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Encyclopedia > Amazon Rainforest
Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. National boundaries shown in black. Satellite image from NASA.
Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. National boundaries shown in black. Satellite image from NASA.

The Amazon Rainforest (Brazilian Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish: Selva Amazónica or Amazonía) is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon Basin of South America. The area, also known as Amazonia, the Amazon jungle or the Amazon Basin, encompasses seven million square kilometers (1.7 billion acres), though the forest itself occupies some 5.5 million square kilometers (1.4 billion acres), located within nine nations: Brazil (with 60 percent of the rainforest), Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. States or departments in four nations bear the name Amazonas after it. The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Amazon Rainforest Caption: River in Amazon by carapana: Small river in amazon. ... Amazon Rainforest Caption: River in Amazon by carapana: Small river in amazon. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... Amazonas is the name of four subnational entities in various South American nations. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Peru Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Amazon is said to arise from a war which Francisco de Orellana had with a tribe of Tapuyas and other tribes from South America where the women of the tribe fought alongside the men, as was the custom among the entire tribe. (Orellana's descriptions may have been accurate, but a few historians speculate that Orellana could have been mistaking indigenous men wearing "grass skirts" for women.) Orellana derived the name Amazonas from the ancient Amazons of Asia and Africa described by Herodotus and Diodorus in Greek legends. A Spanish postal stamp featuring Orellana Francisco de Orellana (c1500-c1549) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the province of Enna). ...


Another etymology for the word suggests that it came originally from a native word amazona (Spanish spelling) or amassona (Portuguese spelling), meaning "destroyer (of) boats", in reference to the destructive nature of the root system possessed by some riparian plants.


Biodiversity

The Amazon River flowing through the rainforest
The Amazon River flowing through the rainforest
Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest threatens many species of tree frogs, which are very sensitive to environmental changes (pictured: Giant leaf frog)
Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest threatens many species of tree frogs, which are very sensitive to environmental changes (pictured: Giant leaf frog)

Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.[1] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 220 KB) Amazon river flowing through the Amazon rainforest. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x958, 220 KB) Amazon river flowing through the Amazon rainforest. ... This article is about the river. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 724 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1250 × 1035 pixel, file size: 288 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Houston Zoo Phyllomedusa bicolor User:Cburnett... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 724 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1250 × 1035 pixel, file size: 288 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Houston Zoo Phyllomedusa bicolor User:Cburnett... Binomial name Phyllomedusa bicolor The Giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) is a hylid frog native to the Amazon Rainforest, specially in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...


The region is home to about 2.5 million insect species[citation needed], tens of thousands of plants, and some 2000 birds and mammals. To date, at least 40,000 plant species, 3,000 fish, 1,294 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians, and 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region.[3] Scientists have described between 96,660 and 128,843 invertebrate species in Brazil alone.[4] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...


The diversity of plant species is the highest on earth with some experts estimating that one square kilometer may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants. One square kilometer of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,790 tonnes of living plants.[5] This constitutes the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world. One in five of all the birds in the world live in the rainforests of the Amazon. To date, an estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued.[6]


Deforestation

Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forested areas. The main sources of deforestation in the Amazon are human settlement and development of the land.[7] Between 1991 and 2000, the total area of forest lost in the Amazon rose from 415,000 to 587,000 km², an area twice the size of Portugal, with most of the lost forest becoming pasture for cattle.[8] In February, 2008, the Brazilian government announced that the rate at which the Amazon rainforest is being cut down has increased significantly over the past few months. During the last five months of 2007, more than 3,200 sq. kilometers (an area equivalent to the size of the state of Rhode Island) was deforested during a time when deforestation would normally drop.[9] This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ...


History of deforestation in the Amazon

Urarina shaman, 1988.
Urarina shaman, 1988.

Prior to the early 1960s, access to the forest's interior was highly restricted, and aside from partial clearing along rivers the forest remained basically intact.[10] The poor soil also made plantation-based agriculture unprofitable. The key point in deforestation of the Amazon was when colonists established farms within the forest during the 1960s. Their farming system was based on crop cultivation and the slash and burn method. However, the colonists were unable to successfully manage their fields and the crops due to the loss of soil fertility and weed invasion.[11] The soils in the Amazon are productive for just a short period of time, and farmers are therefore constantly moving to new areas and clearing more and more land.[12] Amazonian colonization was ruled by cattle raising because ranching required little labor, generated decent profits, and awarded social status in the community. Additionally, grass can grow in the poor Amazon soil. However, the results of the farming lead to extensive deforestation and caused extensive environmental damage.[13] An estimated 30% of the deforestation is due to small farmers and the intensity within the area that they inhabit is greater than the area occupied by the medium and large ranchers who possess 89% of the Legal Amazon’s private land. This emphasizes the importance of using previously cleared land for agricultural use, rather the typical easiest political path of distributing still-forested areas.[14] In the Brazilian Amazon, the amount of small farmers versus large landholders changes frequently with economic and demographic pressures.[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... This article is about the agricultural practice of slash and burn. ... Fertile soil is soil that can support abundant plant life, in particular the term is used to describe agricultural and garden soil. ...


Causes of deforestation in the Amazon

The annual rate of deforestation in the Amazon region has continued to increase from 1990 to 2003 because of factors at local, national, and international levels.[16] 70% of formerly forested land in the Amazon, and 91% of land deforested since 1970, is used for livestock pasture.[17][18] In addition, Brazil is currently the second-largest global producer of soybeans after the United States, mostly for livestock feed, and as prices for soybeans rise, the soy farmers are pushing northwards into forested areas of the Amazon. As stated in Brazilian legislation, clearing land for crops or fields is considered an ‘effective use’ of land and is the beginning towards land ownership.[19] Cleared property is also valued 5–10 times more than forested land and for that reason valuable to the owner whose ultimate objective is resale. As stated by Michael Williams,“The people of Brazil have always thought of the Amazon as a communal possession which they felt free to hack, burn, and abandon at will.”[20] The soy industry is the principal source of foreign currency for Brazil; therefore, the needs of soy farmers have been used to validate many of the controversial transportation projects that are currently developing in the Amazon.[21] The first two highways: the Belém-Brasília (1958) and the Cuiaba-Porto Velho (1968) were the only federal highways in the Legal Amazon to be paved and passable year-round before the late 1990’s. These two highways are said to be “at the heart of the ‘arc of deforestation’”, which at present is the focal point area of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The Belém-Brasilia highway attracted nearly two million settlers in the first twenty years. The success of the Belém-Brasilia highway in opening up the forest was re-enacted as paved roads continued to be developed unleashing the irrepressible spread of settlement. The completions of the roads were followed by a wave of resettlement and the settlers had a significant effect on the forest.[22] This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Michael Williams may refer to: Michael Williams (actor), British actor Michael Williams (aikido), Australian aikido teacher. ... // A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. ... Location of Amazônia Legal within Brazil (red) States within Amazônia Legal Amazônia Legal (Legal Amazon) is the largest socio-geographic division of the South American nation of Brazil, which contains all of its territory in the Amazon Basin. ...


Scientists using NASA satellite data have found that clearing for mechanized cropland has recently become a significant force in Brazilian Amazon deforestation. This change in land use may alter the region's climate and the land's ability to absorb carbon dioxide. Researchers found that in 2003, the then peak year of deforestation, more than 20 percent of the Mato Grosso state’s forests were converted to cropland. This finding suggests that the recent cropland expansion in the region is contributing to further deforestation. In 2005, soybean prices fell by more than 25 percent and some areas of Mato Grosso showed a decrease in large deforestation events, although the central agricultural zone continued to clear forests. But, deforestation rates could return to the high levels seen in 2003 as soybean and other crop prices begin to rebound in international markets. Brazil has become a leading worldwide producer of grains including soybean, accounting for more than one-third of the country's gross national product. This new driver of forest loss suggests that the rise and fall of prices for other crops, beef and timber may also have a significant impact on future land use in the region, according to the study.[1] For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Capital (and largest city) Cuiabá Demonym Mato-grossense Government  -  Governor Blairo Maggi  -  Vice Governor Silval da Cunha Barbosa Area  -  Total 903. ... Bales of hay on a farm near Ames, Iowa A farm is the basic unit in agriculture. ... Soy redirects here. ... An assortment of grains The word grain has a great many meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Soy redirects here. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


Measured rates of deforestation in the Amazon

In 1996, the Amazon was reported to have shown a 34% increase in deforestation since 1992.[23] The mean annual deforestation rate from 2000 to 2005 (22,392 km² per year) was 18% higher than in the previous five years (19,018 km² per year).[24] In Brazil, the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE, or National Institute of Space Research) produces deforestation figures annually. Their deforestation estimates are derived from 100 to 220 images taken during the dry season in the Amazon by the Landsat satellite, also may only consider the loss of the Amazon rainforest biome – not the loss of natural fields or savannah within the rainforest. According to INPE, the original Amazon rainforest biome in Brazil of 4,100,000 km² was reduced to 3,403,000 km² by 2005 – representing a loss of 17.1%.[25] The National Institute for Space Research (INPE) is a search unit of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), whose main goals lie in fostering scientific research and technological applications and in qualifying personnel in the fields of Space and Atmospheric Sciences and Applications and Space Engineering and Space... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ...

Period Estimated Remaining Forest Cover
in the Brazilian Amazon (km²)
Annual forest
loss (km²)
Percent of 1970
cover remaining
Total forest loss
since 1970 (km²)
pre-1970 4,100,000 0 100%
1977 3,955,870 21,130 96.50% 144,130
1978-1987 3,744,570 21,130 91.30% 355,430
1988 3,723,520 21,050 90.80% 376,480
1989 3,705,750 17,770 90.40% 394,250
1990 3,692,020 13,730 90.00% 407,980
1991 3,680,990 11,030 89.80% 419,010
1992 3,667,204 13,786 89.40% 432,796
1993 3,652,308 14,896 89.10% 447,692
1994 3,637,412 14,896 88.70% 462,588
1995 3,608,353 29,059 88.00% 491,647
1996 3,590,192 18,161 87.60% 509,808
1997 3,576,965 13,227 87.20% 523,035
1998 3,559,582 17,383 86.80% 540,418
1999 3,542,323 17,259 86.40% 557,677
2000 3,524,097 18,226 86.00% 575,903
2001 3,505,932 18,165 85.50% 594,068
2002 3,484,727 21,205 85.00% 615,273
2003 3,459,576 25,151 84.40% 640,424
2004 3,432,147 27,429 83.70% 667,853
2005 3,413,354 18,793 83.30% 686,646
2006 3,400,254 13,100 82.90% 699,746
[26]

Future of deforestation

At the current rate, in two decades the Amazon Rainforest will be reduced by 40%.[27] The 2005-2006 year had a 41% drop in deforestation. This was the lowest figure since 1991. However, in February of 2008, the Peruvian Congress plans to debate a draft law ("Ley de la Selva") that would allow the sale of vast tracts of deforested, uncultivated land in the Amazon jungle to private companies. However, there is no land registry showing which natural areas could be sold off without hurting the region’s rich biodiversity. Moreover, the sale of public lands would adversely affect local residents who do not hold formal title to their land.[28]


Links to main causes for deforestation

Assarting in Finland in 1892 Slash and burn (a specific practice that may be part of shifting cultivation or swidden-fallow agriculture) is an agricultural procedure widely used in forested areas. ... The Trans-Amazonian Highway (BR-230) is the third longest highway in Brazil, 4,800 km long, running through the Brazilian states of Pará and Amazonas. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...

Carbon dynamics

Aerial roots of red mangrove on an Amazonian river
Aerial roots of red mangrove on an Amazonian river

Not only are environmentalists concerned about the loss of biodiversity which will result from destruction of the forest, they are also concerned about the release of the carbon contained within the vegetation, which could accelerate global warming. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 352 KB) Stilt roots of a Rhizophora mangrove tree captured on a small river in Salinas - Pará - Brazil auteur : cesarpb origine : http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 352 KB) Stilt roots of a Rhizophora mangrove tree captured on a small river in Salinas - Pará - Brazil auteur : cesarpb origine : http://www. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Amazonian evergreen forests account for about 10% of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and 10% of the carbon stores in ecosystems[29] — of the order of 1.1 x 1011 metric tonnes of carbon.[30] Amazonian forests are estimated to have accumulated 0.62 ± 0.37 tons of carbon per hectare per year between 1975 and 1996.[30] Fires related to Amazonian deforestation have made Brazil one of the top greenhouse gas producers. Brazil produces about 300 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide a year; 200 million of these come from logging and burning in the Amazon. Despite this, Brazil is listed as one of the lowest per capita (rank 124) in CO2 emissions according to the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) (see List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita). Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is an organization within the United States Department of Energy that has the primary responsibility for providing the US government and research community with global warming data and analysis as it pertains to energy issues. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here CO2 emission per capita per year per country This is a list of countriesafsdafdasfsdfsfsdfafsafsdafsadfs by carbon dioxide emissions per capita from 1990 through 2003. ...


Conservation

River in the Amazon rainforest.
River in the Amazon rainforest.

Environmentalists have stated there is not only a biological incentive to protecting the rainforest, but also an economic one. One hectare in the Peruvian Amazon has been calculated to have a value of $6820 if intact forest is sustainably harvested for fruits, latex, and timber; $1000 if clear-cut for commercial timber (not sustainably harvested); or $148 if used as cattle pasture.[31] Download high resolution version (1024x768, 221 KB)A river scene in the Amazon Rainforest Amazon river - Salinopolis - Para - Brazil Photographer: cesarpb Source: Stock. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 221 KB)A river scene in the Amazon Rainforest Amazon river - Salinopolis - Para - Brazil Photographer: cesarpb Source: Stock. ...


The Brazilian Air Force has been using Embraer R-99 surveillance aircraft, as part of the SIVAM program, to monitor the forest. At a conference in July 2004, scientists warned that the rainforest will no longer be able to absorb the millions of tons of greenhouse gases annually, as it usually does, because of the increased pace of rainforest destruction, and the increase in the greenhouse gases emission by industrialized countries. 9,169 square miles (23,750 km²) of rain forest were cut down in 2003 alone. The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces and one of the three national uniformed services. ... Embraer, the Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. is a Brazilian aircraft manufacturer. ... The Embraer R-99 and P-99 are a conversion of the ERJ 145 civil regional jet airliner, for military purposes. ... SIVAM, the acronym for SIstema de Vigilância da AMazônia (or Amazon Surveillance System), is a complex surveillance system for use monitoring the legal amazon area. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


In Brazil alone, more than 90 indigenous groups have been destroyed by epidemics and Brazilian colonists since the 1900s, and with them have gone centuries of accumulated knowledge of the medicinal value of rainforest species. As indigenous territories continue to be destroyed by deforestation, and ecocide, such as in the Peruvian Amazon[32] indigenous peoples' rainforest communities continue to disappear, while others, like the Urarina continue to struggle to fight for their cultural survival and the fate of their forested territories. Meanwhile, the relationship between nonhuman primates in the subsistence and symbolism of indigenous lowland South American peoples has gained increased attention, as has ethno-biology and community-based conservation efforts. An epidemic is generally a widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. ... Map of Brazilian states by population. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ...


From 2002 to 2006, the conserved land in the Amazon Rainforest has almost tripled and deforestation rates have dropped up to 60%. About 1,000,000 square kilometres (250,000,000 acres) have been put onto some sort of conservation, which adds up to a current amount of 1,730,000 square kilometres (430,000,000 acres).[33]


Response to climate change

Anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases broken down by sector for the year 2000.
Anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases broken down by sector for the year 2000.

There is evidence that there have been significant changes in Amazon rainforest vegetation over the last 21,000 years through the last glaciation (LGM) and subsequent deglaciation. Analyses of sediment deposits from Amazon basin paleolakes and from the Amazon Fan indicate that rainfall in the basin during the LGM was lower than for the present, and this was almost certainly associated with reduced moist tropical vegetation cover in the basin[34]. There is debate, however, over how extensive this reduction was. Some scientists argue that the rainforest was reduced to small, isolated refugia separated by open forest and grassland[35]; other scientists argue that the rainforest remained largely intact but extending less far to the North, South and East than is seen today [36]. This debate has proved difficult to resolve because the practical limitations of working in the rainforest mean that data sampling is biased away from the centre of the Amazon basin, and both explanations are reasonably well supported by the available data. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x603, 33 KB) Description This figure shows the relative fraction of man-made greenhouse gases coming from each of eight categories of sources, as estimated by the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (650x603, 33 KB) Description This figure shows the relative fraction of man-made greenhouse gases coming from each of eight categories of sources, as estimated by the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 3. ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ...


One computer model of future climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions shows that the Amazon rainforest could become unsustainable under conditions of severely reduced rainfall and increased temperatures, leading to an almost complete loss of rainforest cover in the basin by 2100.[37][38] However, simulations of Amazon basin climate change across many different models are not consistent in their estimation of any rainfall response, ranging from weak increases to strong decreases.[39] The result indicates that the rainforest could be threatened though the 21st century by climate change in addition to deforestation. General Circulation Models (GCMs) are a class of computer-driven models for weather forecasting and predicting climate change, where they are commonly called Global Climate Models. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Impact of Amazon drought

In 2005, parts of the Amazon basin experienced the worst drought in 100 years,[40] and there were indications that 2006 could have been a second successive year of drought.[41] A 23 July 2006 article in the UK newspaper The Independent reported Woods Hole Research Center results showing that the forest in its present form could survive only three years of drought.[42][43] Scientists at the Brazilian National Institute of Amazonian Research argue in the article that this drought response, coupled with the effects of deforestation on regional climate, are pushing the rainforest towards a "tipping point" where it would irreversibly start to die. It concludes that the forest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert, with catastrophic consequences for the world's climate. Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... The Woods Hole Research Center was established in 1985 in the village of Woods Hole, Massachusetts by Dr. George M. Woodwell. ... The National Institute of Amazonian Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia or INPA) is a public educational and research Institution in Manaus, Brazil. ... The phrase tipping point or angle of repose is a sociology term that refers to that dramatic moment when something unique becomes common. ... Savannah redirects here. ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


According to the WWF, the combination of climate change and deforestation increases the drying effect of dead trees that fuels forest fires.[44] The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ...


See also

The Amanyé are a Native South American nation of Brazils Amazonia. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... This article is about the river. ... Araucaria moist forest in Curitiba, Paraná The Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica in Portuguese) is a region of tropical and subtropical moist forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savannas, and mangrove forests which extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... The indigenous peoples of Brazil (povos indígenas in Portuguese) comprise a large number of distict ethnic groups who inhabited the countrys present territory prior its discovery by Europeans around 1500. ... Few peoples have remained totally uncontacted by modern civilisation. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... This is a list of plants found in the wild in Amazon Rainforest vegetation of Brazil. ... Logging is the process in which trees are cut down usually as part of a timber harvest which is good for the environment. ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... SIVAM, the acronym for SIstema de Vigilância da AMazônia (or Amazon Surveillance System), is a complex surveillance system for use monitoring the legal amazon area. ... The Monument to the Bandeiras, a stone sculpture group by Victor Brecheret, located in São Paulo, Brazil Bandeirantes were participants in the Bandeiras, expeditions organised by the inhabitants of the then poor village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga together with allied Indians to enslave other Indians... Nickname: Local da cidade de Belém, no estado do Pará State Pará County Belém Government  - Mayor Duciomar Gomes da Costa Area  - City 1,070 km²  (413. ... Iquitos is the largest city in the Peruvian rainforest, with a population of around 400,000. ... Location in Brazil Country Region State Amazonas Founded 1669 Government  - Mayor Serafim Corrêa (PSB) Area  - City 11. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ Turner, I.M. 2001. The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4
  2. ^ Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals. World Wide Fund for Nature. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
  3. ^ Da Silva et al. 2005. The Fate of the Amazonian Areas of Endemism. Conservation Biology 19 (3), 689-694
  4. ^ Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Paulo Inácio Prado (June 2005). "How Many Species Are There in Brazil?". Conservation Biology 19 (3): 619-624. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00680.x. 
  5. ^ Photos / Pictures of the Amazon Rainforest
  6. ^ The Amazon Rainforest
  7. ^ Bierregaard Jr, R. O., Gascon, C., Lovejoy, T. E., & Mesquita, R. C. (2001). Lessons From Amazonia: the Ecology and Conservation of a Fragmented Forest. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Yale University.
  8. ^ Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) (2004)
  9. ^ Amazon Rainforest Deforestation News, February 7, 2008
  10. ^ Kirby, K. R., Laurance, W. F., Albernaz, A. K., Schroth, G., Fearnside, P. M., Bergen, S., Venticinque, E. M., & De Costa, C. (2006). The future of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Futures of Bioregions, 38, 432-453. Retrieved November 26, 2006, from Science Direct database.
  11. ^ Watkins and Griffiths, J. (2000). Forest Destruction and Sustainable Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon: a Literature Review (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Reading, 2000). Dissertation Abstracts International, 15-17
  12. ^ Watkins and Griffiths, J. (2000). Forest Destruction and Sustainable Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon: a Literature Review (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Reading, 2000). Dissertation Abstracts International, 15-17.
  13. ^ Williams, M. (2006). Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
  14. ^ Fernside, P. M. (2005). Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, Rates, and Consequences. Conservation Biology, 19, 680-688.
  15. ^ Fernside, P. M. (2005). Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, Rates, and Consequences. Conservation Biology, 19, 680-688.
  16. ^ Kirby, K. R., Laurance, W. F., Albernaz, A. K., Schroth, G., Fearnside, P. M., Bergen, S., Venticinque, E. M., & De Costa, C. (2006). The future of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Futures of Bioregions, 38, 432-453. Retrieved November 26, 2006, from Science Direct database.
  17. ^ H. Steinfeld, P. Gerber, T. Wassenaar, V. Castel, M. Rosales, C. de Haan. Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. 2006.
  18. ^ Sergio Marglis. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon. World Bank Working Paper No. 22. The World Bank. 2004.
  19. ^ Kirby, K. R., Laurance, W. F., Albernaz, A. K., Schroth, G., Fearnside, P. M., Bergen, S., Venticinque, E. M., & De Costa, C. (2006). The future of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Futures of Bioregions, 38, 432-453. Retrieved November 26, 2006, from Science Direct database.
  20. ^ Williams, M. (2006). Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
  21. ^ Kirby, K. R., Laurance, W. F., Albernaz, A. K., Schroth, G., Fearnside, P. M., Bergen, S., Venticinque, E. M., & De Costa, C. (2006). The future of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Futures of Bioregions, 38, 432-453. Retrieved November 26, 2006, from Science Direct database.
  22. ^ Williams, M. (2006). Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
  23. ^ Beef exports fuel loss of Amazonian Forest. CIFOR News Online, Number 36
  24. ^ Barreto, P.; Souza Jr. C.; Noguerón, R.; Anderson, A. & Salomão, R. 2006. Human Pressure on the Brazilian Amazon Forests. Imazon. Retrieved September 28, 2006. (The Imazon web site contains many resources relating to the Brazilian Amazonia.)
  25. ^ . National Institute for Space Research (INPE) (2005). The INPE deforestation figures for Brazil were cited on the WWF Websitein April 2006.
  26. ^ From article by Rhett A. Butler, which is taken from INPE and FAO figures.
  27. ^ (National Geographic, January 2007)
  28. ^ Proposed Peruvian legislation - "Ley de la Selva"
  29. ^ Melillo, J.M., A.D. McGuire, D.W. Kicklighter, B. Moore III, C.J. Vörösmarty and A.L. Schloss. 1993. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production. Nature 363:234–240.
  30. ^ a b Tian, H., J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, A.D. McGuire, J. Helfrich III, B. Moore III and C.J. Vörösmarty. 2000. Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9:315–335.
  31. ^ Peters, C.M., Gentry, A.H. & Mendelsohn, R.O. (1989) Valuation of an Amazonian forest. Nature 339: 655-656.
  32. ^ Dean, Bartholomew. (2003) State Power and Indigenous Peoples in Peruvian Amazonia: A Lost Decade, 1990-2000. In The Politics of Ethnicity Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States David Maybury-Lewis, Ed. Harvard University Press
  33. ^ Cormier, L. 2006. A Preliminary Review of Neotropical Primates in the Subsistence and Symbolism of Indigenous Lowland South American Peoples. Ecological and Environmental Anthropology, University of Georgia, April 16, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  34. ^ Colinvaux, P.A., De Oliveira, P.E. 2000. Palaeoecology and climate of the Amazon basin during the last glacial cycle. Wiley InterScience. (abstract)
  35. ^ Van der Hammen, T., Hooghiemstra, H.. 2002. Neogene and Quaternary history of vegetation, climate, and plant diversity in Amazonia. Elsevier Science Ltd. (abstract)
  36. ^ Colinvaux, P.A., De Oliveira, P.E., Bush, M.B. 2002. Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: The failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses. Elsevier Science, Ltd. (abstract)
  37. ^ Cox, Betts, Jones, Spall and Totterdell. 2000. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, November 9, 2000. (subscription required)
  38. ^ Radford, T. 2002. World may be warming up even faster. The Guardian.
  39. ^ Houghton, J.T. et al. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  40. ^ Environmental News Service - Amazon Drought Worst in 100 Years
  41. ^ Drought Threatens Amazon Basin - Extreme conditions felt for second year running
  42. ^ Amazon rainforest 'could become a desert' , The Independent, July 23, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  43. ^ Dying Forest: One year to save the Amazon, The Independent, July 23, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  44. ^ Climate change a threat to Amazon rainforest, warns WWF, World Wide Fund for Nature, March 22, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  • Sheil, D. and S. Wunder. 2002. The value of tropical forest to local communities: complications, caveats, and cautions. Conservation Ecology 6(2): 9. [2]
  • "Deforestation." World Geography. Columbus, Ohio: McGraw-Hill/Glencoe, 2000. 202-204

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Henry Peter Maybury-Lewis (born in Hyderabad, Pakistan 1929-) is a distinguished anthropologist, prominent ethnologist of lowland South America, indefatigable activist for indigenous peoples human rights and professor emeritus of Harvard University. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Sir John T. Houghton FRS CBE is the co-chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes working group I. He was the lead editor of first three IPCC reports. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Act4trees Take part in the reforestation of Amazon
  • Amazonia.org.br Good daily updated Amazon information database on the web, held by Friends of The Earth - Brazilian Amazon.
  • amazonia.org Sustainable Development in the Extractive Reserve of the Baixo Rio Branco - Rio Jauaperi - Brazilian Amazon.
  • Amazon-Rainforest.org Information about the amazon rainforest, its people, places of interest, and how everyone can help.
  • Siamazonía - Sistema de Información de la Diversidad Biológica y Ambiental de la Amazonía Peruana (Peruvian Amazonia Information Facility)
  • IIAP - Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (Peruvian Amazonia Institute for the Investigation)
  • Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (National Institute of Amazonian Research)
  • Woods Hole Research Center
  • Journey Into Amazonia
  • The Amazon: The World's Largest Rainforest
  • WWF in the Amazon rainforest
  • RainforestWeb.org - World Rainforest Information Portal (South America)
  • Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon - year by year data
  • Amazon Alliance Information about the indigenous peoples of the Amazon rainforest and their struggles to protect their homeland.
  • US blocks forest protection plan

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Amazon Rainforest (1537 words)
Tens of millions of acres of rainforest are covered by water as the flood advances, reaching as far inland from the main channel as 12 miles.
The Amazon rainforest is the drainage basin for the Amazon River and its many tributaries.
The main layer of the rainforest is the canopy.
The Amazon Rainforest (752 words)
The basin is drained by the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of discharge, and the second longest river in the world after the Nile.
The rise of the Andes and the linkage of the Brazilian and Guyana bedrock shields, blocked the river and caused the Amazon to become a vast inland sea.
Today the Amazon River is the most voluminous river on Earth, eleven times the volume of the Mississippi, and drains an area equivalent in size to the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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