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Encyclopedia > Amateur press association

An Amateur Press Association or APA is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ...


APAs were a way for widely distributed groups of people to discuss a common interest together in a single forum before the advent of computer bulletin boards or the Internet. Many were founded in the 1960s and 1970s by fans of science fiction, comics, music, cinema and other topics as a way to develop writing, design and illustration skills. Many professional journalists, creative writers and artists practised in APAs and some still participate. Most APAs have now been supplanted by internet chat groups and email mailing lists except in the field of assembly art. Ward Christensen and the computer that ran one of the first public Bulletin Board Systems, CBBS from BBS: The Documentary “BBS” redirects here. ...


A Central Mailer (CM) (sometimes called a Distribution Manager or Official Editor) is the coordinator of an APA. The heart of the role is the distribution of the association's publication to its members. The CM manages the subscription lists and the deadlines to which the association works. The CM is usually responsible for chasing members to ensure maximum participation although some APAs simply accumulate contributions between deadlines and mail out whatever is available at the mailing deadline.


Where the APA requires the submission of multiple copies by contributors, the CM merely collates the contributions. Some APAs involve the submission of camera ready copy; in such cases the CM arranges the reproduction of the material. Most APAs require the members to submit a minimum amount of material in a specified format to a specified number of mailings. This minimum activity (abbreviated to "minac") is usually specified as something in the form of (for example): "at least two A4 pages to at least two out of every three mailings". Most APAs also require each member to maintain a credit balance in a central funds account to cover common reproduction costs and postage.


In most APAs the CM provides an administrative report listing the contents of each mailing and any business information associated with the association. This can include financial accounts, membership information and some news items. Although most APAs have predetermined deadlines at regular intervals it is normal practice for the CM to specify the next mailing deadlines explicitly in each mailing.


Although some APAs are autocratic, most run on a democratic basis and the CM usually chairs any discussions and arranges any management meetings. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by everybody The term autocrat is derived from the Greek word autokratôr (lit. ... Democracy describes a series of related forms of government. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ...


APAs that require members to submit multiple copies of their contribution (commonly called "apazines") usually set a limit to the number of members and run a waiting list if this becomes necessary. In many cases people on the waiting list are permitted to contribute to mailings and may receive excess apazines provided by the members.

Contents

History

The first APAs were formed by groups of amateur printers. The earliest to become more than a small informal group of friends was the National Amateur Press Association (NAPA) founded February 19, 1876 by Evan Reed Riale and nine other members in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ...


The first British APA was the British Amateur Press Association founded in 1890. 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ...


The second United States APA was the United Amateur Press Association (UAPA) founded in 1895 by a group of teenagers including William H. Greenfield (aged 14) and Charles W. Heins (aged 17). This became a confederation of small amateur publishers which split into two organisations known interchangeably as UAP and UAAPA. The American Amateur Press Association (AAPA) was formed in 1936 by a secession from what was then called UAPAA. Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The first science fiction APA was the Fantasy Amateur Press Association (FAPA) formed by a group of science fiction fans in 1937. It continues to be active in 2007. SAPS, the Spectator Amateur Press Society, started in 1947 and is still active in 2007. VAPA, The Vanguard Amateur Press Association, formed in 1945 and lasted until 1950. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Founded in 1937 by the science fiction author and editor Donald Wollheim, the Fantasy Amateur Press Association (FAPA) is science fiction fandoms longest established APA. Mailings are collated quarterly: February, May, August and September. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The first comics APA was started by Jerry Bails in 1964 in the United States. Called CAPA-alpha (sometimes abbreviated to K-a) it grew to its present limit of 40 members. It has become the archetype for most subsequent comics APAs. Its members have included Dwight Decker, Mark Evanier, Carl Gafford, Fred Patten, Richard and Wendy Pini, Roy Thomas and Don and Maggie Thompson. Michael Barrier's famed animation fanzine Funnyworld started as a CAPA-alpha contribution. Decker and Gafford were also founding members of the minicomics co-op the United Fanzine Organization. The difference in a co-op and an apa is that an apa is helmed by a central mailer, to whom the members send copies of their publications. The central mailer then compiles all the books into one large volume, which is then mailed out to the membership in apazines. In a co-op, however, there is no central mailer; the members distribute their own works, and are linked by a group newsletter, a group symbol that appears on each member work, and a group checklist in every "member zine." This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Mark Evanier (born March 2, 1952 in Santa Monica, California) is an American writer. ... Carl Gafford is a colorist who has worked in the comics industry. ... Frederick Walter Patten (1940- fl) is known for his work as a historian in the Anime/Manga and Furry fandoms, where he has gained great distinction through a substantial contribution to both print and online books, magazines, and other media. ... Artist, creator of the well-known ElfQuest series of comics (or graphic novels). ... Artist, creator of the well-known ElfQuest series of comics (or graphic novels). ... Roy Thomas (born November 22, 1940, Missouri, United States) is a comic book writer and editor, and Stan Lees first successor as editor-in-chief of Marvel Comics. ... Maggie Thompson (born November 29, 1942), is the editor of Comics Buyers Guide. ... Maggie Thompson (born November 29, 1942), is the editor of Comics Buyers Guide. ... Minicomics Co-Ops: The United Fanzine Organization, or UFO, is a co-op of minicomic creators that has existed since about 1968. ... A Central Mailer can be: the coordinator of an Amateur Press Association (APA) the distributor of external publications received by a learned society an email hub used by a list manager or sub-domain coordinator. ...


The first European comics APA was called PAPA and was founded by a group of comics fans in 1977. It was soon renamed BAPA (for "British APA"). World map showing the location of Europe. ... BAPA was the first Amateur Press Association in Britain. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...


The APA model was picked up by artists in the 1980s. Groups of artists contributed elements of combined duplicated artworks that omitted the conversational elements of the fandom-based APAs. These pieces are sometimes called "assembly art". This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


List of APAs

This list is not exhaustive. Unless otherwise stated, these APAs are based in the United States.

  • Alarums and Excursions -- role-playing games
  • All Of The Above - the game GURPS
  • American APA - general publishing; the first APA; primarily for amateur printers
  • ANZAPA - Australian and New Zealand Amateur Publishing Association - Southern hemisphere's oldest APA
  • Aotearapa - New Zealand's longest running science fiction publication
  • APA Enterprise - Star Trek, started by Mark Ernst (New Hampshire) roughly 1980
  • Apa Lambda - science fiction; gay and gay-friendly members of fandom
  • APA-247 - British based APA for Comic featuring Legion of Super-Heroes
  • APA-5 - comics; the birthplace of Dark Horse Comics; alumni include Frank Miller, Paul Chadwick and Mark Verheiden
  • APA-Centauri - general interest; started as science fiction but morphed to a general interest apa (international)
  • APA-F: - science fiction; the first weekly APA (New York City)
  • APA-L: - science fiction; the second weekly APA (Los Angeles, run by the Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society (LASFS))
  • APAcalypse - role-playing games
  • APAplexy - Ottawa based general-interest APA, Started by Farrell McGovern as a spin-off of TAPA in 1984, and with "Starwolf" (Marc Gerin-Lajoie) actually running it. Some confusion about the origins comes from the fact that Mr. McGovern had Starwolf "Frank", or publish for him, the announcement for Apaplexy in TAPA (CA) [www.apaplexy.org http://www.apaplexy.org]
  • Apatoons - animation
  • ATDNSIN (The APA That Dares Now Speak Its Name) - comics for lesbians, gays, bisexuals & transgendered people
  • BAPA - general entertainment media; founded by comics fans; alumni include Eddie Campbell (UK)
  • Barr Wars - cartoonists' collaborative with a centaur theme, 1987-1989; alumni include Donna Barr, Roberta Gregory
  • British APA - general publishing; the first UK APA; primarily for amateur printers (UK)
  • BunAPA - random topic-driven (UK)
  • CAPA-alpha (also known as K-a)- the first comics APA
  • CAPRA - cinema oriented, reviews of film and commentary of film industry
  • The Clobberin' Times - an APA devoted to the Champions Role-Playing Game
  • Comicopia - an international comics APA (established in 1990)
  • The Cult - science fiction; rotational
  • Dapper - science fiction; Holland-based but contributions are produced in English by an international membership. Name said to stand for "Dutch Amateur People's Press Energetically Reproducing." (Netherlands)
  • The Everlasting Club - Ghost story fans, primarily English membership
  • Fantasy Amateur Press Association (FAPA) - science fiction; the first science fiction APA, founded in 1937 by Donald A. Wollheim, who went on to a long career in writing, editing and publishing (DAW Books). Wollheim conceived of FAPA after hearing of the United and National APAs from H.P. Lovecraft. The first FAPA mailing in July 1937 contained only 42 pages, but over the ensuing decades mailings have been significantly larger than that, with the largest ever being the 100th mailing in August 1962 at 1,219 pages. Alumni include Forrest J Ackerman, Gregory Benford, James Blish, Robert Bloch, Marion Zimmer Bradley, F. M. Busby, Terry Carr, Jack Chalker, Willis Conover, E. Everett Evans, Richard Geis, Jim Harmon, Patrick & Teresa Nielsen Hayden, Lee Hoffman, Damon Knight, David Langford, Robert A. W. Lowndes, Sam Moskowitz, Frederik Pohl, Robert Silverberg and Wilson Tucker. It was still running in 2007.
  • The Final Frontier - science fiction apa based in Canada
  • First Draft - Writer's APA, offering critique and commentary of contributors' works
  • The Force - Star Wars
  • Frank's APA - music; currently published from the USA, but with membership primarily in Britain and Ireland
  • Frefanzine - Libertarian science fiction
  • The Furthest North Crew (FNC) - a major Canadian-run Furry APA [fnc.furry.com http://fnc.furry.com]
  • Gallery - APA/'zine for cartoonists and illustrators, a significant proportion (but not all) of whom were interested in anthropomorphics and funny animals.
  • Galactus - comics; based in Canada; birthplace of Strawberry Jam Comics
  • Gothik APA - comics
  • Huzzah - APA/'zine for anthropomorphics and funny animals
  • Imaginapa - Long-running, very high quality fiction and general discussion APA, last (and most frequently) CM'd by the great Eric Watts. Started by APA-5 waitlisters who got tired of waiting.
  • Interlac - Legion of Super-Heroes comics
  • K-a - (short for CAPA-alpha, above) comics
  • Klordny - North American APA focused primarily on Legion of Super-Heroes comics
  • LASFAPA - science fiction, monthly; founded October 1976, still running in 2006, run by the Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society (LASFS).
  • Legends - DC Comics [1]
  • MilwApa - science fiction; Milwaukee-area fandom
  • N'APA - science fiction; for members of the National Fantasy Fan Federation
  • National APA - general publishing; the first U.S. APA; primarily for amateur printers
  • Northstar - first gay comics APA
  • NYAPA - (New York APA) - Long-lived general discussion APA, based all over North America during its lifetime
  • ORComix-APA - comics
  • Phoenix - comics, science fiction and other entertainment media. [2]
  • Point of Divergence - science fiction, specifically alternate history
  • REHUPA - Robert E. Howard and his works
  • Rowrbrazzle - anthropomorphics and funny animals; its founder dedicated it to "Funny animals, plants, machines, and squash."
  • Samizdat - General interest apa with a closed membership, spun off from Galactus
  • Southern Fandom Press Alliance (SFPA) - science fiction apa based in the southern US
  • Spectator Amateur Press Society (SAPS) - science fiction; the third science fiction apa, founded in 1947 by a group that included Joe Kennedy. Still running in 2006.
  • Shiot Crock - for regulars of The Comics Journal 's web-based message board
  • STIPPLE APA - General interest APA out of Minneapolis/St-Paul MN. Created in 1980 by people tired of languishing on MINNEAPA's wait list.
  • SWAPA - the APA for members and friends of SWIL, Swarthmore College's science fiction club. Still running in 2006.
  • TAPA - Toronto APA, a general Science Fiction APA with members from across Canada, and around the world (CA)
  • TAPS - The Terrean Amateur Press Society, a rotating APA organized along the same lines as The Cult, but with 12 members instead of 13 and a different, less confrontational style of interaction.
  • TWP (The Women's Periodical) - for women who are UK-based or have strong UK ties.
  • United APA - general publishing; the second U.S. APA; primarily for amateur printers
  • United Fanzine Organization - Minicomic creators.
  • Vanguard APA - science fiction; the second science fiction APA, founded in 1945, discontinued early in 1950; alumni include James Blish, James Kepner, Damon Knight, Robert A. W. Lowndes, Judith Merrill and Donald Wollheim.
  • WTFB - devoted to Disney, especially classic 1990s TV series of the Disney Afternoon, takes name from Disney Afternoon slogan Where The Fun Begins; disbanded
  • Yarf! - APA/'zine for anthropomorphics and funny animals
  • YHapa - Young Heroes APA - an APA run primarily by young people in the late 1980s, devoted to popular comic books of the time
  • Z-FLapa - short-lived local APA based in Zephyrhills, Florida; merged with NYAPA

Alarums and Excursions (A&E), started in 1975 by Lee Gold, was one of the first fanzines to focus on role-playing games. ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... The Generic Universal Role-Playing System, commonly known as GURPS is a form of a role-playing game (RPG) designed to adapt to any imaginary gaming environment. ... Aotearapa is a New Zealand-based amateur press association, run in association with New Zealand science fiction fandom, it caters primarily - but not exclusively - to science fiction fans. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... The Legion of Super-Heroes is a DC Comics superhero team. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... Paul Chadwick is an American comic book creator. ... Mark Verheiden is a television, movie, and comic book writer. ... This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... Alec: The King Canute Crowd by Eddie Campbell Eddie Campbell (born August 10, 1955) is a Scottish-born comics artist and cartoonist who now lives in Australia. ... Donna Barr (born 1952 in Everett, Washington) is an American comic book author and cartoonist. ... Roberta Gregory (born 1953, Los Angeles, California, United States) is an American comic book writer and artist best known for her character Bitchy Bitch from her series Naughty Bits. ... An artists interpretation of a ghostly woman on a flight of stairs, based on common descriptions A ghost is usually defined as the apparition of a deceased person, frequently similar in appearance to that person, and encountered in places he or she frequented, or in association with the person... Donald Allen Wollheim (October 1, 1914 – November 2, 1990) was a science fiction writer, editor, and publisher. ... Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916 in Los Angeles, California) is a legendary science fiction fan and collector of science fiction-related memorabilia. ... Gregory Benford (born January 30, 1941 in Mobile, Alabama) is an American science fiction author and physicist who is on the faculty of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Irvine. ... James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 – Henley-on-Thames, July 30, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ... Robert Albert Bloch (April 5, 1917, Chicago-September 23, 1994, Los Angeles) was a prolific American writer. ... Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was a prolific author of largely feminist fantasy novels such as The Mists of Avalon and the Darkover series, and a steadfast encourager of equality (and quality) in writing. ... Francis Marion Busby (March 11, 1921 - February 17, 2005) was a science fiction writer and figure in science fiction fandom. ... Terry Carr (February 19, 1937 - April 7, 1987) was a science fiction author and editor. ... Jack Laurence Chalker (born December 17, 1944) is a science fiction author. ... Willis Conover (1920-May 17, 1996) was a jazz producer and broadcaster on the Voice of America for over forty years. ... Edward Everett Evans (1893-1958) was an American science fiction author and fan. ... Richard E. Geis is an American erotica and science fiction writer who won the Hugo Award for Best Fan Writer in 1981 and 1982. ... James Judson Harmon, aka Jim Harmon (born 1933), is an American short story author and popular culture historian who has written extensively about the Golden Age of Radio. ... Patrick Nielsen Hayden is a science fiction editor and fanzine writer. ... Teresa Nielsen Hayden (born March 21, 1956) is an American science fiction editor, fanzine writer, essayist, and teacher. ... Lee Hoffman (born 1932) is a science fiction fan and an author of science fiction and westerns born Shirley Bell Hoffman. ... Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ... David Langford David Rowland Langford (born April 10, 1953, in Newport, Monmouthshire) is a British author, editor and critic, largely active within the science fiction field. ... Robert Augustine Ward Doc Lowndes (September 4, 1916 - July 14, 1998) was an American science fiction author and editor. ... Sam Moskowitz (1920-1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in science fiction and, later, a writer. ... Frederik George Pohl, Jr. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Robert Silverberg (January 15, 1935, Brooklyn, New York) is a prolific American author best known for writing science fiction, a multiple winner of both the Hugo and Nebula Awards. ... Wilson Tucker (born 1914) is an American science fiction writer and fan. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... Libertarian science fiction is a sub-genre of science fiction that focuses on the politics and social order implied by libertarian philosophies with an emphasis on individualism and a limited state-- and in some cases, no state whatsoever: (see: Anarcho-capitalist literature) As a category, libertarian science fiction is unusual... Furry fandom is a fandom distinguished by its enjoyment of anthropomorphic, often humanoid, animal characters. ... Gallery was an APA/zine for cartoonists and illustrators, a significant proportion of which had contents that were anthropomorphic or funny animal in nature, which ran quarterly from the fall of 1989 to the winter of 2004 (issues #0 through #50). ... APA/zine is a cross between an Amateur press association and a fanzine, and often combines the closed membership qualities of an APA with the public readership of a fanzine, sometimes selling subscriptions to offer royalties for contributors. ... A cartoonist at work. ... For the vector-based drawing program from Adobe Systems, see Adobe Illustrator. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Funny animal is a slang term used to describe a genre of cartoons and comics in which the main characters are anthropomorphic animals. ... Strawberry Jam Comics was a Canadian publisher of comic books during the black-and-white comics boom of the mid and late 1980s. ... APA/zine is a cross between an Amateur press association and a fanzine, and often combines the closed membership qualities of an APA with the public readership of a fanzine, sometimes selling subscriptions to offer royalties for contributors. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Funny animal is a slang term used to describe a genre of cartoons and comics in which the main characters are anthropomorphic animals. ... Interlac font table In Comic publications by DC Comics the fictional language INTERLAC is the supposed designated communication language of the 30th century United Planets. ... The Legion of Super-Heroes is a DC Comics superhero team. ... The Legion of Super-Heroes is a DC Comics superhero team. ... The Los Angeles Science Fantasy Society or LASFS is a private club in North Hollywood, California, a suburb of Los Angeles, California. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... The National Fantasy Fan Federation (N3F) is one of the worlds oldest fandom organizations. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. ... Rowrbrazzle is an Amateur Press Association magazine devoted to funny animal cartoon illustration, that for a long time was a bulwark for furry fandom. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Funny animal is a slang term used to describe a genre of cartoons and comics in which the main characters are anthropomorphic animals. ... The cover of TCJ #115 (April 1987) celebrated their court victory in defending a libel suit. ... Swarthmore College is a private, independent, liberal arts college in the United States with an enrollment of about 1,450 students. ... Minicomics Co-Ops: The United Fanzine Organization, or UFO, is a co-op of minicomic creators that has existed since about 1968. ... A minicomic is a small, creator-published comic book, often photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. ... James Benjamin Blish (East Orange, New Jersey, May 23, 1921 – Henley-on-Thames, July 30, 1975) was an American author of fantasy and science fiction. ... Damon Knight (September 19, 1922 – April 15, 2002) was a science fiction author, editor, and critic. ... Robert Augustine Ward Doc Lowndes (September 4, 1916 - July 14, 1998) was an American science fiction author and editor. ... Judith Merril (January 21, 1923, New York, New York - September 12, 1997, Canada) was an North American science fiction author and anthologist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Disney Afternoon was a created-for-syndication two-hour television series which aired from September 10, 1990 until at least 1998. ... APA/zine is a cross between an Amateur press association and a fanzine, and often combines the closed membership qualities of an APA with the public readership of a fanzine, sometimes selling subscriptions to offer royalties for contributors. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... Funny animal is a slang term used to describe a genre of cartoons and comics in which the main characters are anthropomorphic animals. ...

See also

The committee of correspondence was a body organized by the local governments of the ((American colonies)) for the purposes of coordinating written communication outside of the colony. ...

External links

References

  • Watts, Eric L., The New Moon Directory, self-published from 1988-1998 (contained complete index of all known APA's at the time)
  • Wertham, Frederic, The World of Fanzines, (Carbondale & Evanston: Southern Illinois University Press, 1973)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Amateur press association - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1613 words)
An Amateur Press Association or APA is a group of people who produce individual pages or magazines that are sent to a Central Mailer for collation and distribution to all members of the group.
APAs were a way for widely distributed groups of people to discuss a common interest together in a single forum before the advent of computer bulletin boards or the Internet.
The second United States APA was the United Amateur Press Association (UAPA) founded in 1895 by a group of teenagers including William H. Greenfield (aged 14) and Charles W. Heins (aged 17).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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