FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Amarna letters
EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet.
EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet.

The designation Amarna letters (sometimes "Amarna correspondence") denotes an archive of correspondence on clay tablets, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru. The letters were found in Upper Egypt at Amarna, the modern name for the capital of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom, primarily from the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaten (1350s - 1330s BC). The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, being mostly written in Akkadian cuneiform, the language not of Ancient Egypt, but of ancient Mesopotamia. The known tablets currently total 382 in number, 24 further tablets having been recovered since the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's landmark edition of the Amarna correspondence, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln in two volumes (1907 and 1915).[1] Image File history File links Amarna_Akkadian_letter. ... Image File history File links Amarna_Akkadian_letter. ... Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the fourteenth century BC. He was the son of Abdi-Ashirta, the previous Egyptian vassal of Amurru. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Neferkheperre-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[2] the one of Re Nomen Akhenaten Servant of the Aten[1] (after Year 4 of his reign) Amenhotep Horus name Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten Nebty name Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten Golden Horus Wetjesrenenaten Who... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon was a Norwegian linguist and historian. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Contents

The Letters

One of the Amarna Letters.

These letters, consisting of cuneiform tablets mostly written in Akkadian — the international language of diplomacy for this period — were first discovered by local Egyptians around 1887, who secretly dug most of them from the ruined city (they were originally stored in an ancient building archaeologists have since called the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh) and then sold them on the antiquities market. Once the location where they were found was determined, the ruins were explored for more. The first archaeologist who successfully recovered more tablets was William Flinders Petrie in 1891-92, who found 21 fragments. Émile Chassinat, then director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, acquired two more tablets in 1903. Since Knudtzon's edition, some 24 more tablets, or fragments of tablets, have been found, either in Egypt, or identified in the collections of various museums.[2] Image File history File links One of the Amarna Letters. ... Image File history File links One of the Amarna Letters. ... The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... A lingua franca is any language widely used beyond its native speakers, primarily for international commerce but extending to other cultural exchanges, such as diplomacy. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


The tablets originally recovered by local Egyptians have been scattered among museums in Cairo, Europe and the United States: 202 or 203 are at the Vorderasiatischen Museum in Berlin; 49 or 50 at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo; seven at the Louvre; three at the Moscow Museum; and one is currently in the collection of the Oriental Institute in Chicago.[3] Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... This article is about the museum. ... The Art-Deco doors of the Oriental Institute Head of a bull that once guarded the entrance to the Hundred-Column Hall in Persepolis The Oriental Institute (OI), established in 1919, is the University of Chicagos archeology museum and research center for ancient Near Eastern studies. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...

Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.
Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. The extent of the Achaean/Mycenaean civilization is shown in orange.

The full archive, which includes correspondence from the preceding reign of Amenhotep III as well, contained over three hundred diplomatic letters; the remainder are a miscellany of literary or educational materials. These tablets shed much light on Egyptian relations with Babylonia, Assyria, the Mitanni, the Hittites, Syria, Canaan, and Alashiya (Cyprus). They are important for establishing both the history and chronology of the period. Letters from the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I anchor the timeframe of Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BC. Here was also found the first mention of a Near Eastern group known as the Habiru, whose possible connection with the Hebrews remains debated. Other rulers include Tushratta of Mittani, Lib'ayu of Shehchem, Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem and the quarrelous king Rib-Hadda of Byblos, who in over 58 letters continuously pleads for Egyptian military help. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (602x619, 23 KB) Summary Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (602x619, 23 KB) Summary Map of the ancient Near East during the Amarna period, showing the great powers of the period: Egypt (green), Hatti (yellow), the Kassite kingdom of Babylon (purple), Assyria (grey), and Mittani (red). ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Alashiya was an important state during the Middle and Late Bronze Ages. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Habiru or Hapiru was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, from before 2000 BC to around 1200 BC) to a group of people living in the areas of Northeastern Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent from the borders of Egypt in Canaan... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tushratta was a king of the Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten -- approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II, and his daughter Tadukhipa was married to Akhenaten. ... Labaya; possibly Labayu or Lbayu, Canaanite warlord of (probably) the 14th century BCE. Labaya is referred to in several of the Amarna Letters. ... Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or Abdi-Hebat) was king of Jerusalem during the Amarna period (mid 1300s BCE). ... Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, Rib-Adda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE. He is the author of some sixty of the Amarna letters all to Akhenaten. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ...


Letter Summary

Amarna Letters are arranged politically roughly counterclockwise:

  • 001-014 Babylonia
  • 015-016 Assyria
  • 017-030 Mittani
  • 031-032 Arzawa
  • 033-040 Alasia
  • 041-044 Hatti
  • 045-380+ Syria/Lebanon/Canaan

Amarna Letters from Syria/Lebanon/Canaan are distributed roughly:

  • 045-067 Syria
  • 068-227 Lebanon (where 68-140 are from Gubla aka Byblos)
  • 227-380 Canaan

Amarna Letters List

Note: Many assignments are tentative; spellings vary widely. This is just a guide.

EA# letter author to recipient summary notes
EA# 1 Amenhotep III to Babylon king KadashmanEnlil
EA# 2 Babylon king KadashmanEnlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 3 Babylon king KadashmanEnlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 4 Babylon king KadashmanEnlil to Amenhotep 3
EA# 5 Amenhotep 3 to Babylon king KadashmanEnlil
EA# 6 Babylon king BurnaBuriash 2 to Amenhotep 3
EA# 7 Babylon king BurnaBuriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 8 Babylon king BurnaBuriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 9 Babylon king BurnaBuriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 10 Babylon king BurnaBuriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 11 Babylon king BurnaBuriash 2 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 12 princess to her lord
EA# 13 Babylon
EA# 14 Amenhotep 4 to Babylon king BurnaBuriash 2
EA# 15 Assyria king AshurUballit 1 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 16 Assyria king AshurUballit 1 to Amenhotep 4
EA# 17 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 18 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 19 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 20 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 21 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 22 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 23 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 24 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 3
EA# 25 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 26 Mitanni king Tushratta to widow Tiy
EA# 27 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 28 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 29 Mitanni king Tushratta to Amenhotep 4
EA# 30 Mitanni king to Palestine kings
EA# 31 Amenhotep 3 to Arzawa king Tarhundaraba
EA# 32 Arzawa king Tarhundaraba to Amenhotep 3(?)
EA# 33 Alashiya king to pharaoh #1
EA# 34 Alashiya king to pharaoh #2
EA# 35 Alashiya king to pharaoh #3
EA# 36 Alashiya king to pharaoh #4
EA# 37 Alashiya king to pharaoh #5
EA# 38 Alashiya king to pharaoh #6
EA# 39 Alashiya king to pharaoh #7
EA# 40 Alashiya minister to Egypt minister
EA# 41 Hittite king Suppiluliuma to Huri[a]
EA# 42 Hittite king to pharaoh
EA# 43 Hittite king to pharaoh
EA# 44 Hittite prince Zi[k]ar to pharaoh
EA# 45 Ugarit king [M]istu ... to pharaoh
EA# 46 Ugarit king ... to king
EA# 47 Ugarit king ... to king
EA# 48 Ugarit queen ..[h]epa to pharaohs queen
EA# 49 Ugarit king NiqmAdda 2 to pharaoh
EA# 50 woman to her mistress B[i]...
EA#051 Nuhasse king Addunirari to pharaoh
EA#052 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #1
EA#053 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #2
EA#054 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #3
EA#055 Qatna king Akizzi to Amenhotep 3 #4
EA#056 ... to king
EA#057 ...
EA#058
EA#058 [Qat]ihutisupa to king(?) obverse
EA#059 Tunip peoples to pharaoh
EA#060 Amurru king AbdiAsirta to pharaoh #1
EA#061 Amurru king AbdiAsirta to pharaoh #2
EA#062 Amurru king AbdiAsirta to Pahanate
EA#063 Amurru king AbdiAsirta to pharaoh #3
EA#064 Amurru king AbdiAsirta to pharaoh #4
EA#065 Amurru king AbdiAsirta to pharaoh #5
EA#066 --- to king
EA#067 --- to king
EA#068 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #1
EA#069 Gubal king RibAddi to Egypt official
EA#070 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #1
EA#071 Gubal king RibAddi to Haia(?)
EA#072 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #3
EA#073 Gubal king RibAddi to Amanappa #1
EA#074 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #4
EA#075 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #5
EA#076 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #6
EA#077 Gubal king RibAddi to Amanappa #2
EA#078 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #7
EA#079 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #8
EA#080 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #9
EA#081 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #10
EA#082 Gubal king RibAddi to Amanappa #3
EA#083 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #11
EA#084 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #12
EA#085 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #13
EA#086 Gubal king RibAddi to Amanappa #4
EA#087 Gubal king RibAddi to Amanappa #5
EA#088 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #14
EA#089 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #15
EA#090 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #16
EA#091 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #17
EA#092 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #18
EA#093 Gubal king RibAddi to Amanappa #6
EA#094 Gubla man to pharaoh
EA#095 Gubal king RibAddi to chief
EA#096 chief to RibAddi
EA#097 IapahAddi to SumuHadi
EA#098 IapahAddi to Ianhamu
EA#099 pharaoh to Ammia prince(?)
EA#100 Irqata peoples
EA#1001 Tagi to LabAya
EA#101 Gubla man to Egypt official
EA#102 Gubal king RibAddi to [Ianha]m[u]
EA#103 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #19
EA#104 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #20
EA#105 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #21
EA#106 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #22
EA#107 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #23
EA#108 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #24
EA#109 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #25
EA#110 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #26
EA#111 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #27
EA#112 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #28
EA#113 Gubal king RibAddi to Egypt official
EA#114 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #29
EA#115 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #30
EA#116 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #31
EA#117 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #32
EA#118 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #33
EA#119 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #34
EA#120 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #35
EA#121 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #36
EA#122 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #37
EA#123 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #38
EA#124 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #39
EA#125 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #40
EA#126 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #41
EA#127 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #42
EA#128 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #43
EA#129 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #44
EA#129 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #45
EA#130 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #46
EA#131 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #47
EA#132 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #48
EA#133 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #49
EA#134 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #50
EA#135 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #51
EA#136 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #52
EA#137 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #53
EA#138 Gubal king RibAddi to pharaoh #54
EA#139 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #1
EA#140 Ilirabih & Gubla to pharaoh #2
EA#141 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #1
EA#142 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #2
EA#143 Beruta king Ammunira to pharaoh #3
EA#144 Zidon king Zimriddi to pharaoh
EA#145 [Z]imrid[a] to an official
EA#146 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #1
EA#147 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #2
EA#148 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #3
EA#149 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #4
EA#150 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #5
EA#151 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #6
EA#152 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #7
EA#153 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #8
EA#154 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #9
EA#155 Tyre king AbiMilki to pharaoh #10
EA#156 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #1
EA#157 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #2
EA#158 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #1
EA#159 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #3
EA#160 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #4
EA#161 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #5
EA#162 pharaoh to Amurra prince
EA#163 pharaoh to ...
EA#164 Amurru king Aziri to Dudu #2
EA#165 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #6
EA#166 Amurru king Aziri to Hai
EA#167 Amurru king Aziri to (Hai #2?)
EA#168 Amurru king Aziri to pharaoh #7
EA#169 Amurru son of Aziri to a Egypt official
EA#170 BaAluia & Battiilu
EA#171 Amurru son of Aziri to pharaoh
EA#172 ---
EA#173 ... to king
EA#174 Bieri of Hasabu
EA#175 Ildaja of Hazi to king
EA#176 AbdiRisa
EA#177 Guddasuna king Jamiuta
EA#178 Hibija to a chief
EA#179 ... to king
EA#180 ... to king
EA#181 ... to king
EA#182 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #1
EA#183 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #2
EA#184 Mittani king Shuttarna to pharaoh #3
EA#185 Hazi king Majarzana to king
EA#186 [Majarzana] of Hazi to king #2
EA#187 Satija of ... to king
EA#188 ... to king
EA#189 Qadesh mayor Etakkama
EA#190 pharaoh to Qadesh mayor Etakkama(?)
EA#191 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king
EA#192 Ruhiza king Arzawaija to king #2
EA#193 Dijate to king
EA#194 Damascus mayor BiRYawaza to king #1
EA#195 Damascus mayor BiRYawaza to king #2
EA#196 Damascus mayor BiRYawaza to king #3
EA#197 Damascus mayor BiRYawaza to king #4
EA#198 Ara[ha]ttu of Kumidi to king
EA#199 ... the king
EA#200 servant to king
EA#2001 Sealants
EA#2002 Sealants
EA#201 Artemanja of Ziribasani to king
EA#202 Amajase to king
EA#203 AbdiMilki of Sashimi
EA#204 prince of Qanu to king
EA#205 Gubbu prince to king
EA#206 prince of Naziba to king
EA#207 Ipteh ... to king
EA#208 ... to Egypt official or king
EA#209 Zisamimi to king
EA#210 Zisami[mi] to Amenhotep 4
EA#2100 Carchemish king to Ugarit king Asukwari
EA#211 Zitrijara to king #1
EA#2110 EwiriShar to Plsy
EA#212 Zitrijara to king #2
EA#213 Zitrijara to king #3
EA#214 ... to king
EA#215 Baiawa to king #1
EA#216 Baiawa to king #2
EA#217 A[h]... to king
EA#218 ... to king
EA#219 ... to king
EA#220 Nukurtuwa of (?) [Z]unu to king
EA#221 Wiktazu to king #1
EA#222 pharaoh to Intaruda
EA#222 Wik[tazu] to king #2
EA#223 En[g]u[t]a to king
EA#224 SumAdd[a] to king
EA#225 SumAdda of Samhuna to king
EA#226 Sipturi_ to king
EA#227 Hazor king
EA#228 Hazor king AbdiTirsi
EA#229 Abdi-na-... to king
EA#230 Iama to king
EA#231 ... to king
EA#232 Acco king Zurata to pharaoh
EA#233 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #1
EA#234 Acco king Zatatna to pharaoh #2
EA#235 Zitatna/(Zatatna) to king
EA#236 ... to king
EA#237 Bajadi to king
EA#238 Bajadi
EA#239 Baduzana
EA#240 ... to king
EA#241 Rusmania to king
EA#242 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #1
EA#243 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #2
EA#244 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #3
EA#245 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #4
EA#246 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh #5
EA#247 Megiddo king Biridija or Jasdata
EA#248 Ja[sd]ata to king
EA#248 Megiddo king Biridija to pharaoh
EA#249
EA#249 AdduUr.sag to king
EA#250 AdduUr.sag to king
EA#2500 Shechem
EA#251 ... to Egypt official
EA#252 Labaja to king
EA#253 Labaja to king
EA#254 Labaja to king
EA#255 MutBalu or MutBahlum to king
EA#256 MutBalu to Ianhamu
EA#257 BaluMihir to king #1
EA#258 BaluMihir to king #2
EA#259 BaluMihir to king #3
EA#260 BaluMihir to king #4
EA#261 Dasru to king #1
EA#262 Dasru to king #2
EA#263 ... to lord
EA#264 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #1
EA#265 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #2
EA#266 Gezer leader Tagi to pharaoh #3
EA#267 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #1
EA#268 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #2
EA#269 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #3
EA#270 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #4
EA#271 Gezer mayor Milkili to pharaoh #5
EA#272 Sum. .. to king
EA#273 BaLatNese to king
EA#274 BaLatNese to king #2
EA#275 Iahazibada to king #1
EA#276 Iahazibada to king #2
EA#277 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #1
EA#278 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #2
EA#279 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
EA#280 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #3
EA#281 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #4
EA#282 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #5
EA#283 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #6
EA#284 Qiltu king Suwardata to pharaoh #7
EA#285 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#286 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#287 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#288 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#289 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#290 Jerusalem king AbdiHiba to pharaoh
EA#290 Qiltu king Suwardata to king
EA#291 ... to ...
EA#292 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #1
EA#293 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #2
EA#294 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #3
EA#295
EA#295 Gezer mayor Addudani to pharaoh #4
EA#296 Gaza king Iahtiri
EA#297 Gezer mayor Iapah[i] to pharaoh #1
EA#298 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #2
EA#299 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #3
EA#300 Gezer mayor Iapahi to pharaoh #4
EA#301 Subandu to king #1
EA#302 Subandu to king #2
EA#303 Subandu to king #3
EA#304 Subandu to king #4
EA#305 Subandu to king #5
EA#306 Subandu to king #6
EA#307 ... to king
EA#308 ... to king
EA#309 ... to king
EA#310 ... to king
EA#311 ... to king
EA#312 ... to king
EA#313 ... to king
EA#314 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #1
EA#315 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh #2
EA#316 Jursa king PuBaLu to pharaoh
EA#317 Dagantakala to king #1
EA#318 Dagantakala to king #2
EA#319 A[h]tirumna king Zurasar to king
EA#320 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #1
EA#321 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #2
EA#322 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #3
EA#323 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #4
EA#324 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #5
EA#325 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #6
EA#326 Asqalon king Widia to pharaoh #7
EA#327 ... the king
EA#328 Lakis mayor Iabniilu to pharaoh
EA#329 Lakis king Zimridi to pharaoh
EA#330 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #1
EA#331 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #2
EA#332 Lakis mayor SiptiBaLu to pharaoh #3
EA#333 Ebi to a prince
EA#334 ---dih of Zuhra [-?] to king
EA#335 --- [of Z]uhr[u] to king
EA#336 Hiziri to king #1
EA#337 Hiziri to king #2
EA#338 Zi. .. to king
EA#339 ... to king
EA#340 ...
EA#341 ...
EA#342 ...
EA#356 myth Adapa & South Wind
EA#357 myth Ereskigal & Nergal
EA#358 myth fragments
EA#359 myth Epic of king of Battle
EA#360 ...
EA#361 ...
EA#364 Aiab to king
EA#365 Megiddo king Biridiya to pharaoh
EA#367 pharaoh to Endaruta of Akshapa
EA#xxx Amenhotep 3 to Milkili
H#3100 Tell elHesi
P#3200 Pella prince MutBalu to Yanhamu
P#3210 Lion Woman to king
T#3002 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
T#3005 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
T#3006 Amenhotep to Taanach king Rewassa
U#4001 Ugarit king Niqmaddu

Chronology

William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows: William Lambert Moran (August 11, 1921 — December 19, 2000), was an American Assyriologist, he was born in Chicago, USA. In 1939, Moran joined the Jesuit order. ...

Despite a long history of inquiry, the chronology of the Amarna letters, both relative and absolute, presents many problems, some of bewildering complexity, that still elude definitive solution. Consensus obtains only about what is obvious, certain established facts, and these provide only a broad framework within which many and often quite different reconstructions of the course of events reflected in the Amarna letters are possible and have been defended. ...The Amarna archive, it is now generally agreed, spans at most about thirty years, perhaps only fifteen or so.[4]

From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 (or 1391) BC to 1351 (or 1353) BC, possibly as early as this king's 30th regnal year; the latest date any of these letters were written is the desertion of the city of Amarna, commonly believed to have happened in the second year of the reign of Tutankhamun later in the same century in 1332 BC. Moran notes that some scholars believe one tablet, EA 16, may have been addressed to Tutankhamun's successor Ay[5] However, this speculation appears improbable because the Amarna archives were closed by Year 2 of Tutankhamun when this king transferred Egypt's capital from Amarna To Thebes. Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Regnal year: the year of the reign of a sovereign. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The...


See also

  • Abdi-Heba
  • Labaya
  • Ashur-uballit I
  • See the town of "Lakiša", Lachish, for "find" of one tablet, EA 333.
  • Amarna letters-localities and their rulers

Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or Abdi-Hebat) was king of Jerusalem during the Amarna period (mid 1300s BCE). ... Labaya (also transliterated as Labayu or Libayu) was a Canaanite warlord who lived about contemporaneously with Pharaoh Akhenaten (14th century BCE). ... Ashur-uballit I (Aššur-uballiṭ I), was king of the Assyrian empire (1365 BC-1330 BC or 1353 BC – 1318 BC). ... Lachish was a town located in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3, 5; 12:11). ...

Bibliography

References

  1. ^ William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. p.xiv ISBN 0-8018-4251-4
  2. ^ Moran, op. cit., p.xv
  3. ^ Moran, op. cit., p.xiii-xiv
  4. ^ Moran, op. cit., p.xxxiv
  5. ^ Moran, op. cit., p.xxxv, n.123

Research and Analysis

  • Goren, Y., Finkelstein, I. & Na'aman, N., Inscribed in Clay - Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets and Other Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Tel Aviv: Sonia and Marco Nadler Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 2004. ISBN 965-266-020-5

Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amarna letters - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (621 words)
The letters were found at Amarna, the modern name for the capital of the Egyptian New Kingdom primarily from the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaten (1369 - 1353 BCE).
The Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, being mostly written in Akkadian cuneiform on clay tablets.
Letters from the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I anchor Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BCE.
Amarna - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1235 words)
The site of Amarna includes several modern villages, chief of which are el-Till in the north and el-Hagg Qandil in the south.
The name "Amarna" itself comes from the name of a tribe of nomads, the Beni Amran, who left the Eastern Desert in the 18th century to settle on the banks of the Nile along this stretch.
The Amarna art-style is unique among the Egyptian world for its more realistic depiction of its subjects, instead of the strict idealistic formalism universal in Egyptian art up until that point, as well as for depicting many informal scenes such as the royal family playing with their children.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m