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Encyclopedia > Amber
Amber pendants. The oval pendant is 52 by 32 mm (2 by 1.3 inches).
Amber pendants. The oval pendant is 52 by 32 mm (2 by 1.3 inches).

Amber is the name for fossil resin or tree sap that is appreciated for its colour. It is used for the manufacture of ornamental objects and jewellery. Although not mineralized, it is sometimes considered a gemstone. Most of the world's amber is in the range of 30–90 million years old. Semi-fossilized resin or sub-fossil amber is called copal. // Amber is a petrified resin material often used as a gemstone. ... Amber pendants. ... Amber pendants. ... A pendant (from Old French) is a hanging object, generally attached to a necklace or an earring. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mineralization is the process of depositing minerals or naturally occuring inorganic chemicals. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ...


The presence of insects in amber was noticed by the Romans and led them to the (correct) theory that at some point, amber had to be in a liquid state to cover the bodies of insects. Hence they gave it the expressive name of suceinum or gum-stone, a name that is still in use today to describe succinic acid as well as succinite, a term given to a particular type of amber by James Dwight Dana (see below under Baltic Amber). The Greek name for amber was ηλεκτρον (Electron) and was connected to the Sun God, one of whose titles was Elector or the Awakener.[1] Succinic acid, originally called spirit of amber, is a carboxylic acid with the formula: HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH At room temperature, pure succinic acid is a solid that forms colorless, odorless prisms. ... James Dwight Dana (February 12, 1813 - April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist and zoologist. ...


The modern term electron was coined in 1891 by the Irish physicist George Stoney, using the Greek word for amber (and which was then translated as electrum) because of its electrostatic properties and whilst analyzing elementary charge for the first time. The ending -on, common for all subatomic particles, was used in analogy to the word ion.[2][3] For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... George Johnstone Stoney (February 15, 1826 – July 5, 1911) was an Irish physicist. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...


Heating amber will soften it and eventually it will burn, which is why in Germanic languages the word for amber is a literal translation of burn-Stone (In German it is Bernstein, in Dutch it is barnsteen etc.). Heated below 200°C, amber suffers decomposition, yielding an "oil of amber", and leaving a black residue which is known as "amber colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber lac". As mentioned above, amber was well known for its electrostatic properties since antiquity (though not identified as such until the concept of electronic charge became clear). The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... For the band, see Turpentine (band). ... Flax oil (in bottles) and coconut oil (in jars in the middle) Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil, is a yellowish drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae). ...

A mosquito and a fly in this Baltic amber necklace are between 40 and 60 million years old
A mosquito and a fly in this Baltic amber necklace are between 40 and 60 million years old

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1777 × 1333 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1777 × 1333 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...

Chemistry of amber

Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber is a macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in the labdane family, communic acid, cummunol and biformene.[4] These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes which means that the organic skeleton has three alkene groups available for polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization will take place as well as isomerization reactions, crosslinking and cyclization. The average composition of amber leads to the general formula C10H16O. Look up Heterogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... Illustration of a polypeptide macromolecule The term macromolecule by definition implies large molecule. In the context of biochemistry, the term may be applied to the four conventional biopolymers (nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids), as well as non-polymeric molecules with large molecular mass such as macrocycles. ... Radical polymerization is a type of polymerization in which the propagation head of a polymer chain consists of a radical. ... Labdane is a natural bicyclic diterpene. ... The diterpenes are a class of molecules with 20 carbon atoms arranged as 4 isoprene units. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... An example of alkene polymerisation, in which each Styrene monomer units double bond reforms as a single bond with another styrene monomer and forms polystyrene. ... In chemistry, isomerization is the transformation of a molecule into a different isomer. ... Vulcanization is an example of cross-linking. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Amber should be distinguished from copal. Molecular polymerisation caused by pressure and heat transforms the resin firstly into copal and then over time through the evaporation of turpenes it is transformed into amber.


Baltic amber is distinguished from the various other ambers from around the world, by the presence within it of succinic acid hence why Baltic amber is otherwise known as succinite.


Amber in geology

A bee and a Leaf inside the amber.
A bee and a Leaf inside the amber.

Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in a marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Kaliningrad Oblast, where it is now systematically mined.[5] It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur as inclusions trapped within the amber while the resin was yet fresh, suggesting relations with the flora of Eastern Asia and the southern part of North America. Heinrich Göppert named the common amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but as the wood, according to some authorities, does not seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora. The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... Samland or Sambia (Russian: semlyandskiy poluostrov, Polish: Sambia) is the name of a peninsula on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... Johann Heinrich Robert Göppert (July 25, 1800 at Sprottau, Niederschlesien - May 18, 1884 at Breslau) was a German botanist and paleontologist, The standard author abbreviation Göpp. ...


Amber from the Middle Cretaceous is known from Ellsworth County, Kansas. This approximately 100 million year old amber has inclusions of bacteria and amoebae. They are morphologically very close to Leptothrix, and the modern genera Pontigulasia and Nebela. Morphological stasis is considered to be confirmed.[6] // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Ellsworth County (standard abbreviation: EW) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Amoeba (Chaos diffluens) Foraminiferan shells Heliozoan (Actinophrys sol) Amoeboids are cells that move or feed by means of temporary projections, called pseudopods (false feet). ...


Amber inclusions

An ant trapped in amber.
An ant trapped in amber.
Insect trapped in amber. The amber piece is 10 mm (0.4 inches) long. In the enlarged picture, the insect's antennae are easily seen.
Insect trapped in amber. The amber piece is 10 mm (0.4 inches) long. In the enlarged picture, the insect's antennae are easily seen.

The resin contains, in addition to the beautifully preserved plant-structures, numerous remains of insects, spiders, annelids, frogs,[7] crustaceans and other small organisms which became enveloped while the exudation was fluid. In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, leaving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin. Even hair and feathers have occasionally been represented among the enclosures. Fragments of wood frequently occur, with the tissues well-preserved by impregnation with the resin; while leaves, flowers and fruits are occasionally found in marvelous perfection. Sometimes the amber retains the form of drops and stalactites, just as it exuded from the ducts and receptacles of the injured trees. It is thought that, in addition to exuding onto the surface of the tree, amber resin also originally flowed into hollow cavities or cracks within trees, thereby leading to the development of large lumps of amber of irregular form.[8] The abnormal development of resin has been called succinosis. Impurities are quite often present, especially when the resin dropped on to the ground, so that the material may be useless except for varnish-making, whence the impure amber is called firniss. Enclosures of pyrites may give a bluish colour to amber. The so-called black amber is only a kind of jet. Bony amber owes its cloudy opacity to minute bubbles in the interior of the resin. A type of amber known as blue amber exists in the Dominican Republic. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 4. ... An insect trapped in amber. ... An insect trapped in amber. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron disulfide, FeS2. ... A sample of jet Jet is a geological material that is not considered a mineral in the true sense of the word, but rather, a mineraloid derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure, thus organic in origin. ... Rough blue amber under normal sunlight. ...


Amber locations

Baltic amber

Amber has a very wide distribution, extending over a large part of northern Europe and occurring as far east as the Urals. The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


True amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3% to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or bony varieties. The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid. True Baltic amber is distinguished by its yield of succinic acid, for many of the other fossil resins which are often termed amber contain either none of it, or only a very small proportion; hence the name succinite proposed by Professor James Dwight Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber. Succinite has a hardness between 2 and 3, which is rather greater than that of many other fossil resins. Its specific gravity varies from 1.05 to 1.10. An effective tool for amber analysis is IR spectroscopy. It enables the distinction between Baltic and non-Baltic amber varieties because of a specific carbonyl absorption and it can also detect the relative age of an amber sample. James Dwight Dana (February 12, 1813 - April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist and zoologist. ... IR spectrum of a thin film of liquid ethanol. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ...

Wood resin, the ancient source of amber
Wood resin, the ancient source of amber

Although amber is found along the shores of a large part of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, the great amber-producing country is the promontory of Sambia, now part of Russia. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is located in the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the Baltic Sea.[9] Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and collected at ebb-tide. Sometimes the searchers wade into the sea, furnished with nets at the end of long poles, which they drag in the sea-weed containing entangled masses of amber; or they dredge from boats in shallow water and rake up amber from between the boulders. Divers have been employed to collect amber from the deeper waters. Systematic dredging on a large scale was at one time carried on in the Curonian Lagoon by Messrs Stantien and Becker, the great amber merchants of Königsberg. At the present time extensive mining operations are conducted in quest of amber. The pit amber was formerly dug in open works, but is now also worked by underground galleries. The nodules from the blue earth have to be freed from matrix and divested of their opaque crust, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water. The sea-worn amber has lost its crust, but has often acquired a dull rough surface by rolling in sand. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1337x1917, 475 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amber Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1337x1917, 475 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amber Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Sambia (German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ... The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is sundered from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit and belongs to Lithuania and Russia. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ...


Since the establishment of the Amber Road, amber (which is also commonly referred to as the "Lithuanian gold") has substantially contributed to Lithuanian economy and culture. Nowadays a great variety of amber jewelry and amberware is offered to foreign tourists in most souvenir shops as distinctive to Lithuania and its cultural heritage. The Amber Museum containing unique specimen of amber has been established in Palanga, near the sea coast. Amber can also be found in Latvia, and it has an important role in Latvian culture, too. The Amber Road (in Lithuanian: Gintaro kelias; Polish: Szlak Bursztynowy, Jantarowy Szlak; in German: Bernsteinstraße; in Hungarian: Borostyán út, in Russian: Янтарный путь) was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... For other uses, see Souvenir (disambiguation). ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tiškevičiai Palace, Palanga. ... Location Ethnographic region Samogitia County Klaipėda County Municipality Palanga city municipality Elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Palanga city municipality Population (rank) 17,623 in 2001 (21st) First mentioned 1253 Granted city rights 1791 Gintaras Amber Museum in Palanga. ...


Other locations

A lesser known source of amber is in the Ukraine, within a marshy forested area on the Volyhn-Polesie border. Due to the shallow depth that this amber is found at it can be extracted with the simplest of tools, and has hence led to an economy of 'amber poaching' under cover of the forest. This Ukrainian amber is much appreciated for its wide range of colours, and was used in the restoration of 'amber room' in the Empress Catherines palace in St Petersberg (see below).


Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea. Cromer is the best-known locality, but it occurs also on other parts of the Norfolk coast, such as Great Yarmouth, as well as Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe in Suffolk, and as far south as Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex, whilst northwards it is not unknown in Yorkshire. On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of the Netherlands and Denmark. On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the German and Polish coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in southern Finland. Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe through the Amber Road. Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia (today Marseille) on the Mediterranean, and Adria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Ancient Greek world. Cromer is a seaside town and civil parish on the north coast of the English county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Great Yarmouth, often known to locals simply as Yarmouth, is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... Statistics Population: 1,458 (2001 Census) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TM510763 Administration District: Waveney Shire county: Suffolk Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Suffolk Historic county: Suffolk Services Police force: Suffolk Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: {{{Ambulance}}} Post office and... Map sources for Aldeburgh at grid reference TM4656 Aldeburgh is a town in Suffolk, East Anglia, England; it is located on the Alde river at 52° North, 1° East 1. ... , For the Aircraft manufacturer, see Seaplane Experimental Station, Felixstowe Felixstowe is a North Sea seaport in Suffolk, England. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Statistics Population: 12,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TM251216 Administration District: Tendring Shire county: Essex Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Essex Historic county: Essex Services Police force: {{{Police}}} Ambulance service: East of England Post office and telephone Post town: Postal... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... Denmark Region Hovedstaden Bornholms Regionskommune 588 km² (227 mi²)  - coordinates , , 43,040 () since January 2003 CET (UTC+1)  -  CEST (UTC+2) Bornholm Island (far right) in Denmark : www. ... The Amber Road (in Lithuanian: Gintaro kelias; Polish: Szlak Bursztynowy, Jantarowy Szlak; in German: Bernsteinstraße; in Hungarian: Borostyán út, in Russian: Янтарный путь) was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. ... For Pontic Olbia, the Greek colony on the Black Sea coast, see Olbia, Ukraine. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Adria is a town in the province of Rovigo in the Veneto region of Northern Italy, situated between the mouths of the rivers Adige and Po. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the green-sand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value. Middle Cretaceous amber has also been found in Ellsworth county, Kansas. It has little value for jewelry makers, but is very valuable to biologists. Unfortunately the source of this amber is currently under a man made lake. A fluorescent amber occurs in the southern state of Chiapas in Mexico, and is used extensively to create eye-catching jewelery. Blue amber is recorded in the Dominican Republic. These Central American ambers are formed from the resins of legume trees (Hymenea) and not conifers. This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Indonesia is also a rich source of amber with large fragments being unearthed in both Java and Bali.


Amber treatments

Amber (ca. 12 cm Ø)
Amber (ca. 12 cm Ø)

The famous Vienna amber factories which use pale amber to manufacture pipes and other smoking tools, apply a specific procedure when working amber: it is turned on the lathe and polished with whitening and water or with rotten stone and oil, the final lustre being given by friction with flannel. During the working a significant electrostatic charge is developed. Conventional metalworking lathe In woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking, a lathe is a machine tool which spins a block of material so that when abrasive, cutting, or deformation tools are applied to the block, it can be shaped to produce an object which has rotational symmetry about an axis...


When gradually heated in an oil-bath, amber becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber". The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewelery and articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colours in polarized light. Amber has often been imitated by other resins like copal and kauri, as well as by celluloid and even glass. True amber is sometimes coloured artificially. Flax oil (in bottles) and coconut oil (in jars in the middle) Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil, is a yellowish drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae). ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ... Binomial name Agathis australis (D. Don) Loudon The Kauri (Agathis australis) is a coniferous tree native to the northern North Island of New Zealand. ... Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents, generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. ... This article is about the material. ...


Often amber (particularly with insect inclusions) is counterfeited using a plastic resin similar in appearance. A simple test (performed on the back of the object) consists of touching the object with a heated pin and determining if the resultant odor is of wood resin. If not, the object is counterfeit, although a positive test may not be conclusive owing to a thin coat of real resin. Often counterfeits will have a too perfect pose and position of the trapped insect.


Amber art and ornament

Amber was much valued as an ornamental material in very early times. It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with Neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age. A remarkably fine cup turned in amber from a bronze-age barrow at Hove is now in the Brighton Museum. Beads of amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet. It is still believed to possess a certain medicinal virtue. A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... Floral Clock, Palmeira Square Hove promenade facing towards Brighton Hove is a town on the south coast of England immediately to the west of its larger neighbour, Brighton. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ...

Unpolished amber stones, in varying hues
Unpolished amber stones, in varying hues

Amber is extensively used for beads and other ornaments, and for cigar-holders and the mouth-pieces of pipes. It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth. The variety most valued in the East is the pale straw-coloured, slightly cloudy amber. Some of the best qualities are sent to Vienna for the manufacture of smoking appliances. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1202 × 800 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amber ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1202 × 800 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Amber ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


The Amber Room was a collection of chamber wall panels commissioned in 1701 for the king of Prussia, then given to Tsar Peter the Great. The room was hidden in place from invading Nazi forces in 1941, who upon finding it in the Catherine Palace, disassembled it and moved it to Königsberg. What happened to the room beyond this point is unclear, but it may have been destroyed when the Russians burned the German fortification where it was stored. It is presumed lost. It was re-created in 2003.[10] The original Amber Room (Russian Янтарная комната, German: ) in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ...

The Amber Room was reconstructed from the Kaliningrad amber.
The Amber Room was reconstructed from the Kaliningrad amber.

Amber has also been used to create the "frog" part of a Violin bow. It was commissioned by Gennady Filimonov and made by the late American Master Bowmaker Keith Peck [11] Detail of the restored Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoe Selo. ... Detail of the restored Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoe Selo. ... The original Amber Room (Russian Янтарная комната, German: ) in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Keith Peck in his shop 1996 // Keith Peck (1953 – 1998) was a bow maker from Evanston, Illinois, United States. ...

The Amber Frog bow by Keith Peck made in 1996/97 commissioned by Gennady Filimonov.
The Amber Frog bow by Keith Peck made in 1996/97 commissioned by Gennady Filimonov.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A cello bow In music, a bow is a device pulled across the strings of a string instrument in order to make them vibrate and emit sound. ...

See also

This is a list of types of amber. ... Gem animals. ... Ammolite is a rare and valuable opal-like organic gemstone found primarily along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains of the United States and Canada. ... Copal is a type of resin, sometimes referred to as pom (the Maya language name). ... Dominican Amber differentiates itself from Baltic amber by the fact that it is nearly always transparent and has the highest amount of fossil enclosures. ... Succinic acid, originally called spirit of amber, is a carboxylic acid with the formula: HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH At room temperature, pure succinic acid is a solid that forms colorless, odorless prisms. ... Oil of amber is a fine, transparent, ponderous, yellow oil, procured from spirit of amber by increasing the heating temperature. ... The Amber Road (in Lithuanian: Gintaro kelias; Polish: Szlak Bursztynowy, Jantarowy Szlak; in German: Bernsteinstraße; in Hungarian: Borostyán út, in Russian: Янтарный путь) was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber. ... The original Amber Room (Russian Янтарная комната, German: ) in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  1. ^ King, Rev. C.W. (1867). The Natural History of Gems or Decorative Stones. Cambridge (UK).  Amber Chapter, Online version
  2. ^ Susie Ward Aber. Welcome to the World of Amber. Emporia State University. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  3. ^ Origin of word Electron
  4. ^ Assignment of vibrational spectra of labdatriene derivatives and ambers: A combined experimental and density functional theoretical study Manuel Villanueva-García, Antonio Martínez-Richa, and Juvencio Robles Arkivoc (EJ-1567C) pp 449-458 Online Article
  5. ^ Langenheim, Jean (2003). Plant Resins: Chemistry, Evolution, Ecology, and Ethnobotany. Timber Press Inc.. ISBN 0-88192-574-8. 
  6. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/museum/171online/PB171BMWPG1.html Benjamin M. Waggoner, Bacteria and protists from Middle Cretaceous amber of Ellsworth County, Kansas, from: PaleoBios, Volume 17, Number 1, Pages 20-26, July 13, 1996
  7. ^ Scientist: Frog could be 25 million years old
  8. ^ What is amber?
  9. ^ How Products Are Made: Amber
  10. ^ BBC report on Amber Room
  11. ^ Jessamyn Reeves-Brown. "Mastering New Materials: Commissioning an Amber Bow, no.65", Strings magazine, Nov 1997. Retrieved on 2007-04-09. 
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arkivoc (print-ISSN 1424-6376, CODEN AGFUAR) stands for Archive for Organic Chemistry and is an online open access scientific journal of organic chemistry. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... George Frederick Kunz (September 29, 1856 – June 29, 1932) was an American mineralogist. ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). ... The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl, not to be confused with beryl, is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4. ... For other uses, see Amethyst (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... This article is about the mineral. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Garnet is a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Lapis lazuli, also known as just lapis, is one of the stones with the longest tradition of being considered a gem, with a history stretching back to 5000 BC. Deep blue in color and opaque, this gemstone was highly prized by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, as can be seen... Moonstone is typically a potassium aluminium silicate, with the chemical formula KAlSi3O8 [1] The most common moonstone is of the mineral Adularia. ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Opal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... Sodalite is a rare, rich royal blue mineral widely enjoyed as an ornamental stone. ... Tanzanite is the blue/purple variety of the mineral zoisite discovered in the Meralani Hills of northern Tanzania in 1967, near the city of Arusha. ... This article is about the mineral or gemstone. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... A pendant (from Old French) is a hanging object, generally attached to a necklace or an earring. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
American Museum of Natural History (0 words)
Amber is a form of tree resin -- exuded as a protective mechanism against disease and insect infestation -- that has hardened and been preserved in the earth's crust for millions of years.
While hundreds of amber deposits occur around the world, most of them contain only trace amounts of the substance; only about twenty deposits in the world contain amounts of amber large enough to be mined.
Amber has preserved ancient life to such infinitesimal detail that it even captures fragments of DNA of the organisms entrapped in it.
Amber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2829 words)
Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance.
Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia (today Marseille) on the Mediterranean, and Adria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Hellenic world.
Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the green-sand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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