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Encyclopedia > Ambon Island
Ceram and Ambon Islands (Operational Navigation Chart, 1967) Not for navigational use
Ceram and Ambon Islands (Operational Navigation Chart, 1967) Not for navigational use
Ambon City in 2001, showing heavy damage from fighting
Ambon City in 2001, showing heavy damage from fighting

Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island has an area of 775 kmĀ² (300 sq mi.), and is mountainous, well watered, and fertile. Download high resolution version (2374x1185, 363 KB)Ceram and Ambon Islands (Operational Navigation Chart) original scale 1:1,000,000. ... Download high resolution version (2374x1185, 363 KB)Ceram and Ambon Islands (Operational Navigation Chart) original scale 1:1,000,000. ... Ambon city in 2001 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ambon city in 2001 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands or simply Maluku) are an archipelago in Indonesia, and part of the larger Malay Archipelago. ...

Contents


Ambon City

The main city and seaport is Ambon City (1990 pop. 275,888), which is also the capital of Maluku province. Ambon City has an airport, and is home to the Pattimura University, a state university, and the Indonesian Christian University of Maluku (Universitas Kristen Indonesia Maluku, or UKIM), a private Protestant university. It was the center of recent political / religious violence that displaced tens of thousands of people. Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... Ambon City (1990 pop. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... The number of provinces of Indonesia has tended to increase as new provinces have been split from existing territories. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Geography

Ambon Island lies off the south-west coast of the much larger Seram island. It is on the north side of the Banda Sea, part of a chain of volcanic isles that form a circle around the sea. It is 51 km (32 miles) in length, and is of very irregular figure, being almost divided into two. The south-eastern and smaller portion (called Leitimor) is united to the northern (Hitoe) by a neck of land a few yards in breadth. Ambon City lies on the north-west of the peninsula of Leitimor, and has a safe harbor. Seram (formerly Ceram, also called Seran or Serang) is an island in the Maluku province of Indonesia. ... The Banda Sea is the sea of the South Moluccas in Indonesia, technically part of the Pacific Ocean but separated from it by hundreds of islands, as well as the Halmahera and Ceram Seas. ... A small island in the Adriatic sea An island is any piece of land smaller than a continent and larger than a rock, that is completely surrounded by water. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer, symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... A peninsula is a geographical formation consisting of an extension of land from a larger body, surrounded by water on three sides. ...


The highest mountains, Wawani (1100 m/3609 ft) and Salahutu (1225 m/4020 ft.), have hot springs and solfataras. They are considered to be volcanoes, and the mountains of the neighboring Uliasser islands the remains of volcanoes. Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboyna Bay are of chalk, and contain stalactite caves. Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Solfatara are a type of hot spring commonly known as mud pots. ... A volcano is a geological landform (usually a mountain) where magma (rock of the earths interior made molten or liquid by high pressure and temperature) erupts through the surface of the planet. ... Granite is a common and widely-occurring group of intrusive felsic igneous rocks that form at great depths and pressures under continents. ... Serpentine Serpentine is a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate ((Mg,Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) minerals. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation Chalk is a soft, white, porous form of limestone composed of the mineral calcium carbonate. ...


The wild areas of Ambon Island are covered in tropical rainforest, part of the Seram rain forests ecoregion, together with neighboring Seram. Seram, Ambon, and most of Maluku are part of Wallacea, the group of Indonesian islands that are separated by deep water from both the Asian and Australian continents, and have never been linked to the continents by land. Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Wallacea is a biogeographical designation for a group of Indonesian islands separated by deep water from the Asian and Australian continental shelves. ...


As a result of this isolation, Ambon has few indigenous mammals; birds are more abundant. The insect diversity of the island, however, is rich, particularly in butterflies. Seashells are obtained in great numbers and variety. Turtle-shell is also largely exported. Families About 130 - see text The Lepidoptera is the second largest order of insects comprising butterflies, skippers, and moths. ... The hard, rigid outer calcium carbonate covering of certain animals is called a shell. ...


Climate

The average temperature is 80 F., rarely sinking below 72. Rainfall can be heavy, especially after the eastern monsoons, and the island is vulnerable to violent typhoons. The dry season (October to April) is coincident with the period of the west monsoon. Monsoon in the Vindhya(mountains) in central India A monsoon is a periodic wind, especially in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...


Economy

Maize and sago are the chief crops, which also include breadfruit, sugarcane, coffee, cocoa, pepper and cotton. and hunting and fishing supplement the diet. Nutmeg and cloves, were once the dominant export crops, and are now produced in limited quantities. Copra is also exported. Amboina wood, obtained from a local tree (Pterocarpus indicus), is highly valued for ornamental woodwork, is now mostly grown on Seram. Species Zea diploperennis Zea luxurians Zea nicaraguensis Zea perennis References ITIS 42268 2002-09-22 Sorting Zea names This article is about the staple food. ... Sago is a starchy, fecula, granular substance used in cooking. ... Binomial name Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg The breadfruit is a tree (and its fruit) native to the East Indian and Pacific islands, which has also been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere. ... Species -wild -wild -cultivated -cultivated -cultivated -cultivated Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Coffee beans and a cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ... Cocoa may refer to either the dried and partially fermented fatty seeds of the cacao tree, which are used to make chocolate; or, more usually in the United States, to cocoa powder, the dry powder made by grinding the seeds and removing the cocoa butter. ... Look up Pepper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Charleston Hot peppers in varying stages of maturity. ... Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. ... Species About 100 species, including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica malabarica The nutmegs Myristica are a genus of evergreen trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia. ... Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry Cloves are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree (Syzygium aromaticum, sometimes included in the genus Eugenia) in the family Myrtaceae. ... Copra is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. ... Seram (formerly Ceram, also called Seran or Serang) is an island in the Maluku province of Indonesia. ...


Demographics

The Ambonese are of mixed Malay-Papuan origin. They are mostly Christians or Muslims. The predominant language of the island is Ambonese Malay, also called Ambonese. It developed as the trade language of central Maluku, and is spoken elsewhere in Maluku as a second language. Bilingualism in Bahasa Indonesia is high around Ambon City. The term Christian means belonging to Christ and is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός Khristós which means anointed one, which is itself a translation of the Hebrew word Moshiach (Hebrew: משיח, also written Messiah), (and in Arabic it is pronounced Maseeh مسيح). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia and a remarkable language in several ways. ...


History

The Portuguese were the first European nation to visit Ambon (1511). They established a factory there in 1521, but did not obtain peaceable possession of it till 1580, and were dispossessed by the Dutch in 1609. About 1615 the British formed a settlement in the island, at Cambello, which they retained until 1623, when it was destroyed by the Dutch,- and frightful tortures inflicted on the unfortunate persons connected with it. In 1654, after many fruitless negotiations, Oliver Cromwell compelled the United Provinces to give the sum of 300,000, together with a small island, as compensation to the descendants of those who suffered in the "Amboyna Massacre." In 1673 the poet John Dryden produced his tragedy Amboyna; or the Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Merchants. In 1796 the British, under Admiral Rainier, captured Ambon, but restored it to the Dutch at the peace of Amiens in 1802. It was retaken by the British in 1810, but once more restored to the Dutch in 1814. Ambon used to be the world center of Clove production; until the nineteenth century, the Dutch prohibited the rearing of the clove-tree in all the other islands subject to their rule, in order to secure the monopoly to Ambon. Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. ... The Amboyna Massacre occurred because of the intense rivalry between the East India Companies of England and Holland in the spice trade. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright. ... Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry Cloves are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree (Syzygium aromaticum, sometimes included in the genus Eugenia) in the family Myrtaceae. ...


During the Dutch period, Ambon City was the seat of the Dutch resident and military commander of the Moluccas. The town was protected by Fort Victoria, and a 1911 encyclopedia characterized it as "a clean little town with wide streets, well planted". The population was divided into two classes orang burger or citizens, and orang negri or villagers, the former being a class of native origin enjoying certain privileges conferred on their ancestors by the old Dutch East India Company. There were also, besides the Dutch, some Arabs, Chinese and a few Portuguese settlers. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are an originally Arabian ethnicity widespread in the Middle East and North Africa. ...


Ambon City was the site of a major Dutch military base, which was captured from Allied forces by the Japanese in the Battle of Ambon (1942), during World War II. The battle was followed by the summary execution of more than 300 Allied POWs, in the Laha massacre. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Battle of Ambon Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date January 30- February 3, 1942 Place Ambon, Moluccas, Netherlands East Indies Result Japanese victory The Battle of Ambon occurred on the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies, on January 30- February 3, 1942 during the Pacific campaign of... 1942 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air. ... Battle of Ambon Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date January 30- February 3, 1942 Place Ambon, Moluccas, Netherlands East Indies Result Japanese victory The Battle of Ambon occurred on the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies, on January 30- February 3, 1942 during the Pacific campaign of...


Indonesia declared its independence as a federal republic in 1945. As a result of ethnic and religious tensions, and President Sukarno making Indonesia unitary state, Ambon was the scene of a revolt against the Indonesian government, which resulted in the short-lived Republic of the South Moluccas from 1950 to 1952. Many Ambonese have emigrated to the Netherlands. A federal state is one that brings together a number of different political communities with a common government for common purposes, and separate state or provincial or cantonal governments for the particular purposes of each community. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... Sukarno Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... A unitary state is a state or country that is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. ... Flag of same The South Moluccas, or Republik Maluku Selatan (RMS), was a self-proclaimed republic in the Maluku Islands, founded April 25, 1950. ...

Patimura University in 2001, destroyed in fighting
Patimura University in 2001, destroyed in fighting

Patimura University in 2001 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Patimura University in 2001 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

External link

  • Ambon Information Website

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ambon Island - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (863 words)
Seram, Ambon, and most of Maluku are part of Wallacea, the group of Indonesian islands that are separated by deep water from both the Asian and Australian continents, and have never been linked to the continents by land.
Ambon used to be the world center of Clove production; until the nineteenth century, the Dutch prohibited the rearing of the clove-tree in all the other islands subject to their rule, in order to secure the monopoly to Ambon.
Ambon City was the site of a major Dutch military base, which was captured from Allied forces by the Japanese in the Battle of Ambon (1942), during World War II.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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