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Encyclopedia > Amantadine
Amantadine
Chemical name Amantadine
Chemical formula C10H17N
Molecular mass 151.25 g/mol
Melting point xx.x °C
Boiling point xx.x °C
Density x.xxx g/cm3
CAS number 768-94-5
SMILES xxx
Molecule of amantadine
Disclaimer and references

Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. The drug has also been demonstrated to help reduce symptoms of Parkinson's disease and drug-induced short-term extrapyramidal syndromes. As an antiparkinsonic it is being prescribed together with L-DOPA when L-DOPA responses decline (probably due to tolerance). IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... See also Avogadros number Atomic mass unit Dalton (unit) External links Learning by Simulations Calculation of Molecular Formulas from Molecular Masses Categories: Chemistry stubs | Mass | Chemical properties ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Allah is who made all of this. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII alpha-numeric strings. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... Adamantane (Tricyclo[3. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Negatively stained flu virions. ... In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ... // Therapeutic use L-DOPA is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinsons disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrierwhere its precursor can. ...


It is a derivate of adamantane, like a similar drug rimantadine. Adamantane (Tricyclo[3. ... Rimantadine is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, type A influenza. ...

Contents


Availability

It is available as a prescription drug as a generic drug and under brand name Symmetrel. A prescription drug is a medication that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... A generic drug (pl. ...


Mechanism of its effects

The mechanism of its antiparkinsonic effect is not fully understood, but it appears to be releasing dopamine from the nerve endings of the brain cells, together with stimulation of norepinephrine response. Dopamine is a chemical naturally produced in the body. ...    Nerves redirects here. ... Please help to figure out license type for the image Comparative brain sizes. For other articles about other subjects named brain see brain (disambiguation). ... Norepinephrine, known as noradrenaline outside the USA, is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ...


The antiviral mechanism seems to be unrelated. The drug interferes with a viral protein, M2 (an ion channel), which is needed for the viral particle to become "uncoated" once it is taken inside the cell by endocytosis. The M2 protein is a proton-selective ion channel protein, integral in the cell membrane of the influenza A virus. ... Another, unrelated ion channeling process is part of ion implantation. ... Endocytosis is a process whereby cells absorb material (molecules or other cells) from outside by engulfing it with their cell membranes. ...


Misuse

Recently, amantadine is reported to have been used in China poultry farming in an effort to protect the birds against avian flu. In western countries and according to international livestock regulations, amantadine is approved only for use in humans. Chickens in China have received an estimated 2.6 billion doses of amantadine. Avian flu (H5N1) strains in China and southeast Asia are resistant to amantadine, but strains circulating elsewhere seem to be sensitive. If amantadine resistant strains of the virus spread, the drug of choice in an avian flu outbreak will likely be restricted to one of the scarcer and costlier oseltamivir or zanamivir, which work by a different mechanism and are less likely to trigger resistance. Avian influenza (also known as bird flu) is a type of influenza virulent in birds. ... H5N1 is a highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza (bird flu). ... Oseltamivir is an antiviral drug, a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Oseltamivir was the first orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ...


See also

Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... H5N1 is a highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza (bird flu). ... Rimantadine is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, type A influenza. ... Tromantadine Tromantadine is an antiviral medicine used to treat herpes simplex virus. ...

External links

  • Washington Post article about the Chinese use
  • MedicineNet.com article about the drug itself


Antivirals edit
Antiherpesvirus agents edit

{Acyclovir} {Cidofovir} {Docosanol} {Famciclovir} {Foscarnet} {Fomivirsen} {Ganciclovir} {Idoxuridine} {Penciclovir} {Trifluridine} {Valaciclovir} {Valganciclovir} {Vidarabine} Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Aciclovir (INN) or aciclovir (USAN), marketed as Zovirax®, is one of the main antiviral drugs. ... Chemical structure of cidofovir Cidofovir is an injectable antiviral medication for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. It suppresses CMV replication by selective inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. ... Docosanol 10% cream is a topical treatment for recurrent herpes simplex labialis episodes (episodes of cold sores or fever blisters). ... Ganciclovir sodium (Cytovene®) is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. ... Valaciclovir (INN) or valacyclovir (USAN) is an antiviral drug used in the management of herpes simplex. ... Valganciclovir hydrochloride (Valcyte®) is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus infections. ... Chemical structure of vidarabine Vidarabine is an anti-viral drug which is active against herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses. ...

Antiinfluenza agents [ ]

{Amantadine} {Oseltamivir} {Rimantadine} {Zanamivir} Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Oseltamivir is an antiviral drug, a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Oseltamivir was the first orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Rimantadine is an orally administered medicine used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, type A influenza. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ...


Antiretrovirals edit

NRTIs edit Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ...

{Zidovudine} {Didanosine} {Stavudine} {Zalcitabine} {Lamivudine} {Abacavir} Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (abbreviated to AZT) is an antiretroviral drug, the first antiviral treatment to be approved for use against HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir and Retrovis, and as an ingredient in Combivir and Trizivir. ... Didanosine (2-3-dideoxyinosine, ddI, Videx®) differs from other nucleoside analogues, because it does not have any of the regular bases, instead it has hypoxanthine attached to the sugar ring. ... Stavudine (2-3-didehydro-2-3-dideoxythymidine, d4T, brand name Zerit®) is a thymidine analogue active against HIV. It is phosphorylated by cellular kinases into active triphosphate. ... Zalcitabine (2-3-dideoxycytidine, ddC), is a derivative of the naturally existing deoxycytidine, made by replacing the hydroxyl group in position 3 with a hydrogen. ... Lamivudine(2-3-dideoxy-3-thiacytidine, 3TC) is a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor. ... Abacavir (ABC) is extremely potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor, meant for the treatment of AIDS. ABC is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. ...


NNRTIs edit Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ...

{Nevirapine} {Efavirenz} {Delavirdine} Nevirapine is a controversial AIDS drug. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


PIs edit Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ...

{Saquinavir} {Indinavir} {Atazanavir} {Ritonavir} {Nelfinavir} {Amprenavir} {Lopinavir} Saquinavir (Fortovase®, Roche) is a protease inhibitor, used as a component of HIV therapy. ... Categories: Stub ... Ritonavir is a drug from the protease inhibitor class used to treat AIDS. It is manufactured as Norvir® by Abbott Laboratories. ... Nelfinavir (Viracept®) is an antitretroviral drug used in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...


Other antiviral agents edit

{Fomivirsen} {Imiquimod} {Interferon} {Lamivudine} {Ribavirin} Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune systems of most animals in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... Lamivudine(2-3-dideoxy-3-thiacytidine, 3TC) is a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor. ... Ribavirin (Copegus®; Rebetol®; Ribasphere®) is an anti-viral drug active against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amantadine - Parkinson's disease medication information and resources (2351 words)
Amantadine is useful as an adjunct in patients who do not tolerate optimal doses of levodopa alone or in combined therapy with a decarboxylase inhibitor.
Because amantadine is not metabolized and is mainly excreted in the urine, it may accumulate in the plasma and in the body when renal function declines.
Therefore, amantadine should not be used in women with childbearing potential, unless in the opinion of the physician, the expected benefit to the patient outweighs the possible risk to the fetus.
amantadine: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1809 words)
Amantadine is used to treat a group of side effects, called parkinsonian side effects, that include tremors, difficulty walking, and slack muscle tone.
Amantadine (1-aminoadamantane, sold as Symmetrel®) is an antiviral drug that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1976 for the treatment of Influenzavirus A in adults.
If amantadine resistant strains of the virus spread, the drug of choice in an avian flu outbreak will likely be restricted to one of the scarcer and costlier oseltamivir or zanamivir, which work by a different mechanism and are less likely to trigger resistance.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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