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Encyclopedia > Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani

Birth name Amedeo Modigliani
Born July 12, 1884
Livorno, Tuscany
Died January 24, 1920
Paris, France
Nationality Italian
Field Painting
Training Accademia di Belle Arti, Istituto di Belle Arti
Movement Primitive art
Famous works Madame Pompadour
Jeanne Hébuterne in Red Shawl

Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884January 24, 1920) was an Italian artist, practicing both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. Modigliani was born in Livorno (historically referred to in English as Leghorn), in Central Italy and began his artistic studies in Italy before moving to Paris in 1906. Influenced by the artists in his circle of friends and associates, by a range of genres and art movements, and by primitive art, Modigliani's œuvre was nonetheless unique and idiosyncratic. He died in Paris of tubercular meningitis— exacerbated by poverty, overworking, and an excessive use of alcohol and narcotics — at the age of 35. Image File history File links Modigliani1918. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... The Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, Italy, is the oldest art school in the world, and the home of Michelangelos statue, David. ... Naïve art is a term that is usually applied to the work of untrained painters; it presumes the existence of an academy and of a generally accepted educated manner of painting. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practising the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... For building painting, see painter and decorator. ... A sculpture is a three-dimensional object, which for the purposes of this article is man-made and selected for special recognition as art. ... Livorno, sometimes in English Leghorn, (population 170,000) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ... Central Italy, encompasses six of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Abruzzo Lazio Marche Molise Toscana Umbria Although the regions of Abruzzo and Molise are geographically located in Central Italy, the European office for statistics (Eurostat) lists these two regions within Southern Italy. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Look up genre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or... Naïve art is a term that is usually applied to the work of untrained painters; it presumes the existence of an academy and of a generally accepted educated manner of painting. ... In fine art, a work of art (or artwork or work) is a creation, such as a song, book, sculpture or a painting, that has been made in order to be a thing of beauty in itself or a symbolic statement of meaning, rather than having a practical function. ... In predicate logic and technical fields that depend on it, uniqueness quantification, or unique existential quantification, is an attempt to formalise the notion of something being true for exactly one thing, or exactly one thing of a certain type. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Colloquially, a workaholic is a person who is addicted to work. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ...

Contents

Early life

Amedeo Modigliani was born into a Jewish family at Livorno, in Tuscany. Livorno was still a relatively new city, by Italian standards, in the late 19th century. The Livorno that Modigliani knew was a bustling centre of commerce focused upon seafaring and shipwrighting, but its cultural history lay in being a refuge for those persecuted for their religion. His own maternal great-great-grandfather was one Solomon Garsin, a Jew who had immigrated to Livorno in the eighteenth century as a religious refugee.[1] The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...


Modigliani was the fourth child of Flaminio Modigliani and his wife, Eugenia Garsin. His father was in the money-changing business, but when the business went bankrupt, the family lived in dire poverty. In fact, Amedeo's birth saved the family from certain ruin, as, according to an ancient law, creditors could not seize the bed of a pregnant woman or a mother with a newborn child. When bailiffs entered the family home, just as Eugenia went into labour, the family protected their most valuable assets by piling them on top of the expectant mother.


Modigliani had a particularly close relationship with his mother, who taught her son at home until he was ten. Beset with health problems after an attack of pleurisy when he was about eleven, a few years later he developed a case of typhoid fever. Then when he was roughly sixteen he was taken ill with pleurisy again, and it was then that he contracted the tuberculosis which was to eventually claim his life. Each time it was his mother’s, Eugenia, intensive care of him which pulled him through. After Modigliani had recovered, from the second bout of pleurisy, his mother took him on a tour of southern Italy; Naples, Capri, Rome, and Amalfi, then back north to Florence, and Venice.[2][3][4] Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration and other symptoms. ... For a related disease which is caused by a different bacterium, see Paratyphoid fever. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Capri (Italian pronunciation Cápri, usual English pronunciation Caprí) is an Italian island off the Sorrentine Peninsula. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ...


His mother was, in many ways, instrumental in his ability to pursue art as a vocation. When he was eleven years of age, she had noted in her diary that:

The child's character is still so unformed that I cannot say what I think of it. He behaves like a spoiled child, but he does not lack intelligence. We shall have to wait and see what is inside this chrysalis. Perhaps an artist?[5]

Art student years

Modigliani is known to have drawn and painted from a very early age, and thought himself "already a painter", his mother wrote,[6] even before beginning formal studies. Despite her misgivings that launching him on a course of studying art would impinge upon his other studies, his mother indulged the young Modigliani's passion for the subject.


At the age of fourteen, while sick with the typhoid fever, he raved in his delirium that he wanted, above all else, to see the paintings in the Palazzo Pitti and the Uffizi in Florence. As Livorno's local museum only housed a sparse few paintings by the Italian Renaissance masters, the tales he had heard about the great works held in Florence intrigued him, and it was a source of considerable despair to him, in his sickened state, that he might never get the chance to view them in person. His mother promised that she would take him to Florence herself, the moment he was recovered. Not only did she fulfil this promise, but she also undertook to enrol him with the best painting master in Livorno, Guglielmo Micheli. Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865–71, when Florence was the capital of Italy. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...


Micheli and the Macchiaioli

Modigliani worked in Micheli's Art School from 1898 to 1900. Here his earliest formal artistic instruction took place in an atmosphere deeply steeped in a study of the styles and themes of nineteenth-century Italian art. In his earliest Parisian work, traces of this influence, and that of his studies of Renaissance art, can still be seen: artists such as Giovanni Boldini figure just as much in this nascent work as do those of Toulouse-Lautrec. Renaissance Classicism was a form of art that removed extraneous detail and showed the world as it was. ... Giovanni Boldini (1910) Giovanni Boldini (December 31, 1842 – July 11, 1931) was an Italian genre and portrait painter, belonging to the Parisian school. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (November 24, 1864 - September 9, 1901) was a French painter. ...


Modigliani showed great promise while with Micheli, and only ceased his studies when he was forced to, by the onset of tuberculosis.


In 1901, whilst in Rome, Modigliani admired the work of Domenico Morelli, a painter of melodramatic Biblical studies and scenes from great literature. It is ironic that he should be so struck by Morelli, as this painter had served as an inspiration for a group of iconoclasts who went by the title, the Macchiaioli (from macchia—"dash of colour", or, more derogatively, "stain"), and Modigliani had already been exposed to the influences of the Macchiaioli. This minor, localized art movement was possessed of a need to react against the bourgeois stylings of the academic genre painters. While sympathetically connected to (and actually pre-dating) the French Impressionists, the Macchiaioli did not make the same impact upon international art culture as did the followers of Monet, and are today largely forgotten outside of Italy. Domenico was a very talented painter. ... Hay stacks by Giovanni Fattori a leading artist in the Macchiaioli movement The Macchiaioli movement was a school of 19th century Tuscan painters originating from the 1850s. ... Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists who began publicly exhibiting their art in the 1860s. ... Oscar-Claude Monet (November 14, 1840 - December 5, 1926), French impressionist painter. ...


Modigliani's connection with the movement was through Guglielmo Micheli, his first art teacher. Micheli was not only a Macchiaioli himself, but had been a pupil of the famous Giovanni Fattori, a founder of the movement. Micheli's work, however, was so fashionable and the genre so commonplace that the young Modigliani reacted against it, preferring to ignore the obsession with landscape that, as with French Impressionism, characterized the movement. Micheli also tried to encourage his pupils to paint en plein air, but Modigliani never really got a taste for this style of working, sketching in cafés, but preferring to paint indoors, and especially in his own studio. Even when compelled to paint landscapes (three are known to exist),[7] Modigliani chose a proto-Cubist palette more akin to Cézanne than to the Macchiaioli. Giovanni Fattori, Self-Portrait painted in 1854 Giovanni Fattori was a Florentine artist born in Livorno Sept. ... Vase of Flowers (1876) Oil on canvas Paul Cézanne (January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906) was a French painter who represents the bridge from impressionism to cubism. ...


While with Micheli, Modigliani not only studied landscape, but also portraiture, still-life, and the nude. His fellow students recall that the latter was where he displayed his greatest talent, and apparently this was not an entirely academic pursuit for the teenager: when not painting nudes, he was occupied with seducing the household maid.[8]

Despite his rejection of the Macchiaioli approach, Modigliani nonetheless found favour with his teacher, who referred to him as "Superman", a pet name reflecting the fact that Modigliani was not only quite adept at his art, but also that he regularly quoted from Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Fattori himself would often visit the studio, and approved of the young artist's innovations.[9] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (486x804, 22 KB)Amedeo Modiglianis drawing of Anna Akhmatova (1911). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (486x804, 22 KB)Amedeo Modiglianis drawing of Anna Akhmatova (1911). ... Akhmatova in the 1920s Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23, 1889 [O.S. June 11] — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of St Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry in the course of half a century. ... “Also sprach Zarathustra” redirects here. ...


In 1902, Modigliani continued what was to be a life-long infatuation with life drawing, enrolling in the Accademia di Belle Arti (Scuola Libera di Nudo, or "Free School of Nude Studies") in Florence. A year later while still suffering from tuberculosis, he moved to Venice, where he registered to study at the Istituto di Belle Arti. The Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, Italy, is the oldest art school in the world, and the home of Michelangelos statue, David. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ...


It is in Venice that he first smoked hashish and, rather than studying, began to spend time frequenting disreputable parts of the city. The impact of these lifestyle choices upon his developing artistic style is open to conjecture, although these choices do seem to be more than simple teenage rebellion, or the cliched hedonism and bohemianism that was almost expected of artists of the time; his pursuit of the seedier side of life appears to have roots in his appreciation of radical philosophies, such as those of Nietzsche. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Teenage rebellion occurs when teenagers openly refuse to acknowledge authority exercised by adults, police, and other positions of power that are generally exclusive only to people who exceed the age of 30. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... The term bohemian was first used in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philosopher. ...


Early literary influences

Having been exposed to erudite philosophical literature as a young boy under the tutelage of Isaco Garsin, his maternal grandfather, he continued to read and be influenced through his art studies by the writings of Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Carducci, Comte de Lautréamont, and others, and developed the belief that the only route to true creativity was through defiance and disorder. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a German philosopher. ... Charles Baudelaire Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821–August 31, 1867) was one of the most influential French poets. ... Giosuè Carducci. ... Lautréamont Comte de Lautréamont was the pen name of Isidore Lucien Ducasse (April 4, 1846 – November 24, 1870), a French poet whose only work, Les Chants de Maldoror, had a major influence on modern literature, and in particular on the Surrealist movement. ...


Letters that he wrote from his 'sabbatical' in Capri in 1901 clearly indicate that he is being more and more influenced by the thinking of Nietzsche. In these letters, he advised friend Oscar Ghiglia, Oscar Ghiglia (b. ...

(hold sacred all) which can exalt and excite your intelligence... (and) ... seek to provoke ... and to perpetuate ... these fertile stimuli, because they can push the intelligence to its maximum creative power.[10]

The work of Lautréamont was equally influential at this time. This doomed poet's Les Chants de Maldoror became the seminal work for the Parisian Surrealists of Modigliani's generation, and the book became Modigliani's favourite to the extent that he learnt it by heart.[11] The poetry of Lautréamont is characterized by the juxtaposition of fantastical elements, and by sadistic imagery; the fact that Modigliani was so taken by this text in his early teens gives a good indication of his developing tastes. Baudelaire and D'Annunzio similarly appealed to the young artist, with their interest in corrupted beauty, and the expression of that insight through Symbolist imagery. Comte de Lautréamont is a pseudonym for Isidore Lucien Ducasse (Montevideo, Uruguay, April 4, 1846 - Paris, November 24, 1870), a French poet and writer. ... Les Chants de Maldoror (The Songs of Maldoror) is a poetic novel written in 1868 by the Comte de Lautreamont (Isidore Ducasse). ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... Charles Baudelaire Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821–August 31, 1867) was one of the most influential French poets. ... Gabriele DAnnunzio (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938) was an Italian poet, dramatist, daredevil and war hero, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Reclining Nude, 1917.
Reclining Nude, 1917.

Modigliani wrote to Ghiglia extensively from Capri, where his mother had taken him to assist in his recovery from the tuberculosis. These letters are a sounding board for the developing ideas brewing in Modigliani's mind. Ghiglia was seven years Modigliani's senior, and it is likely that it was he who showed the young man the limits of his horizons in Livorno. Like all precocious teenagers, Modigliani preferred the company of older companions, and Ghiglia's role in his adolescence was to be a sympathetic ear as he worked himself out, principally in the convoluted letters that he regularly sent, and which survive today.[12] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 511 pixelsFull resolution (3200 × 2043 pixel, file size: 438 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amedeo Modigliani User:Jod-let ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 511 pixelsFull resolution (3200 × 2043 pixel, file size: 438 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amedeo Modigliani User:Jod-let ...

Dear friend

I write to pour myself out to you and to affirm myself to myself.


I am the prey of great powers that surge forth and then disintegrate...


A bourgeois told me today - insulted me - that I or at least my brain was lazy. It did me good. I should like such a warning every morning upon awakening: but they cannot understand us nor can they understand life...[13] Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ...

Paris

Arrival

In 1906 Modigliani moved to Paris, then the focal point of the avant-garde. In fact, his arrival at the epicentre of artistic experimentation coincided with the arrival of two other foreigners who were also to leave their marks upon the art world: Gino Severini and Juan Gris. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Gino Severini (April 7, 1883 – February 26, 1966), was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. ... The Sunblind, 1914, Tate Gallery. ...

Portrait of Maude Abrantes, 1907
Portrait of Maude Abrantes, 1907

He settled in Le Bateau-Lavoir, a commune for penniless artists in Montmartre, renting himself a studio in Rue Caulaincourt. Even though this artists' quarter of Montmartre was characterized by generalized poverty, Modigliani himself presented - initially, at least - as one would expect the son of a family trying to maintain the appearances of its lost financial standing to present: his wardrobe was dapper without ostentation, and the studio he rented was appointed in a style appropriate to someone with a finely attuned taste in plush drapery and Renaissance reproductions. He soon made efforts to assume the guise of the bohemian artist, but, even in his brown corduroys, scarlet scarf and large black hat, he continued to appear as if he were slumming it, having fallen upon harder times.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Le Bateau-Lavoir was a squalid block of buildings in Montmartre, Paris situated at 13 Rue Ravignan (Place Emile Goudeau). ... A Commune is a kind of intentional community where most resources are shared and there is little or no personal property. ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ...


When he first arrived in Paris, he wrote home regularly to his mother, he sketched his nudes at the Colarossi school, and he drank wine in moderation. He was at that time considered by those who knew him as a bit reserved, verging on the asocial.[15] He is noted to have commented, upon meeting Picasso who, at the time, was wearing his trademark workmen's clothes, that even though the man was a genius, that did not excuse his uncouth appearance.[16] Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ...


Transformation

Within a year of arriving in Paris, however, his demeanour and reputation had changed dramatically. He transformed himself from a dapper academician artist into a sort of prince of vagabonds.


The poet and journalist Louis Latourette, upon visiting the artist's previously well-appointed studio after his transformation, discovered the place in upheaval, the Renaissance reproductions discarded from the walls, the plush drapes in disarray. Modigliani was already an alcoholic and a drug addict by this time, and his studio reflected this. Modigliani's behaviour at this time sheds some light upon his developing style as an artist, in that the studio had become almost a sacrificial effigy for all that he resented about the academic art that had marked his life and his training up to that point.


Not only did he remove all the trappings of his bourgeois heritage from his studio, but he also set about destroying practically all of his own early work. He explained this extraordinary course of actions to his astonished neighbours thus:

Childish baubles, done when I was a dirty bourgeois.[17]
Portrait of Jaques and Berthe Lipchitz, 1916
Portrait of Jaques and Berthe Lipchitz, 1916

The motivation for this violent rejection of his earlier self is the subject of considerable speculation. The self-destructive tendencies may have stemmed from his tuberculosis and the knowledge (or presumption) that the disease had essentially marked him for an early death; within the artists' quarter, many faced the same sentence, and the typical response was to set about enjoying life while it lasted, principally by indulging in self-destructive actions. For Modigliani such behavior may have been a response to a lack of recognition; it is known that he sought the company of other alcoholic artists such as Utrillo and Soutine, seeking acceptance and validation for his work from his colleagues.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 394 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2395 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amedeo Modigliani ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 394 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2395 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amedeo Modigliani ... Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon, (December 25, 1883 - November 5, 1955) was a French painter who specialized in cityscapes. ... Chaim Soutine (1893 – August 9, 1943) was an expressionist painter. ...


Modigliani's behavior stood out even in these Bohemian surroundings: he carried on frequent affairs, drank heavily, and used absinthe and hashish. While drunk he would sometimes strip himself naked at social gatherings.[19] He became the epitome of the tragic artist, creating a posthumous legend almost as well-known as that of Vincent van Gogh. The term bohemian was first used in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. ... Vincent Willem van Gogh (Dutch pronunciation: ) (March 30, 1853 – July 29, 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist artist. ...


During the 1920s, in the wake of Modigliani's career and spurred on by comments by Andre Salmon crediting hashish and absinthe with the genesis of Modigliani's style, many hopefuls tried to emulate his 'success' by embarking on a path of substance abuse and bohemian excess. Salmon claimed—erroneously—that whereas Modigliani was a totally pedestrian artist when sober, André Salmon (October 4, 1881, Paris - March 12, 1969, Sanary-sur-Mer in Provence) was a French poet, art critic and writer. ...

...from the day that he abandoned himself to certain forms of debauchery, an unexpected light came upon him, transforming his art. From that day on, he became one who must be counted among the masters of living art.[20]

While this propaganda served as a rallying cry to those with a romantic longing to be a tragic, doomed artist, these strategies did not produce unique artistic insights or techniques in those who did not already have them.


In fact, art historians suggest[21] that it is entirely possible for Modigliani to have achieved even greater artistic heights had he not been immured in, and destroyed by, his own self-indulgences. We can only speculate what he might have accomplished had he emerged intact from his self-destructive explorations.


Output

During his early years in Paris, Modigliani worked at a furious pace. He was constantly sketching, making as many as a hundred drawings a day. However, many of his works were lost - destroyed by him as inferior, left behind in his frequent changes of address, or given to girlfriends who did not keep them.[19]


He was first influenced by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, but around 1907 he became fascinated with the work of Paul Cézanne. Eventually he developed his own unique style, one that cannot be adequately categorized with other artists. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec [äNrÄ“ du tOOlOOz lōtrek] (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... Paul Cézanne (IPA: , January 19, 1839 – October 22, 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. ...


He met the first serious love of his life, Russian poet Anna Akhmatova, in 1910, when he was 26. They had studios in the same building, and although 21-year-old Anna was recently married, they began an affair.[citation needed] Tall (Modigliani was only 5 foot 5 inches) with dark hair (like Modigliani's), pale skin and grey-green eyes, she embodied Modigliani's aesthetic ideal and the pair became engrossed in each other. After a year, however, Anna returned to her husband. Akhmatova in the 1920s Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23, 1889 [O.S. June 11] — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of St Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry in the course of half a century. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Sculpture

Head (1911) Note the influence of Cambodian art in this sculpture.

In 1909, Modigliani returned home to Livorno, sickly and tired from his wild lifestyle. Soon he was back in Paris, this time renting a studio in Montparnasse. He originally saw himself as a sculptor rather than a painter, and was encouraged to continue after Paul Guillaume, an ambitious young art dealer, took an interest in his work and introduced him to sculptor Constantin Brancusi. Download high resolution version (357x1034, 36 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... Download high resolution version (357x1034, 36 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... For a one-room apartment, see Apartment. ... The Montparnasse Tower, which at 209m was the tallest building in Western Europe when it was built. ... Constantin Brancusi Constantin Brancusi (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957, originally Constantin Brâncuşi IPA: ), was a Romanian sculptor, born in Hobiţa, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, where he placed his sculptural ensemble with The Table of Silence, The Gate of the Kiss and The Endless Column. ...


Although a series of Modigliani's sculptures were exhibited in the Salon d'Automne of 1912, he abandoned sculpting and focused solely on his painting. First Salon dAutomne Catalog In 1903, the first Salon dAutomne (Fall Salon) was organized as a reaction to the conservative policies of the official Paris Salon. ...


Question of influences

In Modigliani's art, there is evidence of the influence of primitive art from Africa and Cambodia which he may have seen in the Musée de l'Homme, but his stylizations are just as likely to have been the result of his being surrounded by Mediæval sculpture during his studies in Northern Italy (there is no recorded information from Modigliani himself, as there is with Picasso and others, to confirm the contention that he was influenced by either ethnic or any other kind of sculpture). A possible interest in African tribal masks seems to be evident in his portraits. In both his painting and sculpture, the sitters' faces resemble ancient Egyptian painting in their flat and mask-like appearance, with distinctive almond eyes, pursed mouths, twisted noses, and elongated necks. However these same characteristics are shared by Mediæval European sculpture and painting. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Musée de lHomme (French for Museum of Man) was created in 1937 by Paul Rivet, for the event of the Worlds Fair. ... A young Pablo Picasso Pablo Picasso, formally Pablo Ruiz Picasso, (October 25, 1881 - April 8, 1973) was one of the recognized masters of 20th century art. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mask. ...


Modigliani painted a series of portraits of contemporary artists and friends in Montparnasse: Chaim Soutine, Moise Kisling, Pablo Picasso, Diego Rivera, Marie "Marevna" Vorobyev-Stebeslka, Juan Gris, Max Jacob, Blaise Cendrars, and Jean Cocteau, all sat for stylized renditions. Chaim Soutine (1893 – August 9, 1943) was an expressionist painter. ... Moise Kisling (January 22, 1891 - April 29, 1953) was a Polish painter. ... Pablo Ruiz Picasso (October 25, 1881 – April 8, 1973) was a Spanish painter and sculptor. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957), (full name Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez) was a Mexican painter and muralist born in Guanajuato City, Guanajuato. ... Marie Vorobieff-Stebelska (1892 in Cheboksary, Russia - 4 May 1984 in London, Great Britain) – the nickname Marevna reputedly having been given her by Maxim Gorky after a Russian fairy sea princess – was a cubist painter who is internationally noted for convincingly combining elements of cubism (called by her Dimensionalism) with... The Sunblind, 1914, Tate Gallery. ... In 1915, Max Jacob and Pablo Picasso Max Jacob (July 12, 1876 – March 5, 1944) was a French poet, painter, writer, and critic. ... Frédéric Louis Sauser (September 1, 1887 – January 21, 1961), better known as Blaise Cendrars, was a Swiss novelist and poet naturalized French in 1916. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ...


At the outset of World War I, Modigliani tried to enlist in the army but was refused because of his poor health. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


The war years

Madame Pompadour by Modigliani

Known as Modì, which translates as 'cursed' (maudit), by many Parisians, but as Dedo to his family and friends, Modigliani was a handsome man, and attracted much female attention. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States. ...


Women came and went until Beatrice Hastings entered his life. She stayed with him for almost two years, was the subject for several of his portraits, including Madame Pompadour, and the object of much of his drunken wrath.[citation needed]


When the British painter Nina Hamnett arrived in Montparnasse in 1914, on her first evening there the smiling man at the next table in the café introduced himself as Modigliani; painter and Jew. They became great friends. Nina Hamnett (February 14, 1890 - December 16, 1956) was an artist and writer, known as the Queen of Bohemia. ... Coffeehouse in Damascus A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ...


In 1916, Modigliani befriended the Polish poet and art dealer Leopold Zborovski and his wife Anna. Leopold Zborovski was a Polish poet and art dealer who, with his wife Anna, was contemporaries with the late 1800s early 1900s Paris artists such as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Cezanne, and André Derain. ...


Jeanne Hébuterne

Jeanne Hébuterne in Red Shawl

The following summer, the Russian sculptor Chana Orloff introduced him to a beautiful 19-year-old art student named Jeanne Hébuterne who had posed for Tsuguharu Foujita. From a conservative bourgeois background, Hébuterne was renounced by her devout Roman Catholic family for her liaison with the painter, whom they saw as little more than a debauched derelict, and, worse yet, a Jew. Despite her family's objections, soon they were living together, and although Hébuterne was the love of his life, their public scenes became more renowned than Modigliani's individual drunken exhibitions.[citation needed] Jeanne Hebuterne in Red Shawl The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... Jeanne Hebuterne in Red Shawl The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 70 years or less. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Leonard Tsuguharu Foujita, also known as Fujita (藤田 嗣治, November 27, 1886–January 29, 1968) was a painter and engraver born in Tokyo, Japan who applied French oil techniques to Japanese-style paintings. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope · Peter Waldo Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman...


On December 3, 1917, Modigliani's first one-man exhibition opened at the Berthe Weill Gallery. The chief of the Paris police was scandalized by Modigliani's nudes and forced him to close the exhibition within a few hours after its opening. December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Art exhibitions are traditionally the space in which art objects (in the most general sense) meet an audience, a temporary presentation of art. ...


After he and Hébuterne moved to Nice, she became pregnant and on November 29, 1918 gave birth to a daughter whom they named Jeanne (1918-1984). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Nice

During a trip to Nice, conceived and organized by Leopold Zborovski, Modigliani, Foujita and other artists tried to sell their works to rich tourists. Modigliani managed to sell a few pictures but only for a few francs each. Despite this, during this time he produced most of the paintings that later became his most popular and valued works. A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ...


During his lifetime he sold a number of his works, but never for any great amount of money. What funds he did receive soon vanished for his habits.


In May of 1919 he returned to Paris, where, with Hébuterne and their daughter, he rented an apartment in the rue de la Grande Chaumière. While there, both Jeanne Hébuterne and Amedeo Modigliani painted portraits of each other, and of themselves.


Death

Last days

Although he continued to paint, Modigliani's health was deteriorating rapidly, and his alcohol-induced blackouts became more frequent. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ...


In 1920, after not hearing from him for several days, his downstairs neighbor checked on the family and found Modigliani in bed delirious and holding onto Hébuterne who was nearly nine months pregnant. They summoned a doctor, but little could be done because Modigliani was dying of the then-incurable disease tubercular meningitis. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


Modigliani died on January 24, 1920. There was an enormous funeral, attended by many from the artistic communities in Montmartre and Montparnasse. 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... The Montparnasse Tower, which at 209m was the tallest building in Western Europe when it was built. ...


Hébuterne was taken to her parents' home, where, inconsolable, she threw herself out of a fifth-floor window two days after Modigliani's death, killing herself and her unborn child. Modigliani was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery. Hébuterne was buried at the Cimetière de Bagneux near Paris, and it was not until 1930 that her embittered family allowed her body to be moved to rest beside Modigliani. Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced pierre la-sh-ez) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ... Located to the southwest of the city of Paris, France, the Cimetière de Bagneux is located at 44, avenue Marx-Dormoy, in Montrouge, Hauts-de-Seine. ...


Modigliani died penniless and destitute—managing only one solo exhibition in his life and giving his work away in exchange for meals in restaurants. Had he lived through the 1920s when American buyers flooded Paris, his fortunes might well have changed. Since his death his reputation has soared. Nine novels, a play, a documentary and three feature films have been devoted to his life. 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


See also

  • Painting the Century 101 Portrait Masterpieces 1900-2000

Painting The Century 101 Portrait Masterpieces 1900-2000 was a major international exhibition held at the National Portrait Gallery in London in 2000-2001 that exhibited a work for each year of the Twentieth Century. ...

Legacy

Modigliani's sister in Florence adopted their 15-month old daughter, Jeanne (1918-1984). As an adult, she wrote a biography of her father titled, Modigliani: Man and Myth.


Two films have been made about Modigliani; in 1958 Jacques Becker directed Les Amants de Montparnasse and in 2004 the film Modigliani by Michael Davis starred Andy Garcia as Modigliani. Jacques Becker (September 15, 1906 - February 21, 1960) was a French screenwriter and film director. ... Les Amants de Montparnasse is a French/Italian film chronicling the last year of the life of the Italian painter Amedeo Modigliani who worked and died in abject poverty in the Montparnasse Quarter of Paris, France. ... Michael Davis (born August 1, 1961 in Birmingham, England) is a British film director and screenwriter. ... Andy Garcia at the Incirlik hospital, Incirlik Air Base, December 7, 2001 Andy García (born April 12, 1956) is a Cuban-American actor. ...


Selected paintings

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Amedeo Modigliani

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Jean Cocteau Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... The Honolulu Academy of Arts is a fine art museum located near downtown Honolulu, Hawaii. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marios Varvoglis (Greek: Μάριος Βάρβογλης) (1885 – 1967) was a Greek composer of the Modern Era. ...

Selected sculptures

(Only 27 sculptures by Modigliani are known to exist.)

  • Head of a Woman (1910/1911).
  • Head (1911-1913).
  • Head (1911-1912).
  • Head (1912).
  • Rose Caryatid (1914).

References

  1. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 13. 
  2. ^ Fifield, William (19 Jun 1978). Modigliani: A Biography. W.H. Allen, 316. 
  3. ^ Diehl, Gaston (Reissue edition (Jul 1989)). Modigliani. Crown Pub, 96. 
  4. ^ Soby, James Thrall (Sep 1977). Amedeo Modigliani. New York: Arno P, 55. 
  5. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 14. 
  6. ^ Mann, Carol (1980). Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 12. ISBN 0-500-20176-5. 
  7. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 16. 
  8. ^ Mann, Carol (1980). Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 12. ISBN 0-500-20176-5. 
  9. ^ Mann, Carol (1980). Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 16. ISBN 0-500-20176-5. 
  10. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 17. 
  11. ^ Mann, Carol (1980). Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 16. ISBN 0-500-20176-5. 
  12. ^ Mann, Carol (1980). Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 19-22. ISBN 0-500-20176-5. 
  13. ^ Mann, Carol (1980). Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 20. ISBN 0-500-20176-5. 
  14. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 17. 
  15. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 17. 
  16. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 17. 
  17. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 19. 
  18. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 19. 
  19. ^ a b Werner, Alfred (1985). Amedeo Modigliani. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 24. ISBN 0-8109-1416-6. 
  20. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 20. 
  21. ^ Werner, Alfred (1967). Amedeo Modigliani. London: Thames and Hudson., 20. 

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Amedeo Modigliani
  • Hecht Museum
  • Modigliani: Beyond the Myth, The Jewish Museum, New York 2004
  • Modigliani and His Models, The Royal Academy of Arts, London 2006
  • Review of Exhibition of Modigliani at the Royal Academy of Arts, London
  • Review of Modigliani and his Models, Royal Academy of Arts, London, September 2006
  • Rats' teeth and empty eyes, a disparaging view of Modigliani's work in The Guardian's review of the RA show of 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Amedeo Modigliani (1532 words)
Thanks largely to Eugenia Modigliani, the atmosphere of the household was always unconventional; in 1898 the eldest son, Emmanuele, then aged twenty-six, was sentenced to six months imprisonment as an anarchist.
Modigliani got drunk on the way to register the child as his own, and she remained officially fatherless, though she was later adopted by his family in Italy.
Amedeo Modigliani: Portraits and Nudes, by Anette Kruszynski.
Amedeo Modigliani biography (2248 words)
Amedeo Modigliani was born in Livorno, Italy on July 12th, 1884 as the fourth son of Eugénie Garsin and Flaminio Modigliani.
Modigliani was greatly influenced by African art, to which many of his deformations of the human figure are due, most notably the elongation of faces.
In Modigliani's painting Jeanne Hébuterne wearing a straw hat the influence of Van Gogh is clearly visible by the prominent monochrome background, the thick, dark contours, the course, expressive brush strokes in the straw hat and the flatness of most of the painting.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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