FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Amchitka" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Amchitka
Amchitka Underground Test Site

Cannikin warhead being lowered into test shaft
Type Nuclear testing range
Location 51°28′N, 179°05′E
Operator United States Department of Energy
Status Inactive
In use 1965 – 1971
Remediation
status
2001 – 2025 (DoE estimate)
Testing
Thermonuclear
tests
3

Location of the site

Amchitka is a volcanic, tectonically unstable island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. It is about 68 kilometers long, and varies from 3 to 6 km in width.[1] It has a maritime climate, with many storms, and mostly overcast skies. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... The Rat Islands is a group of islands in the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska, between the Near Islands, to its west, and the Andreanof Islands group, to its east, at about 52° 6 North, 177° 36 West. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ...


The island was populated for more than 2,500 years by the Aleut people, but has had no permanent population since 1832. It was included in the Alaska Purchase of 1867, and has since been part of the United States. During World War II, it was used as an airfield by US forces in the Battle of the Aleutian Islands. The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax, Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A. and Chukotka, Russia. ... Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United States Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ...


Amchitka was selected by the United States Atomic Energy Commission to be the site for underground detonations of nuclear weapons. Three such tests were carried out: Long Shot, an 80 kiloton blast in 1965; Milrow, a 1 megaton blast in 1969; and Cannikin in 1971 — at "under 5 megatons", the largest underground test ever conducted by the United States. The tests were highly controversial, with environmental groups fearing that the Cannikin explosion, in particular, would cause severe earthquakes and tsunamis. Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... Underground nuclear testing refers to experiments with nuclear weapons that are performed underground. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... The tsunami that struck Malé in the Maldives on December 26, 2004. ...


Amchitka is no longer used for nuclear testing, although it is monitored for the leakage of radioactive materials. The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ...

Contents

Geography

Amchitka is the southernmost of the Rat Islands group in the Aleutian Chain,[1] located between 51°21′N, 178°37′E and 51°39′N, 179°29′E.[2] It is bounded by the Bering Sea to the north and east, and the Pacific Ocean to the south and west.[2] Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ...


The eastern part of the island is a lowland plateau, with isolated ponds[3] and gently rolling hills.[2] There is low but abundant vegetation,[2] consisting of mosses, lichens, liverworts, ferns, grasses, sedges, and crowberry.[3] The centre of the island is mountainous, and the western end is barren and vegetation is sparse.[2]


Amchitka has a maritime climate, often foggy and windswept, with cloud cover 98 percent of the time.[2] While temperatures are moderated by the ocean, storms are frequent.[4] Geologically, the island is volcanic, being a part of a small crustal block on the Aleutian Volcanic Arc that is being torn apart by oblique subduction. It is "one of the least stable tectonic environments in the United States."[5] World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ...


Early history

The human history of Amchitka dates back at least 2,500 years, with the Aleut people.[4][6] Human remains, thought to be of an Aleut and dating from about 1000 AD, were discovered in 1980.[7] The Aleuts (self-denomination: Unangax, Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, U.S.A. and Chukotka, Russia. ...


Amchitka is said to have been seen and named St Makarius by Bering in 1741, was sighted by Billings in 1790, and visited by Shishmaref in 1820.[8] Vitus Bering Vitus Jonassen Bering (also, less correctly, Behring) (August 1681–December 19, 1741) was a Danish-born navigator in the service of the Russian Navy, a captain-komandor known among the Russian sailors as Ivan Ivanovich. ... Joseph Billings (c. ...


In 1783, 15 Japanese castaways led by Daikokuya Kōdayū landed on the island. Within three years, six would die there. The castaways were under the protection of Russian workers whose leader was Nevisimov (ネビジモフ), an employee of a furrier in Moskva named Vassily Yakovlevic Zhigarev(ヴァシリー・ヤコブレヴィチ・ジガーレフ). The Japanese voluntarily started to work with Aluet people and observed a relationship between Russians and Aleuts. After they got back to Japan, one castaway, Isokichi(磯吉), told a Japanese scholar: "Russians robbed furs that Aluets got. If they got angry at Russians and did not get any furs or got few furs, the man got beaten nearly to death. If one man did not obey orders by Russians, he would be killed." The furs were divided one third each to Russian Empire, Vassily Zhigarev and the workers. Together with some Russians, nine castaways (and a cat) escaped from the island 1787 on a new ship that they built from driftwood and nails. Islanders received necessities and things such as Tobacco, ironware, skins of horse and ox and cottons in return to hunt otters or seals.[9] Daikokuya KōdayÅ« ) (1751 - May 28, 1828) was a Japanese castaway who spent eleven years in Russia. ...


Russian trappers and traders established settlements on the islands, exploiting the indigenous people,[10] whose population on the island quickly fell.[7] From 1832, the island was never permanently inhabited,[7] and by the time of World War II, an abandoned Russian fishing village was all that remained.[11] The islands were surveyed by the North Pacific Exploring Expedition in 1855,[8] and were included in the Alaska Purchase of 1867.[10] In 1913, President William Taft set aside the Aleutian chain, including Amchitka, as a wildlife preserve.[11] The Native residents of Atka leased the island for fox hunting in 1920, and continued to use the island until the Japanese invasion of the western Aleutians in 1942.[7] Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... William Howard Taft I (September 15, 1857–March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913), and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921 - 1930). ... Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples who live in what is now the U.S. state of Alaska. ... Atka Island is an island in the Andreanof Islands of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, at 52°07′ N 174°30′ W. The island is 80 km (50 miles) east of Adak Island. ...


Aleuts' revolt

Background

According to what Aleut people told Japanese castaways, otters were decreasing year by year and their share in return of furs they made also were decreasing as Russian ship stop coming to the island. The castaways felt that the people had a sense of crisis on their situation.


Negotiations and revolt

In May, 1784, according to Daikokuya Kōdayū's log book, local people revolted against the Russians. There were some negotiations with higher Aleut people about necessities that the Russians had ran out of and that they had given to Aleuts in return of furs. After that, by Nevizimov's order, two Russians, Stepano(ステッパノ) and Kazhimov(カジモフ), killed the chieftain's daughter and Nevizimov's mistress, Oniishin(オニイシン), because Russians had doubted that Oniishin pushed islanders' back. That evening, hundreds of Aleuts started gathering on a mountain and marched to the Russians' houses. Five Russians opened fire, and Aleuts ran away. They attempted another attack next day. They yelled and moved more quickly towards the house. Nevertheless, as Russians opened fire, they started to run away, again. After they ran, Russians had noticed all the men were discussing their act on a mountain. Russians got around forty women and children in hostage while all the man were not in a village. Aleuts surrendered. Four higher Aleut people had been executed. After the incident, lots of Aleuts began to moved to neighbouring islands from Amchitka and none of them ever came to Nevizimov's house. The leader of the Russians, Nevizimov was jailed after the whole incident was reported to Russian official.[9] Daikokuya KōdayÅ« ) (1751 - May 28, 1828) was a Japanese castaway who spent eleven years in Russia. ...


World War II

For more details on this topic, see Battle of the Aleutian Islands.

In June 1942, the Japanese occupied some of the western Aleutian islands, and hoped to occupy Amchitka.[12] Eager to remove the Japanese, the Joint Chiefs of Staff agreed to move quickly to regain the territory. American planners decided to build a series of airfields to the west of Umnak, from which bombers could attack the invading forces.[13] Combatants United States Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a grouping comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... Umnak is the easternmost of the Aleutian Islands, and also the largest in size, 65 x 22 miles. ...


The U.S. Army established bases at Adak and 13 other locations.[13] At the War Department's suggestion, an initial reconnaissance of Amchitka was carried out in September 1942, which found that it would be difficult to build an airstrip on the island.[12] Nevertheless, planners decided on December 13 that the airfield "had to be built" to prevent the Japanese from doing the same.[12] A further reconnaissance mission visited Amchitka from 17-19 December, and reported that a fighter strip could be built in two to three weeks, and a main airfield in three to four months.[12] The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Adak Island is an island near the western extent of the Andreanof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. ...


The plan would go ahead.[12] American forces made an unopposed landing on Amchitka on January 11, 1943. Despite facing difficult weather conditions and bombing from the Japanese, the airfield was usable by February 16.[12] The Alaska Command was now 80 km away from their target, Kiska.[13] The military eventually built numerous buildings, roads, and a total of three airstrips on the island,[11] some of which would later be renovated and used by the Atomic Energy Commission.[14] At its peak, the occupancy of Amchitka reached 15,000 troops.[11] Map of Kiska Kiska is an island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska located at 52. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ...


The Aleutian Islands campaign was successfully completed on August 24, 1943.[13] In that month, a strategic intercept station was established on the island, which remained until February 1945.[15] The Army abandoned the site in August 1950.[16] The site later hosted an Air Force weather station in the 1950s, a White Alice telecommunication system in 1959 to 1961, and a temporary relay station in the 1960s and 1970s.[11] Combatants United States Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... Boswell Bay, Alaska White Alice Site, Tropospheric Antenna and feeder. ...


Plans for nuclear testing

The locations of the nuclear tests

The Department of Defense initially considered the island for nuclear testing planned for 1951. Requiring information about the cratering potential of nuclear weapons, plans were made to detonate two 20-kiloton devices.[4] After drilling approximately 34 test holes, the site was deemed unsuitable,[16] and the project was moved to the Nevada test site.[4] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... The Nevada Test Site is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the City of Las Vegas, near . ...


In the late 1950s, scientists realised that improved seismological knowledge was necessary for the detection of Soviet underground nuclear explosions.[17] The 1.7 kiloton "Rainier" test (part of Operation Plumbbob, performed elsewhere) produced strong seismic signals, but looked much like an ordinary earthquake. In 1959, Dr. James R. Killian, the Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, formed the Panel on Seismic Improvement (which subsequently recommended the program that came to be known as Vela Uniform), with the twin goals of improving seismic instruments and deploying them globally, and researching in more depth the seismic effects of nuclear explosions.[18] The project was subsequently initiated by the Eisenhower administration.[17] Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Underground nuclear testing refers to experiments with nuclear weapons that are performed underground. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... The Smoky shot of Operation Plumbbob. ... James Rhyne Killian (1904-1988) was the 10th president of MIT from 1948 until 1959. ... Vela Uniform was an element of Project Vela conducted jointly by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961). ...


Together with the Atomic Energy Commission, the DoD began assessing Amchitka for use as part of the Vela Uniform tests.[4]


Long Shot test

This film still shows the dirt being displaced from the Long Shot underground test.
This film still shows the dirt being displaced from the Long Shot underground test.

To conduct the Vela Uniform test on the island, Long Shot, the Department of Defense occupied Amchitka from 1964 to 1966, with the AEC providing the device, measuring instruments, and scientific support.[16] The goal was "to determine the behavior and characteristics of seismic signals generated by nuclear detonations and to differentiate them from seismic signals generated by naturally occurring earthquakes."[19] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Although it would not be publically announced until 18 March, 1965, senior Alaskan officials were notified the previous February.[20] After the devastating Great Alaska Earthquake of 27 March, 1964, the governor expressed concern about the psychological effects of the test on the populace. He was quickly reassured.[20] Earthquake Damage, Anchorage The Good Friday Earthquake (also called the Great Alaska Earthquake) of Friday, March 27, 1964 (Good Friday, a Christian holy day associated with an earthquake[1]), 5:36 P.M. AST (03:36 3/28 UTC) was the most powerful recorded earthquake in U.S. and North... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ...


Long Shot was detonated on October 29, 1965, and the yield was 80 kilotons. It was the first underground test in a remote area, and the first test managed by the DoD.[4] While there was no surface collapse,[2] tritium and krypton were found at the surface following the test;[2][21] this was not made public until 1969.[21] // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 83. ...


Milrow and Cannikin tests

Though performed as part of the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program,[19] "[the] purpose of the Milrow test was to test an island, not a weapon."[22] It was a "calibration shot", intended to produce data from which the impact of larger explosions could be predicted, and specifically, to determine whether the planned Cannikin shot could be performed safely. It was detonated on 2 October 1969, with an approximate yield of 1 to 1.2 megatons.[2][23] October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...


The shockwave reached the surface with an acceleration of over 35g, causing a dome of the earth's surface, approximately 3km in radius, to rise about 5m.[24] The blast "turned the surrounding sea to froth" and "forced geysers of mud and water from local streams and lakes 50 feet into the air"[21] A "surface collapse feature," also known as a subsidence crater, was formed by material collapsing into the cavity formed by the explosion.[2]


Cannikin was intended to test the design of the Spartan anti-ballistic missile (ABM) interceptor – a high-yield warhead that "produced copious amounts of x-rays and minimized fission output and debris to prevent blackout of ABM radar systems."[25] The test would "measure the yield of the device, measure the x-ray flux and spectrum, and assure deployment of a reliable design."[26] Launch of a Spartan The Spartan, designation LIM-49A, was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ...


Controversy

A few days after the Milrow test, the Don't Make A Wave Committee was organized at a meeting in Vancouver. On the agenda was whether to fight another blast at the island, or whether to expand their efforts to fight all perceived threats against the environment. As he was leaving, one man gave the traditional farewell of the peace-activist movement, "Peace." "Make it a green peace," replied another member. The Committee would later become Greenpeace.[27] Greenpeace protest. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


The Committee's name referred to predictions made by a Vancouver journalist named Bob Hunter, later to become Greenpeace member 000. He wrote that the test would cause earthquakes and a tsunami.[28] The AEC considered the likelihood of the test triggering a severe earthquake "very unlikely," unless one was already imminent on a nearby fault, and considered a tsunami "even more unlikely."[14] Greenpeace founder and Journalist, Bob Hunter Robert (Bob) Lorne Hunter (October 13, 1941 – May 2, 2005) was a Canadian environmentalist, journalist, author and politician. ...


Others disagreed. Russell Train, then Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, argued that "experience with Milrow ... does not provide a sure basis for extrapolation. In the highly nonlinear phenomena involved in earthquake generation, there may be a threshold value of the strain that must be exceeded prior to initiation of a large earthquake. ... The underground explosion could serve as the first domino of the row of dominoes leading to a major earthquake. ... as in the case of earthquakes it is not possible at this time to assess quantitatively the probability of a tsunami following the explosion."[28] Russell Errol Train (born June 4, 1920) was the second EPA Agency Administrator, from September 1973 to January 1977. ... The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is a division of the White House that coordinates federal environmental efforts in the United States and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental and energy policies and initiatives. ...

Film stills from the Cannikin test show the effects on the surface of the 5 megaton detonation below, equivalent to a 7.0 earthquake.
Film stills from the Cannikin test show the effects on the surface of the 5 megaton detonation below, equivalent to a 7.0 earthquake.

In July 1971, a group called the Committee for Nuclear Responsibility filed suit against the AEC, asking the court to stop the test.[29] The suit was unsuccessful, with the Supreme Court denying the injunction by 4 votes to 3,[30] and Richard Nixon personally authorised the $200 million test, in spite of objections from Japan, Peru, and Sweden.[31] The Don't Make A Wave Committee chartered a boat, in which they had intended to sail to the island in protest, but due to weather conditions they were unable to reach their destination.[27] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 531 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (632 × 713 pixel, file size: 319 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Film stills from the Cannikin test as part of the Amchitka program, showing the displacement of dirt and rock caused by the 5 MT underground thermonuclear... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 531 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (632 × 713 pixel, file size: 319 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Film stills from the Cannikin test as part of the Amchitka program, showing the displacement of dirt and rock caused by the 5 MT underground thermonuclear... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Cannikin tested

Cannikin was detonated on 6 November 1971. The announced yield was "less than five" megatons – the largest underground nuclear test in US history.[21] (Estimates for the precise yield range from 4.4 Mt[32] to 5.2Mt.[33]) The ground lifted 20 feet, caused by an explosive force equivalent almost 400 times the power of the Hiroshima bomb.[34] Subsidence and faulting at the site created a new lake, over a mile wide.[2] The explosion caused a seismic shock of 7.0 on the Richter scale, causing rockfalls and turf slides of a total of 35,000 square feet.[21] Though earthquakes and tsunamis predicted by environmentalists did not occur,[30] a number of small tectonic events did occur in the following weeks, thought to be due to the interaction of the explosion with local tectonic stresses.[35] November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ...


1973 and beyond

The DoE withdrew from the island in 1973, though scientists continued to visit the island for monitoring purposes.[16] In 2001, the DoE returned to the site to remove environmental contamination. Drilling mud pits were stabilized by mixing with clean soil, covering with a polyester membrane, topped with soil and re-seeded.[11]


Concerns have been expressed that new fissures may be opening underground, allowing radioactive materials to leak into the ocean.[34] A 1996 Greenpeace study found that Cannikin was leaking both plutonium and americium into the environment,[21] though a 2004 University of Alaska, Fairbanks study reported that "There were no indications of any radioactive leakage, and all that was really wonderful news."[26] Similar findings are reported by a 2006 study, which found that levels of plutonium were "were very small and not significant biologically".[36] General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (243) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


The Department of Energy continue to monitor the site as part of their remediation program. This is expected to continue until 2025, after which the site is intended to become a restricted access wildlife preserve.[37]

Nuclear tests at Amchitka
Name Date (GMT)[38] Location[39] Yield[39] Type[39]
Long Shot 1965-10-29 21:00 51.43655° N 179.17976° E 80kt 2343 ft shaft
Milrow 1969-10-02 22:06 51.41559° N 179.17992° E ~ 1Mt 4002 ft shaft
Cannikin 1971-11-06 22:00 51.46961° N 179.10335° E < 5Mt 6104 ft shaft

1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 55 days remaining. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Faller, S. H.; D. E. Farmer (1997). Long Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hassan, Ahmed; Karl Pohlmann, Jenny Chapman. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Transport of Radionuclides at Amchitka Island's Underground Nuclear Tests: Milrow, Long Shot, and Cannikin. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  3. ^ a b Powers, Charles W.; et al. Amchitka Independent Assessment Science Plan. CRESP Amchitka Oversight Committee.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Giblin, Michael O.; David C. Stahl, Jodi A. Bechtel. "Surface remediation in the Aleutian Islands: A case study of Amchitka Island, Alaska". WM '02 Conference, Tucson AZ, February 24-28, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-10-07. 
  5. ^ Eichelberger, John; Jeff Freymueller, Graham Hill, Matt Patrick (March 2002). Nuclear Stewardship: Lessons from a Not-So-Remote Island. GeoTimes. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  6. ^ Miller states "at least 9,000 years" (see Miller, Pam, "Nuclear Flashback")
  7. ^ a b c d Federal Register: Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 7, Anchorage, AK (2003-12-01). Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  8. ^ a b Baker, Marcus (1902). Geographic Dictionary of Alaska (Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, no 187, Series F, Geography, 27). Washington: Government Printing Office. Retrieved on 2006-10-09. 
  9. ^ a b Yamashita, Tsuneo Daikokuya Kodayu(Japanese) 2004. Iwanami, Japan ISBN 4004308798
  10. ^ a b Aleutian Islands. Columbia University Press (2005). Retrieved on 2006-10-08.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Amchitka, Alaska, Site Fact Sheet. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Retrieved on 2006-10-07.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Conn, Stetson (2000). Guarding the United States and its outposts. U.S. Army Center of Military History. CMH 4-2, Library of Congress no 62-60067. Retrieved on 2006-10-09. 
  13. ^ a b c d MacGarrigle, George L. (October 2003). The Campaigns of World War II: Aleutian Islands. U.S. Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 72-6, paper, GPO S/N 008-029-00232-9. Retrieved on 2006-10-07. 
  14. ^ a b Environmental Statement Cannikin. Atomic Energy Commission. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  15. ^ Pre-1952 Historical Timeline. National Security Agency. Retrieved on 2006-10-07.
  16. ^ a b c d Amchitka Island, Alaska: Potential U.S. Department of Energy site responsibilities (DOE/NV-526). Department of Energy (December 1998). Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  17. ^ a b Barth, Kai-Henrik (2003). "The politics of seismology: Nuclear testing, arms control, and the transformation of a discipline". Social Studies of Science 33 (5): 743-781. DOI:10.1177/0306312703335005. Retrieved on 2006-10-08. 
  18. ^ Van der Vink, Gregory E.; et al (February 1994). Nuclear testing and nonproliferation: The role of seismology in deterring the development of nuclear weapons. The Iris Consortium. Retrieved on 2006-10-08. 
  19. ^ a b Project Baseline Report (NVNO0227) (1998-01-16). Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  20. ^ a b Kohlhoff, Dean W. (November 2002). Amchitka and the Bomb. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98255-1. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f Miller, Pam. Nuclear Flashback: Report of a Greenpeace Scientific Expedition to Amchitka Island, Alaska – Site of the Largest Underground Nuclear Test in U.S. History. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  22. ^ The Milrow Test (DOE Historical Test Film 800040). Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  23. ^ See Miller "Nuclear Flashback" or Schneider "Amchitka's nuclear legacy".
  24. ^ Merritt, Merritt (June 1971). "Ground Shock and Water Pressures from Milrow". BioScience 21 (12): 696-700. DOI:10.2307/1295751. Retrieved on 2006-10-11. 
  25. ^ Accomplishments in the 1970s: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  26. ^ a b Schneider, Doug. Amchitka's nuclear legacy. University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  27. ^ a b The Greenpeace Story in: (1997) The Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopedia. Linkman Press. ISBN 1-896846-00-9. Retrieved on 2006-10-09. 
  28. ^ a b The original Mr Green. The Guardian (2005-05-04). Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  29. ^ Round 2 at Amchitka. TIME (1971-07-17). Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  30. ^ a b The Amchitka Bomb Goes Off. TIME (1971-11-15). Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  31. ^ Green Light on Cannikin. TIME (1971-11-08). Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  32. ^ Sykes, Lynn R.; Graham C. Wiggins (January 1986). "Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964-1976, from Seismic Body and Surface Waves". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 83 (2). 
  33. ^ Fritz, Stacey (April 2000). The Role of National Missile Defense in the Environmental History of Alaska. University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  34. ^ a b Perlman, David (2001-12-17). Blast from the past: Researchers worry that radiation from nuclear test decades ago may be damaging marine life today. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  35. ^ Engdahl, E. R. (December 1972). "Seismic effects of the MILROW and CANNIKIN nuclear explosions". Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 62 (6): 1411-1423. 
  36. ^ Burger, J; et al (Oct 2006). "Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring". J Environ Radioact. PMID 17029666. 
  37. ^ Amchitka Island. Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  38. ^ United States nuclear tests: July 1945 through September 1992. Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  39. ^ a b c Johnson, "Mark". Results from the Amchitka Oceanographic Survey. University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Energy Dept. Planning to Re-Check Alaskan Nuke Site for Potential Leaking, ThePeacockReport.com, March 10, 2006

The following links are to Department of Energy films about the Amitchka test facility. The videos include footage of the tests. March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amchitka Homepage (310 words)
Amchitka, so named by the Aleuts who've inhabited the Aleutian Islands for at least 9000 years, is one of the North Pacific Aleutian Chain's Rat Islands.
The Amchitka testing facility was closed in 1994, accompanied by an on-going U.S. Government effort at cleaning up the residual radioactive, chemical, and other hazardous waste left on the island.
Amchitka's weather is much like the rest of the Western Aleutian Islands...fog, rain, snow, with temperatures ranging from 11 to 65 degrees through the year.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m