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Encyclopedia > American Airlines Flight 587
American Airlines Flight 587
Summary
Date  November 12, 2001
Type  In-flight structural failure
Site  Queens, New York City
Fatalities  265 (including 5 on the ground)
Injuries  1
Aircraft
 Aircraft type  Airbus A300-600
Operator  American Airlines
Tail number  N14053
Passengers  251
Crew  9
Survivors  0

American Airlines Flight 587 crashed into the Belle Harbor neighborhood of Queens in New York City shortly after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport on November 12, 2001. This was the second deadliest U.S. aviation accident to date. November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the airliner. ... American Airlines (AA) is the largest airline in the world in terms of total passengers-miles transported[1] and fleet size, and the second-largest airline in the world (behind Air France-KLM) in terms of total operating revenues. ... Belle Harbor is a neighborhood in southern Queens (in New York City) located along Rockaway Beach. ... Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow Queens is one of the five boroughs of New York City, USA. Geographically the largest borough in the city, Queens is home to many immigrants and two of New Yorks major airports. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km) from Lower Manhattan. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For natural disasters see: List of natural disasters by death toll This is a list of wars and man-made disasters by death toll. ...

Contents

Synopsis

On November 12, 2001, about 09:16:15 eastern standard time, American Airlines flight 587, an Airbus Industrie A300-605R, N14053, crashed into a residential area of Belle Harbor, New York, shortly after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport, Jamaica, New York. Flight 587 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight to Las Americas International Airport, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, with 2 flight crewmembers, 7 flight attendants, and 251 passengers aboard the plane. The plane’s vertical stabilizer and rudder separated in flight and were found in Jamaica Bay, about 1 mile north of the main wreckage site. The plane’s engines subsequently separated in flight and were found several blocks north and east of the main wreckage site. All 260 people aboard the plane and 5 people on the ground were killed, and the plane was destroyed by impact forces and a postcrash fire. Flight 587 was operating under the provisions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 121 on an instrument flight rules flight plan. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the accident.


Dozens of eye witnesses reported an explosion/fire prior to the sepearation of the vertical stabilizer, indicating a more severe problem may have existed before the crew lost control of the aircraft.


Investigation

After the crash, Floyd Bennett Field's empty hangars were used as a makeshift morgue for the identification of crash victims.[1] 1998 map of Floyd Bennett Field from the National Park Service. ... Mortuary, a film directed by Tobe Hooper, see Mortuary (film). ...


The official National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) report of October 26, 2004, stated that the cause of the crash was the overuse of the rudder to counter wake turbulence.[2] The smoke and fire was the result of fuel leakage as the engines separated from the wings due to huge g-forces, or engine compressor surges. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ... Wake turbulence, also known as jetwash, is turbulence that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. ... A compressor stall is a situation of abnormal airflow through the compressor stage of a jet engine, causing a stall of the vanes of the compressor rotor. ...


The A300-600, which took off just minutes after a Japan Airlines Boeing 747 on the same runway, flew into the larger jet's wake, an area of very turbulent air. The first officer attempted to keep the plane upright with unnecessarily aggressive rudder inputs. The strength of the air flowing against the moving rudder stressed the aircraft's vertical stabilizer and eventually snapped it off entirely, causing the aircraft to lose control and crash. The NTSB concluded that the enormous stress on the rudder was due solely to the first officers over aggressive rudder inputs, and not the the wake caused by the earlier Japan Airlines 747 that had crossed that area. If the first officer had, in fact, stopped making additional inputs the aircraft would have stabilized.[3] JAL Boeing 747-400 in 1989-2002 colour scheme JAL Cargo Boeing 747-400 (JA402J) waiting for take-off A JAL Boeing 767 in NAIA. JAL Boeing 747-400 Japan Airlines Corporation ) (TYO: 9205 ), or JAL, is the largest airline operator in Asia. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is among the most recognizable jet airliners, and is among the largest passenger airliners. ... The vertical stabilizer or fin of an aircraft is found on its tail, generally pointing straight upward. ...


Investigators were concerned regarding the manner in which the tail fin separated. The tail fin is connected to the fuselage with six attaching points, each set has two sets of nuts, one made out of composite material, another from aluminum which is connected by a titanium bolt, however damage analysis showed the bolts and aluminum lugs were intact but not the composite lugs. There were fears that the composites were faulty because they are used in other areas of the plane including the engine mounting and the wings, however examinations of construction and the materials gave the plane a clean bill of health. A nut is a type of hardware fastener with a threaded hole. ... Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ...


A group of aviation experts do not agree with the findings of the NTSB in their entirety. The airbus, climbing at Vy (the best rate-of-climb airspeed) was well below the maneuvering speed range Va. According to FAA ceritfication standards, operating at or below Va does not cause structural damage at full control deflection. While that doesn't mean one can violently yank the controls such as the rudder back and forth, this will also not cause a structural failure of such severity unless the structure was weakened beforehand. In addition, the NTSB has consistently dimissed all eye witness accounts as unreliable.


Responsibility

Airbus and American are currently disputing the extent to which the two parties are responsible for the disaster. American charges that the crash was mostly Airbus's fault, because the A300 was designed with unusually sensitive rudder controls. Most aircraft require increased pressure on the rudder pedals to achieve the same amount of rudder control at a higher speed. The Airbus A300 and later A310 do not operate on a fly-by-wire flight control system, instead using conventional mechanical flight controls. The NTSB determined that "because of its high sensitivity, the A300-600 rudder control system is susceptible to potentially hazardous rudder pedal inputs at higher speeds."[3] The Airbus A310 is a medium- to long-range widebody airliner developed from the Airbus A300 and manufactured by Airbus SAS. Perhaps the greatest attribute of the A310 is that of range. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight The fundamentals of aircraft controls has been explained in aeronautics. ...


Airbus charges that the crash was mostly American's fault, because the airline did not train its pilots properly about the characteristics of the rudder. Aircraft tail fins are designed to withstand full rudder in one direction at maneuvering speed. However, they are not usually designed to withstand an abrupt shift in rudder from one direction to the other. Most American pilots believed that the tail fin could withstand any rudder movement at maneuvering speed. The NTSB also assigned a portion of the responsibility to American Airlines by indicating that their Advanced Aircraft Maneuvering Program tended to exaggerate the effects of wake turbulence on large aircraft. Therefore, pilots were being trained to react more aggressively than was necessary.[3] Since the NTSB's report, American Airlines has modified its pilot training program.


Memorial

A memorial was constructed in Rockaway Park, Belle Harbor's neighboring community, in memory of the 265 victims of the crash, at Beach 116th Street, a major commercial street in the area.[4] The memorial was dedicated on November 12, 2006, the fifth anniversary of the incident, in a ceremony attended by Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg. The memorial wall, designed by Dominican artist Freddy Rodriguez and Situ Studio, has windows and a doorway looking towards the nearby Atlantic Ocean and angled towards the Dominican Republic. The Memorial is inscribed with the names of the victims.[5] Atop the memorial is a quote, in both Spanish and English, from Dominican poet Pedro Mir, reading "Después yo quiero no más que paz / Afterwards I want nothing more than peace."[6] Rockaway Park is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ... Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born 14 February 1942) is an American businessman, philanthropist, and the founder of Bloomberg L.P., currently serving as the Mayor of New York City. ... Pedro Mir Pedro Julio Mir Valentín (3 June 1913, San Pedro de Macorís – 11 July 2000, Santo Domingo). ...


In a ceremony held on May 6, 2007, at Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx, 889 unidentified fragments of human remains of the victims of the crash were entombed in a group of four mausoleum crypts.[7] May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (127th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... Located in The Bronx, Woodlawn Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries in New York City. ... The Bronx is New York Citys northernmost borough. ...


Families and friends of those deceased in the accident are encouraged to write to congress demanding an independent investigation of events as the NTSB has dismissed eye witness accounts entirely, which may have lead to false interpretation of FDR and CVR data. Also, the NTSB has not accounted for several inconsistencies involving this incident.


Miscellaneous

  • Flight 587 no longer exists. The flight route designation of flights between Kennedy Airport and Las Americas Airport now are under Flight 619, Flight 635, and Flight 789.
  • Had the New York Yankees won Game 7 of the 2001 World Series, infielder Enrique Wilson would have flown home to the Dominican Republic and been aboard American Airlines Flight 587.[8] Mariano Rivera claims that he is glad that he blew the save in the bottom of the ninth because he now still has a friend.
  • One of the passengers killed on the flight was Hilda Yolanda Mayol, a 26-year-old woman on her way to vacation in her native Dominican Republic. Two months earlier, on September 11, Mayol was working at a restaurant on the ground floor of the World Trade Center, and escaped before the building collapsed.[9]
  • New Jersey Lottery holds two Pick-3 lottery drawings per day, and on the day of the crash, the numbers selected for the evening drawing were 5-8-7. The afternoon drawing was 5-7-8. So many people chose the combination for the evening draw that the prize was $16 for each 'winner', whereas $275 is the typical straight bet payout for Pick-3.[10]

Public transport service numbering is a means of identifying a particular transport service or route. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) East Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 23, 32, 37, 44, 49 Name New York Yankees (1913–present) New York Highlanders (1903-1912) Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902) (Also referred to as... Dates October 27, 2001–November 4, 2001 MVP Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling (Arizona) Television network FOX Announcers Joe Buck and Tim McCarver Umpires Steve Rippley, Dana DeMuth, Dale Scott, Mark Hirschbeck, Jim Joyce, Ed Rapuano The 2001 World Series (the November Series) took place between the Arizona Diamondbacks and... An infielder is a baseball player who plays on the infield, the dirt portion of a baseball diamond between first base and third base. ... Enrique Wilson Martes (born July 27, 1973 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) is a former Major League Baseball infielder. ... Mariano Rivera (born November 29, 1969 in Panama City, Panama) is a relief pitcher for Major League Baseballs New York Yankees. ... This article is about the former World Trade Center (Twin Towers) in New York City. ... The New Jersey Lottery is run by the state of New Jersey. ...

TV

The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... Horizon is a long-running BBC popular science and history documentary programme, notable for coining the term supervolcano. ... The National Geographic Channel is a subscription television network that features documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society. ... Logo of the documentary Seconds from Disaster Seconds From Disaster is a documentary that investigates the worst man-made disasters and several natural disasters in modern history, and analyses the causes and events that led up to each disaster. ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also

// Accidents and incidents on commercial aircraft grouped by the year that the incident or accident occurred. ...

References

  1. ^ FDNY Responds: Flight 587 Crashes in the Rockaways, accessed January 1, 2007.
  2. ^ In-Flight Separation of Vertical Stabilizer; American Airlines Flight 587; Airbus Industrie A300-605R, N14053; Belle Harbor, New York; November 12, 2001, National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aircraft Accident Report NTSB/AAR-04/04 of October 26, 2004.
  3. ^ a b c "NTSB Press Release". October 26, 2004. Accessed December 6, 2005.
  4. ^ Flt. 587 kin, nabe split over marker: Qns. crash tears mix with anger, New York Daily News, November 12, 2006.
  5. ^ Flight 587 Memorial Dedicated in Rockaways, WNYC, accessed November 16, 2006.
  6. ^ "5 years later, a memorial for victims of New York plane crash that killed 265", International Herald Tribune via the Associated Press, November 12, 2006.
  7. ^ Lee, Trymaine. "Only 4 Coffins, but 265 Victims Are Mourned at Mass in the Bronx", The New York Times, May 7, 2007. Accessed May 7, 2007. "Red roses in hand, about 45 mourners emerged yesterday from a Spanish-language Mass and walked a quarter-mile to a majestic mausoleum at Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx.... More than five years after American Airlines Flight 587 crashed in Belle Harbor, Queens, killing 265 people, 889 fragments of human remains were placed in four coffins and finally laid to rest behind a wall of granite last week."
  8. ^ Sometimes, ballpark not best place to be, Times Herald-Record, September 26, 2004.
  9. ^ Claim: A woman who survived the destruction of the World Trade Center died on American Airlines Flight 587 just two months later. Status: True., Snopes.com, last updated November 15, 2001.
  10. ^ 587 Is Winning Number in N.J. Lottery, Fox News, November 13, 2001. "In a morbid coincidence, the winning number in one of the New Jersey Lottery's games Monday was the same as the number of the American Airlines flight that crashed in Queens earlier in the day: 587."
  11. ^ Seconds From Disaster: Plane Crash In Queens, accessed April 13, 2007.

January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... WNYC are the call letters for two public radio stations in New York City. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... The Times Herald Record, often referred to as just The Record in its coverage area, is a daily newspaper published in Middletown, New York. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Urban Legends Reference Pages, also known as snopes. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ...

External links

  • NTSB Cockpit Voice Recorder Transcript
  • Satellite view of crash site from Google Maps
  • BBC documentary on crash
  • Getting Harder To Maintain The Fiction On AA 587
  • NTSB - American Airlines Flight 587, Official site for the National Transportation and Safety Board investigative hearings on the crash
  • Debunking of rumors about terrorists causing the crash (from Snopes.com)
  • Images of the crash scene
  • Alternative theory suggesting a sabotaged thrust reverser caused the crash
  • Photos of the plane involved in the accident and of the crash scene from Airliners.net
  • Flight 587 Memorial Project
  • Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident
  • Irish evening news bulletin from the day, which details initial speculation and other information (RTÉ)

Coordinates: 40°34′38″N, 73°51′02″W The Urban Legends Reference Pages (also known as snopes. ... German supply train blown up by the Armia Krajowa during World War II Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy, oppressor or employer through subversion, obstruction, disruption, and/or destruction. ... KLM Fokker 70 with reverse thrust applied. ... Airliners. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC - Science & Nature - Horizon - Flight 587 (764 words)
The airline and the manufacturer blame each other for creating a situation in which the stress on the rudder and tailfin exceeded the so-called ultimate load, the worst-case scenario set by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
Airbus Industrie argue that American Airlines' training programme contributed to the crash by teaching pilots to use the rudder in certain instances.
The airline counters that their pilots were safely trained and that there is evidence Airbus failed to inform them about potential dangers with the rudder design, evidence that was available from earlier incidents.
American Airlines and Airbus feud over cause of fin separation on AA587 (1689 words)
American, the only U.S. airline to use that type of Airbus plane for passenger service, claims Airbus didn't alert it to the danger of sharp rudder movements until after the crash.
American has waged an aggressive campaign in recent weeks to convince the NTSB board, its staff and the agency's investigative staff that the plane's manufacturer hid damning evidence of previous incidents involving the rudder of the same aircraft model.
American's last-minute lobbying has succeeded in raising fresh doubts among some board members about whether American, Airbus SAS and the board communicated effectively about safe operation of the A300-600's rudder, according to sources familiar with the investigation who spoke on condition of anonymity because the findings were not official yet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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