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Encyclopedia > Amelogenin

Amelogenin is a gene-specific, low-molecular-weight protein found in tooth enamel, and it belongs to a family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Although less than 5% of enamel consists of protein, amelogenins comprise 90% of all enamel protein. Although not completely understood, the function of amelogenins is believed to be in organizing enamel rods during tooth development. The latest research indicates that this protein regulates the initiation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals during the mineralization of enamel. In addition, amelogenins appear to aid in the development of cementum by directing cells that form cementum to the root surface of teeth. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin and cementum is one of the three major parts of the tooth. ... In biology, extracellular matrix (ECM) is any material part of a tissue that is not part of any cell. ... An Enamel rod is the basic unit of enamel. ... Radiograph of lower right (from left to right) third, second, and first molars in different stages of development. ... Hydroxylapatite is a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules. ... Cementum is a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth. ...


Other significant proteins in enamel are ameloblastins, enamelins, and tuftelins. Ameloblastin, also known as amelin, is a gene-specific protein found in tooth enamel. ... Enamelin is a protein found at low concentration in developing tooth enameltooth enamel. ... Tuftelin is an acidic phosphorylated glycoprotein found in tooth enamel. ...


The gene for amelogenin can be used in sex determination of samples from unknown human origin through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Using primers specific for intron 1 of the gene, the gene sequence for the intron can be amplified. The X chromosome gives rise to a 542 bp amplification product; however, intron 1 of the amelogenin gene contains a 184 bp deletion on the Y chromosome, giving rise to a 358 bp length fragment. Therefore, when the amplification products are run on an agarose gel, samples from male sources (XY) will show two bands on an agarose gel (one for the 542 bp fragment and one for the 358 bp fragment), while females (XX) will show only one band. Thus, this process allows for sex determination of unknown samples. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Primer can refer to more than one thing: In molecular biology, a primer is nucleic acid strand (or related molecule) that serves as a starting point for DNA replication. ... Diagram of the location of introns and exons within a gene. ... The X chromosome is one of the two sex chromosomes in mammals (the other is the Y chromosome). ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... A polysaccharide obtained from agar that is the most widely used medium for gel electrophoresis procedures. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amelogenin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (288 words)
Amelogenin is a low-molecular-weight protein found in developing tooth enamel, and it belongs to a family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins.
Although not completely understood, the function of amelogenins is believed to be in organizing enamel rods during tooth development.
In addition, amelogenins appear to aid in the development of cementum by directing cells that form cementum to the root surface of teeth.
Palaeos Vertebrates: Bones: Teeth: Overview-2 (1546 words)
However, their model is all based on the homologues of a single, very small, exon (transcribed gene segment) which codes for a peptide (short sequence of amino acids) involved in protein transport through the endoplasmic reticulum.
There is no indication that this peptide is one of the functional components of amelogenin, once exported, and there is no reason to believe that it can serve as a phylogenetic proxy for the rest of the protein.
That is, rather than amelogenin dropping like gentle rain from epithelial ameloblasts outside the basal lamina, other proteins, rising like writhing worms from odontoblasts in the depths of the underlying mesenchyme, form some or all of the protein matrix.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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