the organization.


Governance

The most recent Constitution of the AAAS which was enacted on January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ...January 1, 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ...1973 establishes that the governance of the AAAS is accomplished through four entities:

  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responcibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...The Office of the President
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responcibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...The Administrative Officers
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responcibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...The Council
  • The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responcibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ...The Board of Directors

Presidents

Individuals elected to the presidency of the AAAS hold a three_year term in a unique way. The first year is spent as A President_elect is a candidate who has officially been elected President, but who has not yet acceded to his Office, as it is still occupied by the out_going President. ...President_elect, the second as President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ...President and the third as A chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ...Chairperson of the A board of directors is a group of individuals chosen by the stockholders of a company to promote their interests through the goverance of the company. ...Board of Directors. In accordance with the convention followed by the AAAS, presidents are referenced by the year in which they left office.


The current president of the American Association for 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2006 is Gilbert Omenn of the The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor is a public coeducational university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. ...University of Michigan. Omenn became President in February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...February of 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2005 and will become Chairman of the Board of Directors in 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2006. His successor is President_elect John Holdren of Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...Harvard University who will take office in February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...February of 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2006 to become the 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2007 president of the AAAS.


The AAAS has historically been led by some important scientists such as Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = reasoned account). ...biologists Stephen Jay Gould Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was a New York_born American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ...Stephen Jay Gould and Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 _ January 30, 1888) was an influential American botanist and collaborator of Charles Darwin. ...Asa Gray or _1...chemist Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American atomic scientist. ...Glenn Seaborg, after which the element Known properties Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series Transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7 , d Appearance unknown Atomic weight [266] amu Electron configuration probably [Rn]5f14 6d4 7s2 e_ s per energy level 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12, 2 State of matter presumably a solid Seaborgium...Seaborgium is named. The following is a brief list of some of the most notable scientists ever to hold the presidency of the AAAS.

Notable Presidents of the AAAS, 1848_2005
Year President Year President
2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2000 Stephen Jay Gould Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was a New York_born American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ...Stephen Jay Gould 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...1929 Robert Millikan. ...Robert A. Millikan
1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...1990 Richard C. Atkinson served as the president of the University of California from 1995 to 2003. ...Richard C. Atkinson Events January 7 _ First transatlantic telephone call _ New York City to London January 9 _ Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 _ Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 _ Britain sends troops to China February 12 _ First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 _ Earthquake in Yugoslavia _ 700 dead February...1927 Arthur Amos Noyes (1866 _ 1936) was a U.S. chemist and educator. ...Arthur Amos Noyes
1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ...1972 Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American atomic scientist. ...Glenn T. Seaborg 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ...1887 Samuel Pierpont Langley (August 22, 1834 in Roxbury, Massachusetts near Boston, – February 27, 1906, Aiken, South Carolina) was an American astronomer, physicist, inventor, aeronautics pioneer and aircraft engineer. ...Samuel P. Langley
1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...1942 Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1927) for discovery of the effect named after him. ...Arthur H. Compton 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...1886 Edward Sylvester Morse (June 18, 1838 – December 20, 1925) was a US zoologist and orientalist. ...Edward S. Morse
1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...1934 Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 _ August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist whose work on animal behaviour and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism. ...Edward L. Thorndike 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...1877 Simon Newcomb. ...Simon Newcomb
1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...1931 Franz Boas (July 9, 1858_December 22, 1942) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Like many such pioneers, he trained in other disciplines; he received his doctorate in physics, and did post_doctoral work in geography. ...Franz Boas 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...1871 Asa Gray (November 18, 1810 _ January 30, 1888) was an influential American botanist and collaborator of Charles Darwin. ...Asa Gray

A The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that supports scientific progress for the betterment of all mankind. ... complete list of presidents is also available.


Administrative Officers

There are three classifications of high_level administrative officials that execute the basic, daily functions of the AAAS. These are the _1...Executive Officer, the For the U.S. government securities, see Treasury security A treasury is the part of a government which manages all money and revenue. ...Treasurer and than each of the AAAS's section secretaries.


Sections of the AAAS

The AAAS has 24 "sections" with each section being responcible for a particular concern of the AAAS. There are sections for Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals ( livestock). ...agriculture, Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ...anthropology, Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ...astronomy, Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ...atmospheric science, Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top_left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ...biological science, _1...chemistry, X_rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ...dentistry, Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ...education, Engineering is the application of science to the needs of humanity. ...engineering, general interest in science and engineering, Geology (from Greek γη_ (ge_, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ...geology and Physical map of the Earth (Medium) (Large 2 MB) Geography is the scientific study of the locational and spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena on Earth. ...geography, the The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanitys understanding of science and technology has changed over the millennia. ...history and The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy which studies the philosophical foundations, presumptions and implications of science both of the natural sciences like physics and biology and the social sciences such as psychology and economics. ...philosophy of science, Technology ( Gr. ...technology, Computer science (informally: CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ...computer science, Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ...linguistics, Mathematics is commonly defined as the study of patterns of structure, change, and space; more informally, one might say it is the study of figures and numbers. Mathematical knowledge is constantly growing, through research and application, but mathematics itself is not usually considered a natural science. ...mathematics, See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ...medical science, Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. ...neuroscience, pharmaceutical science, Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), Nature) is the science of Nature in the broadest sense. ...physics, Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ...psychology, Terms like SOSE (Studies of Society & the Environment) not only refer to social sciences but also studies of the environment. ...social and Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political Science is the systematic study of the allocation and transfer of power in decision making. ...political science, the social impact of science and engineering, and For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ...statistics.


The Council

The Council is composed of the members of the Board of Directors, the retiring section chairmen and elected delegates. Among the elected delegates there are always at least two members from the The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in the United States is a government_established corporation supporting scientific research. ...National Academy of Sciences and one from each region of the country. The President of the AAAS serves as the Chairperson of the Council. Members server the Council for a term of three years.


The council meets annually to discuss matters of importance to the AAAS. They have the power to review all activities of the Association, elect new Fellow, adopt resolutions, propose ammendments to the Association's constitiution and bylaws, create new scientific sections, and organize and aid local chapters of the AAAS.


The Board of Directors

The Board of Directors is composed of a Chairperson, the President and President_Elect along with eight elected Directors, the Executive Officer of the Association and up to two additional Directors appointed by elected officers. Members of the Board of Directors serve a 4_year term except for Directors appointed by elected officers, who serve 3_year terms instead.


The current Chairperson of the Board of Directors, who will serve from February 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2005 to February 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...2006, is Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson (born August 5, 1946) is the 18th President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. ...Shirley Ann Jackson of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a large university in Troy, New York, near Albany, founded in 1824 by Stephen Van Rensselaer. ...Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute who is now the Chairperson of the Board of Directors. The Chairperson of the Board of Directors is always the immediate past_president of the Association.


The Board of Directors has a variety of powers and responcibilities. It is charged with the administration of all Association funds, publication of a budget, appointment of administrators, proposition of amendments and determination the time and place of meetings of the national Assocation. The Board may also speak publically on behalf of the Association. The Board must also regularly corrospond with the Council to discuss their actions.


See Also

  • The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ...British Association for the Advancement of Science
  • The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in the United States is a government_established corporation supporting scientific research. ...National Academy of Sciences
  • The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency responsible for supporting basic science research mainly by providing research funding. ...National Science Foundation

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
American Association for the Advancement of Science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1205 words)
It was a reformation of the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists.
The current president of the American Association for 2006 is Gilbert Omenn of the University of Michigan.
There are sections for agriculture, anthropology, astronomy, atmospheric science, biological science, chemistry, dentistry, education, engineering, general interest in science and engineering, geology and geography, the history and philosophy of science, technology, computer science, linguistics, mathematics, medical science, neuroscience, pharmaceutical science, physics, psychology, social and political science, the social impact of science and engineering, and statistics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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