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Encyclopedia > Amateur Radio Direction Finding
A German competitor on a two-meter ARDF course.
A German competitor on a two-meter ARDF course.

Amateur Radio Direction Finding is an amateur map and compass sport that combines the skills of orienteering and radio direction finding. It is a timed race in which individual competitors use a topographic map, a magnetic compass and radio direction finding apparatus to navigate through diverse wooded terrain while searching for radio transmitters. The rules of the sport and international competitions are organized by the International Amateur Radio Union. Worldwide, the sport is most often referred to by its English-language acronym, ARDF, but is also referred to as radio orienteering or radiosport. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1098x1098, 371 KB) Summary A German competitor on the two meter course at the 2004 Amateur Radio Direction Finding World Championship held in the Czech Republic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1098x1098, 371 KB) Summary A German competitor on the two meter course at the 2004 Amateur Radio Direction Finding World Championship held in the Czech Republic. ... 2 Meters is a popular amateur radio band. ... The international orienteering symbol. ... Radio Direction Finding, or RDF, is the technique of locating the direction to a radio transmission. ... Example of a topographic map with contour lines Topographic maps, also called contour maps, topo maps or topo quads (for quadrangles), are maps that show topography, or land contours, by means of contour lines. ... Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the earth. ... In communications and information processing, a transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). ... The International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) is an international confederation of national Amateur Radio organisations that allows a forum for common matters of concern and collectively represents matters to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). ... The term Radiosport is of modern Eastern European origin and is used to describe one of several competitive amateur radio activities. ...


ARDF events use radio frequencies on either the two-meter or eighty-meter amateur radio bands. These two bands were chosen because of their universal availability to amateur radio licensees in all countries. The radio equipment carried by competitors on a course must be capable of receiving the signal being transmitted by the five transmitters and useful for radio direction finding, including a radio receiver, attenuator, and directional antenna. Most equipment designs integrate all three components into one handheld device. Rough plot of Earths atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including radio waves. ... 2 Meters is a popular amateur radio band. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... For the device which is a tuner (radio) and a amplifier and/or loudspeaker, see receiver (home stereo). ... An attenuator is a telecommunication device that reduces the amplitude of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform. ... Log-periodic dipole array A directional antenna is an antenna which transmits or receives maximum power in a particular direction. ...

Contents


History

Nations that have participated in major international competitions since the first European Championship in 1961.
Nations that have participated in major international competitions since the first European Championship in 1961.

The sport originated in Northern Europe and Eastern Europe in the late 1950s. Amateur radio was willythe nations of the Eastern Bloc. As orienteering became more popular and orienteering maps became more widely available, it was only natural to combine the two activities and hold radio direction finding events on orienteering maps. Image File history File links Ardf_map_0001. ... Image File history File links Ardf_map_0001. ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... Mrs. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ...


Interest in this kind of on-foot radio direction finding activity using detailed topographic maps for navigation spread throughout Scandinavia, Eastern and Central Europe, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China. Formal rules for the sport were first proposed in England and Denmark in the 1950s.[1] The first European Championship in the sport was held in 1961 in Stockholm, Sweden. Four additional international championship competitions were held in Europe in the 1960s, and three more were held in the 1970s. The first World Championship was held in 1980 in Cetniewo, Poland, where competitors from eleven European and Asian countries participated. World Championships have been generally held in even-numbered years since 1984, although there was no World Championship in 1996, and there was a World Championship in 1997. Asian nations began sending national teams to international events in 1980, and teams from nations in Oceania and North America began competing in the 1990s. Athletes from twenty-six nations attended the 2000 World Championship in Nanjing, China, the first to be held outside of Europe.[2] Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked... Stockholm panorama from the City Hall is the capital of Sweden, located on the south east coast of Sweden. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Oceania is a geographical, often geopolitical, region consisting of numerous lands – mostly islands but often including Australia – in the Pacific Ocean and vicinity. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京 [ ]; Romanizations: Nánjīng (Pinyin) , Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal System Pinyin) ) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ...

A member of the Republic of Korea national team sprints to the finish line of an eighty meter ARDF course.
A member of the Republic of Korea national team sprints to the finish line of an eighty meter ARDF course.

As the sport grew in the 1960s and 1970s, each nation devised its own set of rules and regulations. The need for more clearly defined and consistent rules for international competitions led to the formation of an ARDF working group by the International Amateur Radio Union in the late 1970s. The first ARDF event to use the new standardized rules was the 1980 World Championship. These rules have been revised and updated over the years, increasing the number of gender and age categories into which competitors are classified, as well as formalizing the start and finish line procedures.[3] While some variations exist, these standardized rules have since been used worldwide for ARDF competitions, and the IARU has become the principal international organization promoting the sport. The IARU divides the world into three regions for administrative purposes. These regions correspond with the three regions used by the International Telecommunications Union for its regulatory purposes, but the IARU has also used these regions for sports administration. The first IARU Region I (Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Russia) Championship was held in 1993,[2] the first IARU Region III (Asia and Oceania) Championship was held in 1995,[4] and the first IARU Region II (North and South America) Championship was held in 1999.[3] In addition to participation in international events, most nations with active ARDF organizations hold annual national championships using the IARU rules. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (550x825, 73 KB) Summary A member of the Republic of Korea national team sprints to the finish line of an eighty meter ARDF course. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (550x825, 73 KB) Summary A member of the Republic of Korea national team sprints to the finish line of an eighty meter ARDF course. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Amateur Radio Direction Finding is a sport that spans much of the globe. Over 400 athletes from twenty-nine countries, representing four continents, entered the 2004 World Championship held in the Czech Republic.[5] Organized ARDF competitions can be found in almost every European country and in all the nations of northern and eastern Asia. ARDF activity is also found in Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Although they represent a broad range of amateur radio interests in their nations today, several member societies of the International Amateur Radio Union were originally formed for the promotion and organization of the sport and continue to use the term radiosport in their society name. These include the Federation of Radiosport of the Republic of Armenia (FRRA),[6] the Belarussian Federation of Radioamateurs and Radiosportsmen (BFRR),[7] the Chinese Radio Sports Association (CRSA),[8] and the Mongolian Radio Sport Federation (MRSF).[9] To promote the sport, the IARU has delegated individuals as ARDF Coordinators for each IARU region to help educate and organize national radio societies and other ARDF groups, especially in nations without prior activity in the sport.


Description of competition and rules

The rules used throughout the world, with minor variations, are maintained by the IARU Region I ARDF Working Group.[10] Although these rules were developed specifically for international competitions, they have become the de facto standard used as the basis for all competitions worldwide.


An ARDF competition takes place in diverse wooded terrain, such as in a public park or natural area. Each competitor receives a detailed topographic map of the competition area. The map will indicate the location of the start with a triangle and the location of the finish with two concentric circles. Somewhere within the competition area designated on the map, the meet organizer will have placed five low power radio transmitters. The locations of the transmitters are kept a secret from the competitors and are not marked on the map. Each transmitter emits a signal in Morse code by which it is easily identifiable to the competitors. The transmitters automatically transmit one after another in a repeating cycle. Depending on entry classification, a competitor will attempt to locate as many as three, four, or all five of the transmitters in the woods, and then travel to the finish line in the shortest possible time. Competitors start at staggered intervals, are individually timed, and are expected to perform all radio direction finding and navigation skills on their own. Standings are determined first by the number of transmitters found, then by shortest time on course. Competitors who take longer than the specified time limit to finish may be disqualified. 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses — commonly known as dots and dashes — for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message. ...


ARDF events use radio frequencies on either the two meter or eighty meter amateur radio bands. These two bands were chosen because of their universal availability to amateur radio licensees in all countries. Each band requires different radio equipment for transmission and reception, and requires the use of different radio direction finding skills. Radio direction finding equipment for eighty meters, an HF band, is relatively easy to design and inexpensive to build. Bearings taken on eighty meters can be very accurate. Competitors on an eighty meter course must use bearings to determine the locations of the transmitters and choose the fastest route through the terrain to visit them. Two meters, a VHF band, requires equipment that is relatively more complicated to design and more expensive to build. Radio signals on two meters are more affected by features of the terrain. Competitors on a two meter course must learn to differentiate between accurate, direct bearings to the source of the radio signal and false bearings resulting from reflections of the signal off hillsides, ravines, buildings, or fences. Large national or international events will have one day of competition using a two meter frequency and one day of competition using an eighty meter frequency.[1] Rough plot of Earths atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, including radio waves. ... 2 Meters is a popular amateur radio band. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... In communications, transmission is the act of transmitting electrical messages (and the associated phenonomena of radiant energy that pass through media). ... Reception is a noun form of receiving, or to receive something, such as information, art, experience, or people. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... In navigation, a bearing is the angle between the direction to an object and a reference direction. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz (wavelength 10 m) to 300 MHz (wavelength 1 m). ...


In addition to the rules of the sport, ARDF competitions must also comply with radio regulations. Because the transmitters operate on frequencies assigned to the Amateur Radio Service, a radio amateur with a license that is valid for the country in which the competition is taking place must be present and responsible for their operation. Individual competitors, however, are generally not required to have amateur radio licences, as the use of simple handheld radio receivers does not typically require a license. Regulatory prohibitions on the use of amateur radio frequencies for commercial use generally preclude the awarding of monetary prizes to competitors. Typical awards for ARDF events are medals, trophies, plaques, or certificates.[11]


Entry categories

An ARDF competitor in the W19 category on an eighty meter course.
An ARDF competitor in the W19 category on an eighty meter course.

Although all competitors at an ARDF event use the same competition area and listen to the same set of five transmitters, they do not all compete in the same category. Current IARU rules divide entrants into nine categories based on their age and gender.[12] Only the M21 category must locate all five transmitters. Competitors in the other categories may skip only a specified transmitter or transmitters. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1000, 181 KB) Summary An ARDF competitor in the W19 category on an eighty meter course. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1000, 181 KB) Summary An ARDF competitor in the W19 category on an eighty meter course. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...

  • M19 — Men ages 19 and younger, 4 transmitters
  • M21 — Men of any age, 5 transmitters
  • M40 — Men ages 40 and older, 4 transmitters
  • M50 — Men ages 50 and older, 4 transmitters
  • M60 — Men ages 60 and older, 3 transmitters
  • W19 — Women ages 19 and younger, 4 transmitters
  • W21 — Women of any age, 4 transmitters
  • W35 — Women ages 35 and older, 4 transmitters
  • W50 — Women ages 50 and older, 3 transmitters

Youth competitions

The International Amateur Radio Union rules for ARDF competitions include provisions for youth competitions. These competitions are restricted to competitors aged fifteen years or younger. The course lengths are shorter, the transmitters may be located closer to the start, and a course setter may require that fewer transmitters be located.[13]


Local variations

The IARU rules go into great detail about certain procedures that are unique to international championships events. Not every ARDF competition follows all of these rules. Common variations to the generally accepted rules exist at local events. Most smaller events do not have large juries or on-course referees. Some events will use simpler start procedures, such as using only one starting corridor instead of two. ARDF events on the two meter band in North America, including the USA Championship, still commonly use frequency modulation instead of amplitude modulation for the transmission of the Morse code identifications.[14] Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a form of modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in direct proportion to that of a modulating signal. ...


Map and course details

A portion of an ARDF map. Here, circles indicate the locations of two of the five transmitters, but these do not appear on the maps given to competitors.

The topographic maps used in ARDF competitions are ideally created to the same International Orienteering Federation standards as are maps that are used for orienteering competitions. Many competitions use maps that were originally created for orienteering events. These maps are much more detailed than general-purpose topographic maps, and incorporate a standard symbology that is designed to be useful to anyone, regardless of native language. In addition to indicating the topography of the terrain with contour lines, ARDF maps also show forest density, water features, clearings, trails and roads, earthen banks and rock walls, gullies and ditches, wells and pits, fences and power lines, man-made objects, buildings, large boulders, and other features of the terrain. ARDF maps are 1:10000 or 1:15000 scale and are most often printed on A4 or 8.5" × 11" size paper. Larger format paper sizes, such as 11" × 17" in the United States, are also acceptable, but are used less often.[15] Image File history File links Ardf_0007. ... Image File history File links Ardf_0007. ... The International Orienteering Federation (IOF) is an international confederation of national orienteering organizations. ... Surface of the Earth Topography, a term in geography, has come to refer to the lay of the land, or the physiogeographic characteristics of land in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A comparison of different paper sizes A4 is a standard paper size, defined by the international standard ISO 216 as 210×297 mm (roughly 8. ... The paper size Letter is the most common paper size for office use in the United States. ...


Course design is an important element of a successful competition. The international rules adopted by the IARU include both requirements and recommendations for basic course design. Important requirements are that no transmitter may be within 750 meters of the start, no transmitter may be within 400 meters of the finish or any other transmitter on course, and that there is no more than 200 meters elevation change between the start, finish, and all transmitters. The IARU rules for international competitions recommend that courses be designed for six to ten kilometers of total travel distance through the terrain.[16] A well-designed course will present the competitors with an athletic challenge in addition to the challenges of land navigation and radio direction finding. Depending on the course design and competition, winning times at World Championship events are often less than 90 minutes for two meter courses, and can be under 60 minutes for eighty meter courses.[17][5]


Equipment and clothing

ARDF equipment is a specialty market, and much of what is available for purchase comes from small commercial vendors or small-batch production by individuals. Building equipment, such as handheld antennas, from published designs or kits is also a popular activity.[18] Clothing and other equipment is sold through specialty orienteering equipment suppliers or general outdoor sports retailers. A Yagi-Uda antenna An antenna or aerial is an electronic component designed to transmit or receive radio signals (and other electromagnetic waves). ...


Transmitter equipment

A transmitter, orienteering control flag, paper punch and electronic punch device at an ARDF control.
A transmitter, orienteering control flag, paper punch and electronic punch device at an ARDF control.

ARDF transmitters have a low power output and operate in either the two meter or eighty meter amateur radio band. The transmissions are in Morse code. Each transmitter sends a unique identification that can be easily interpreted even by those unfamiliar with the Morse code by counting the number of dits that follow a series of dashes. The transmitters on course all transmit on the same frequency and each transmit in sequence for one minute at a time in a repeating cycle. Within a few meters of each transmitter, an orienteering control flag and punch device will be present. The punch device is either a paper punch with which competitors will mark a special card they carry with them, or an electronic recording device that competitors will use to record their visit on a small magnetic storage device they carry with them. Competitors need to locate the control flag at the transmitter site and use the punch device to record their visit. Good course design will attempt to preclude, as much as possible, runners interfering with the transmitter equipment as they approach the control. At large international or national events, jurors might be present at transmitter controls to ensure fair play. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1065x1320, 254 KB) Summary An orienteering control flag, paper punch and electronic punch device at an ARDF control. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1065x1320, 254 KB) Summary An orienteering control flag, paper punch and electronic punch device at an ARDF control. ... The international orienteering symbol. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses — commonly known as dots and dashes — for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message. ...


The IARU rules include detailed technical specifications for transmitter equipment.[19] Transmitters for two meters are typically 0.25 to 1.5 watts power output, and use keyed amplitude modulation. The transmitter antennas used on two meters must be horizontally polarized and omnidirectional. Transmitters for eighty meters are typically one to three watts power output keyed CW modulation. The transmitter antennas used on eighty meters must be vertically polarized and omnidirectional. It is common for the transmitter, a battery, and any controlling hardware to be placed inside a weatherproof container such as an old ammunition case or large plastic food storage container for protection from the elements and wildlife. The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is a property of waves, such as light and other electromagnetic radiation. ... An omnidirectional antenna is an antenna system which radiates maximum power uniformly in all directions. ... A continuous wave (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Receiver equipment

A homemade eighty meter receiver.
A homemade eighty meter receiver.

The radio equipment carried on course must be capable of receiving the signal being transmitted by the five transmitters and useful for radio direction finding. This includes a radio receiver that can tune in the specific frequency of transmission being used for the event, an attenuator or variable gain control, and a directional antenna. Most equipment designs integrate all three components into one handheld device. On the two meter band, the most common directional antennas used by competitors are two or three element Yagi antennas made from flexible steel tape. On the eighty meter band, two common receiver design approaches are to use either a small loop antenna or an even smaller antenna built around a ferrite rod. ARDF receiver equipment is designed to be lightweight and easy to operate while the competitor is in motion as well as rugged enough to withstand use in areas of thick vegetation.[19] Image File history File links Ardf_0006. ... Image File history File links Ardf_0006. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... For the device which is a tuner (radio) and a amplifier and/or loudspeaker, see receiver (home stereo). ... An attenuator is a telecommunication device that reduces the amplitude of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform. ... Log-periodic dipole array A directional antenna is an antenna which transmits or receives maximum power in a particular direction. ... A Yagi-Uda antenna. ... Magnetic loop antennas have a small antenna size compared to other antennas for the same wavelength. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which ferrite (α) is stable. ...


Clothing

The IARU rules specify that the choice of clothing is an individual decision of the competitor, unless the meet director specifies otherwise.[20] Although comfortable outdoor clothing is all that is required for participation, specialty clothing developed for the sport of orienteering is also worn by ARDF competitors. Nylon pants, shirts, or suits, gaiters or padded socks for lower leg protection, and specialty shoes for cross-country running through wooded terrain are popular choices. Some competitors may choose to carry food or water on course, and wear a small waist pack or hydration pack for this purpose. At large international or national events, competitors may be required by the meet director to wear identifying numbers pinned to their clothing, and many wear team uniforms in their national colors. Nylon represents a family of synthetic polymers, a thermoplastic material, invented in 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... Gaiters are a type of protective clothing for a persons ankles and legs below the knee. ... National colours are frequently part of a countrys set of national symbols. ...


Other equipment

In addition to the radio equipment and topographic map, an ARDF competitor uses a magnetic compass for navigation. The most popular compass types are those that are also popular for use in orienteering. Some events may require or suggest that competitors carry a whistle for emergency use. In at least one World Championship event, competitors were provided with cards written in the native language of the host country, intended to aid in communications with local citizens in the event that a competitor needed emergency aid or directions.[17] All competitors are encouraged to wear a watch to keep track of their time on course and not finish over the time limit set for the competition.


Variations

Fox Oring is a variation of the sport that requires more orienteering skills. In a Fox Oring course, the radio transmitters put out very little power, and can be received over only very short distances, often no more than 100 meters. The location of each transmitter will be indicated on the map with a large circle, representing an area typically 200 meters in diameter. The transmitter can be located anywhere in the area indicated by the circle. A competitor must use orienteering skills to navigate to the area of the circle on the map and only then use radio direction finding skills to locate the very low power transmitter.[21] Fox Oring is a variation of the sport of Amateur Radio Direction Finding. ...


Another variation of the sport, Radio Orienteering in a Compact Area, requires less athletic skill and more technical radio direction finding skills. In a ROCA course, the transmitters put out very little power, typically 10 to 200 mW, and can be received over only very short distances. The transmitters are physically small, and marked with a control card that is no larger than a typical postcard with a unique number identification. Because of the low power and short distances involved, most ROCA competitors walk the entire course, and focus their attention on the radio direction finding tasks rather than navigation.[22] Radio Orienteering in a Compact Area is a variation of Amateur Radio Direction Finding. ...


Another form of recreational radio direction finding activity in North America that includes the use of automobiles for transportation is most often referred to as foxhunting or transmitter hunting, but is sometimes confused with the organized international sport of Amateur Radio Direction Finding. Transmitter hunting is an activity wherein participants use radio direction finding techniques to locate one or more radio transmitters hidden within a designated search area. ...


References

Cited References
  1. ^ a b Moell, Joe KØOV (2000). "Try ARDF on 80 Meters". 73 Amateur Radio Today. November, 2000.
  2. ^ a b IARU Region I ARDF Working Group (2003). "IARU Region 1 Record of Participation in Regional and World Amateur Radio Direction Finding Championships.". Retrieved Oct. 20, 2005.
  3. ^ a b Moell, Joe KØOV (2005). "International Style Foxhunting Comes to the Americas". Retrieved Nov. 28, 2005.
  4. ^ Arisaka, Yoshio JA1HQG (2004). "ARDF Report". Proceedings, International Amateur Radio Union Region 3 Twelfth Regional Conference. Taipei, Republic of China. Feb. 16-20, 2004.
  5. ^ a b 2004 ARDF World Championship. Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.
  6. ^ "Federation of Radiosport of the Republic of Armenia". Listing on IARU Region 1 web site. Retrieved Dec. 13, 2005.
  7. ^ Belarussian Federation of Radioamateurs and Radiosportsmen web site. Retrieved Dec. 13, 2005.
  8. ^ Chinese Radio Sports Association web site. Retrieved Dec. 13, 2005.
  9. ^ Mongolian Radio Sport Federation web site. Retrieved Dec. 13, 2005.
  10. ^ IARU Region I ARDF Working Group (2002). "Rules for Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding". Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.
  11. ^ Specific amateur radio regulations in each country vary. Although the Amateur Radio Service is broadly coordinated at the international level by the International Telecommunications Union, each government maintains its own radio regulations.
  12. ^ IARU Region I ARDF Working Group (2002). "Rules for Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding Section 14: Categories". Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.
  13. ^ IARU Region I ARDF Working Group (2002). "Rules for Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding Appendix 6: Rules for Youth Regional ARDF Championships". Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.
  14. ^ Texas ARDF (2005). "Rules for Texas ARDF Competitions". Retrieved Nov. 28, 2005.
  15. ^ Zentai, László, ed. (2000). International Drawing Specifications for Orienteering Maps (ISOM2000). International Orienteering Federation.
  16. ^ IARU Region I ARDF Working Group (2002) "Rules for Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding Appendix 2: Principles for Course Planning". Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.
  17. ^ a b 10th ARDF World Championships 2000, Nanjing, China, October 13th to 18th, 2000. Retrieved Jan. 3, 2006.
  18. ^ Hunt, Dale WB6BYU (2005). "A Simple Direction-Finding Receiver for 80 Meters". QST. September, 2005, pp. 36-42.
  19. ^ a b IARU Region I ARDF Working Group (2002) "Rules for Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding Appendix 1: Technical Specifications for Amateur Radio Direction Finding Equipment". Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.
  20. ^ IARU Region I ARDF Working Group (2002). "Rules for Championships in Amateur Radio Direction Finding Section 22: Equipment used by competitors". Retrieved Jan. 4, 2006.
  21. ^ Victorian ARDF Group (2005). "Fox-Oring: Just Like Orienteering with Hidden Controls!!!". Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.
  22. ^ Crystal, Bonnie KQ6XA (1998). "Radio-Orienteering in a Compact Area: The New Walking Foxhunt". Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.
General References
  • Harker, Kenneth WM5R (2005). "What You Need to Get Started in ARDF". Retrieved Nov. 28, 2005.
  • Moell, Joe KØOV and Curlee, Thomas N. WB6UZZ (1987). Transmitter Hunting: Radio Direction Finding Simplified". TAB Books, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8306-2701-4.
  • Titterington, Bob G3ORY (2001). "A Newcomer's View of ARDF". Retrieved Dec. 2, 2005.

City map from Multimap Aerial view from GlobalGuide City nickname: the City of Azaleas Government Official Website City of Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou Capital District Xinyi Geographical characteristics Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... Motto: None Anthem: National Anthem of the ROC Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure) 1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (Guoyü) Government • President • Vice President • Premier Multiparty democracy Chen Shui-bian Annette Lu Su Tseng-chang Establishment • Xinhai Revolution Declared  October 10, 1911 Established  January... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... QST is an ARRL published magazine for amateur radio enthusiasts. ...

See also

Friendship Radiosport Games Team Canada, operating in the HF contesting event at FRG 2001. ...


External links

ARDF organizations

ARDF Events

ARDF Information


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amateur Radio Direction Finding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3300 words)
The radio equipment carried by competitors on a course must be capable of receiving the signal being transmitted by the five transmitters and useful for radio direction finding, including a radio receiver, attenuator, and directional antenna.
Amateur radio was willythe nations of the Eastern Bloc.
The radio equipment carried on course must be capable of receiving the signal being transmitted by the five transmitters and useful for radio direction finding.
Radio direction finding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (938 words)
There are two common technical approaches to radio direction finding; one approach involves the use of directional antennas, and the other exploits the effects of Doppler shift.
Radio direction finder, or RDF, is a term used to describe a navigational device for finding the direction to a radio transmitter source.
ARDF competitions take place in diverse wooded terrain and combine radio direction finding skills with the land navigation skills promoted by the sport of orienteering.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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