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Encyclopedia > Amblyopia
Amblyopia
ICD-10 H53.0
ICD-9 368.0

Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. It is characterised by poor or blurry vision in an eye that is otherwise physically healthy and normal. The problem is caused by either no transmission or poor transmission of the visual image to the brain for a sustained period of dysfunction or disuse during early childhood. The condition will only arise at this young age because most of the visual system's development in humans is complete and "locked in" by a few years of age. Amblyopia normally only affects one eye, but it is possible to be amblyopic in both eyes if both are similarly deprived of a good, clear visual image. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Disorder may refer to : A disease, in medicine Randomness (lack of order), in information theory This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as eyesight, sight or naked eye vision. ... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are biologically classified as bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or thinking man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ...


Amblyopia has been estimated to affect 1 to 5% of the population[1]. Amblyopia is a developmental problem in the brain, not an organic problem in the eye. The part of the brain corresponding to the visual system from the affected eye is not stimulated properly and develops abnormally. This has been confirmed in brain specimens.


Many children who have amblyopia, especially those who are only mildly amblyopic, are not even aware they have the condition until tested at older ages, since the vision in their stronger eye is normal. However, people who have severe amblyopia may experience associated vision disorder, most notably poor depth perception. Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ...

Contents


Types

Amblyopia can be caused by deprivation of vision early in life, or by strabismus (misaligned eyes), vision obstructing disorders and anisometropia (different degrees of myopia or hyperopia in each eye). Deprivation may refer to: Poverty Sleep deprivation This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Strabismus prevents bringing the gaze of both eyes to the same point in space Strabismus, also known as heterotropia, squint, crossed eye, wandering eye, or wall eyed, is a disorder in which the eyes do not point in the same direction. ... Anisometropia is a condition in which the lenses of the two eyes have different focal lengths; that is, are in different states of myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness). ... Normal vision. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Strabismic amblyopia

Strabismus, sometimes known as lazy eye, will result in normal vision in the fixating eye, but abnormal vision in the strabismic eye due to the brain discarding certain information. Strabismus usually develops into double vision (diplopia) in adulthood, since the two eyes are not fixated on the same object. Children's brains, however, are more plastic, and therefore can more easily adapt by ignoring images from one of the eyes, getting rid of the double vision. This plastic response of the brain, however, interrupts the brain's normal development, resulting in the amblyopia. Strabismus prevents bringing the gaze of both eyes to the same point in space Strabismus, also known as heterotropia, squint, crossed eye, wandering eye, or wall eyed, is a disorder in which the eyes do not point in the same direction. ... Diplopia is the medical term for double vision. ... Plastic covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ...


Strabismic amblyopia is best treated by treating the strabismus through the use of prescription glasses, vision therapy, surgery or patching. Prescription has various meanings. ... A pair of modern glasses A pair of more traditional glasses Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the human eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... Vision therapy, also known as visual therapy or visual training, is a broadly-defined set of treatment programs related to the improvement of visual health and comfort. ... A typical modern surgical operation For other uses, see Surgery (disambiguation). ...


Refractive amblyopia

If anisometropia is present, refractive amblyopia may result. Anisometropia exists when there is a difference in the refraction between the two eyes. The eye with less refractive error provides the brain with a clearer image, and is favoured by the brain. Those with this condition are more susceptible to the development of amblyopia, which may be as severe as strabismic amblyopia. Despite its severity, refractive amblyopia is commonly missed by primary care physicians because of its less dramatic appearance and lack of obvious physical manifestation, such as with strabismus [2]. Anisometropia is a condition in which the lenses of the two eyes have different focal lengths; that is, are in different states of myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness). ... The straw seems to be broken, due to refraction of light as it emerges into the air. ... A primary care physician (often abbreviated as PCP) is a physician who generally does not specialize in the treatment of certain organ systems (eg: neurology, cardiac, pulmonary) or the surgical specialties, but are trained in general medical or holistic-types of patient care. ...


Refractive amblyopia is diagnosed when there is a wide disparity in visual acuity between the two eyes. Refractive amblyopia is treated by correcting the refractive error early with prescription lenses. Vision therapy and/or eye patching can also be used to develop and/or improve visual abilities, binocular vision, depth perception, etc. Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ... Vision therapy, also known as visual therapy or visual training, is a broadly-defined set of treatment programs related to the improvement of visual health and comfort. ... An eyepatch is a small patch, usually of black cloth, that is worn in front of one eye and usually attached around the head by an elastic band or by a string. ...


Form deprivation and occlusion amblyopia

Form deprivation amblyopia (Amblyopia ex anopsia) results when the ocular media is opaque, such as is the case with cataracts or corneal scarring from forceps injuries during childbirth. [3] A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ...


These opacities prevent adequate sensory input from reaching the eye, and therefore disrupt visual development. If not treated in a timely fashion, amblyopia may persist even after the cause of the opacity is removed. Sometimes, drooping of the eyelid (ptosis) or some other problem causes the upper eyelid to physically occlude a child's vision, which may cause amblyopia quickly. An eyelid is a thin fold of skin and muscle that covers and protects an eye. ... Ptosis is the paralysis of the muscles of the eyelid. ...


One should also be wary of creating this type of amblyopia in a 'good' eye when treating for amblyopia in the other eye – so-called reverse amblyopia.


This type of amblyopia is treated by removing the opacity as soon as possible.


Treatment and prognosis

Treatment consists of forcing use of the amblyopic eye either by patching or instilling topical atropine in the eye with better vision [4]. An eyepatch is a small cloth patch, usually black, that is worn in front of one eye. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ...


Although the best outcome is achieved if treatment is started before age 5, research has shown that children older than age 10 and some adults can show improvement in the affected eye. Children from 7 to 12 who wore an eye patch and performed near point activities (vision therapy) were four times as likely to show a two line improvement on a standard 11 line eye chart than amblyopic children who did not receive treatment. Children 13 to 17 showed improvement as well, albeit in smaller amounts than younger children. (NEI-funded Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group, 2005) Vision therapy, also known as visual therapy or visual training, is a broadly-defined set of treatment programs related to the improvement of visual health and comfort. ... Traditional Snellen chart. ...


People with amblyopia have difficulty seeing the three-dimensional images in autostereograms such as Magic Eye. An autostereogram is a single-image stereogram (SIS), designed to trick human eyes and brains into seeing a three-dimensional scene in a two-dimensional image. ... Magic Eye is a series of books published by N.E. Thing Enterprises (Renamed in 1996 to Magic Eye Inc. ...


Some claim that the Bates Method can reverse amblyopia [5]. The Bates Method is a controversial system of practices that are claimed to improve sight and reverse ocular disorders to normal by eliminating mental strain and restoring the natural habits of seeing. ...


References

  • Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group (2005). "Randomized trial of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years". Archives of Ophthalmology 123 (April): 437-447 Abstract.

See also

Diplopia is the medical term for double vision. ... Orthoptics, which literally means straightening of the eyes, dates back to the 1850s. ...

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