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Encyclopedia > Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's loser disease
Classification and external resources
Histopathologic image of senile plaques seen in the cerebral cortex in a patient with Alzheimer disease of presenile onset. Silver impregnation.
ICD-10 G30., F00.
ICD-9 331.0, 290.1
OMIM 104300
DiseasesDB 490
MedlinePlus 000760
eMedicine neuro/13 
MeSH D000544

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also called Alzheimer disease or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common cause of dementia, afflicting 24 million people worldwide. Alzheimer's is a degenerative and terminal disease for which there is currently no known cure. In its most common form, it occurs in people over 65 years old although a less-prevalent early-onset form also exists.[1] The disease can begin many years before it is eventually diagnosed. In its early stages, short-term memory loss is the most common symptom, often initially thought to be caused by aging or stress by the sufferer.[2] Later symptoms include confusion, anger, mood swings, language breakdown, long-term memory loss, and the general withdrawal of the sufferer as his or her senses decline.[2][3] Gradually the sufferer loses minor, and then major bodily functions, until death occurs.[4] Although the symptoms are common, each individual experiences the symptoms in unique ways.[5] The duration of the disease is estimated as being between 5 and 20 years.[6][7] Aloysius Alois Alzheimer (14 June 1864, Marktbreit, Bavaria - 19 December 1915, Breslau, now WrocÅ‚aw, Poland) was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. ... Alzheimer may refer to: Alzheimers disease, a neurodegenerative disease Alois Alzheimer, the neuropathologist who characterized the disease that bears his name Alzheimers Society Alzheimers Association Alzheimer, a record by Spanish metal rap band Def Con Dos. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Alzheimer_dementia_(3)_presenile_onset. ... Histopathology is a field of pathology which specialises in the histologic study of diseased tissue. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // G00-G99 - Diseases of the nervous system (G00-G09) Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (G00) Bacterial meningitis, not elsewhere classified (G01) Meningitis in bacterial diseases classified elsewhere (G02) Meningitis in other infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere (G03) Meningitis due to other and unspecified causes (G04) Encephalitis, myelitis... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... A degenerative disease is a disease in which the function or structure of the affected tissues or organs will progressively deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits. ... This article is about incurable disease. ... Familial Alzheimers disease (FAD) is an uncommon form of Alzheimers disease that comes on earlier in life, defined as before the age of 65 (usually between 30 and 65 years of age) and is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary, working, or active memory, is said to hold a small amount of information for about 20 seconds. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Severe confusion of a degree considered pathological usually refers to loss of orientation (ability to place oneself correctly in the world by time, location, and personal identity), and often memory (ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new materal). ... This article is about the emotion. ... A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood. ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory, stored as meaning, that can last as little as 30 seconds or as long as decades. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are generally reported to a physician when memory-loss causes concern, and on suspecting Alzheimer’s disease, the physician or healthcare specialists will confirm the diagnosis with a behavioral assessment and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan.[8] For other uses, see Doctor. ... Neuroimaging includes the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function, or pharmacology of the brain. ...


The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease is not well understood, but is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain.[9] Possible causes and potential cures of the disease have been conjectured, with varying evidence supporting each claim. No treatment has been found to stop or reverse the disease, and it is not known whether current treatments slow the progression, or simply manage the symptoms. Many preventative measures have been suggested for Alzheimer's disease, but their value is unproven in reducing the course and severity of the disease. Mental stimulation, exercise and a balanced diet are often recommended, both as a possible prevention and as a sensible way of managing the disease.[10] Senile plaques are clumps of A-beta peptides commonly found in Alzheimers disease on microscopic examination of brain tissue. ... Neurofibrillary tangles are pathological protein aggregates found within neurons in cases of Alzheimers disease. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Fresh Vegetables A healthy diet contains a balance of food groups and all the nutrients necessary to promote good health. ...


Due to the incurable and degenerative nature of the disease, care-management of Alzheimer's is essential. The role of the main caregiver is often taken by the spouse or a close relative.[11] Caregivers may themselves suffer from stress, over-work, depression, and being physically hit or struck.[12] Stress has different meanings in different fields: Look up stress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...

Contents

Characteristics

The disease course is typically divided into four stages, with a different pattern of cognitive and functional impairment occurring at each stage. Look up functional in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ...


Predementia

Detailed neuropsychological testing can reveal mild cognitive difficulties up to eight years before a person fulfills clinical criteria of diagnosis.[13] It is not yet clear if these early symptoms affect daily living activities. Recent studies show impairments in the most complex activities.[14] The most noticeable deficit is short-term memory loss and the resultant inability to acquire new information. In addition, subtle executive problems or semantic memory impairments can also occur.[15][16] Apathy can be observed at this stage, and is the most common and persistent neuropsychiatric symptom throughout the course of the disease.[17][18][19] This stage of the disease has also been termed mild cognitive impairment,[20] but there is still a debate on whether this term corresponds to a different diagnostic entity by itself or just a first step of the disease.[21] Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... Activities of daily living (ADLs), is a way to describe the functional status of a person. ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary, working, or active memory, is said to hold a small amount of information for about 20 seconds. ... Executive functions is a term synonymous with cognitive control, and used by psychologists and neuroscientists to describe a loosely defined collection of brain processes whose role is to guide thought and behaviour in accordance with internally generated goals or plans. ... Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a diagnosis given to individuals who have cognitive impairments beyond that expected for their age and education, but that do not interfere significantly with their daily activities [1]. MCI is also used interchangeably with incipient dementia, or isolated memory impairment. ...


Early dementia

In 1994 United States ex-president R. Reagan informed the country of his AD diagnosis via a hand-written letter. Writing is usually affected in the first stages of the disease.
In 1994 United States ex-president R. Reagan informed the country of his AD diagnosis via a hand-written letter. Writing is usually affected in the first stages of the disease.

In most people with the disease the increasing impairments in learning and memory will lead to diagnosis, while in a small proportion of them language, executive or visuoconstructional difficulties will be more salient.[22] Nevertheless, memory problems do not affect all memory subcapacities equally. Older memories of the patient's life (episodic memory), facts learned (declarative memory), and implicit memory (the memory of the body on how to do things, such as using a knife to eat) are affected to a much lesser degree than the capacities needed to learn new facts or make new memories.[23][24] Language problems are mainly characterized by a shrinking vocabulary and a decreased word fluency which leads to a general impoverishment of oral and written language. The Alzheimer's patient is usually capable of adequately communicating basic ideas.[25][26][27] While performing fine motor tasks such as writing, drawing or dressing, certain visoconstructional difficulties, or apraxia, may be present, which may appear as clumsiness.[28] As the disease progresses to the middle stage, patients might still be able to live and perform tasks independently for most of the time, but may need assistance or supervision with the most complicated activities.[22] Reagan redirects here. ... Ronald Reagan A portion of the two-page, handwritten letter Ronald Reagans Alzheimers letter was a hand-written letter authored by former United States President Ronald Reagan in November 1994, disclosing the fact he had recently been diagnosed with having Alzheimers disease and was departing from public... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory, stored as meaning, that can last as little as 30 seconds or as long as decades. ... Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, a sub-category of declarative memory, is the recollection of events. ... It has been suggested that Explicit_memory be merged into this article or section. ... Procedural memory is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or how to knowledge. ... Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory. ... The vocabulary of a person is defined either as the set of all words that are understood by that person or the set of all words likely to be used by that person when constructing new sentences. ... Fluency is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise. ... Fine motor skills can be defined as small muscle movements which occur in the fingers, in coordination with the eyes. ... Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements. ... Look up clumsy, clumsiness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Moderate dementia

In the early stage, people with Alzheimer's can usually care for themselves. At the moderate stage, progressive deterioration seriously hinders the possibility of independence.[22] Language difficulties become clearly noticeable: the person makes frequent paraphasias due to difficulties in finding words, and content is poor. Reading and writing are also progressively forgotten.[25][29] As time passes, complex motor sequences become less coordinated, costing the patient most of their daily-living abilities.[30] Memory problems worsen, and the person may not recognize close relatives.[31] Long-term memory, which was previously left intact, is now also impaired.[32] Patients are usually almost completely unaware of their own deficits, and behavior changes are the norm. Common neuropsychiatric manifestations in this stage are irritability and labile affect, leading to crying or outbursts of unpremeditated aggression and physical violence, even in patients whose life-long behavior has been peaceful. Approximately 30% of the patients also develop illusionary misidentifications and other delusional symptoms.[17][33] Often urinary incontinence develops.[34] Because of the communication deficit along with delusions, patients often resist when caregivers attempt to provide care.[35] It is important to prevent escalation of resistiveness to care into combativeness when patient might strike out. All these symptoms create stress for relatives and caretakers, increasing the likelihood of moving the patient from home care to other long-term care facilities.[22][36] Paraphasia (also known as paragrammatism) is a notable feature of aphasia (also known as dysphasia) in which one loses the ability of speaking correctly, substitutes one word for another, and changes words and sentences in an inappropriate way. ... Neuropsychiatry, as a subspecialty of Psychiatry, is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... Irritability is an excessive response to stimuli. ... Labile affect or Pseudobulbar affect refers to the pathological expression of laughter, crying, or smiling. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Delusional misidentification syndrome is an umbrella term for a group of delusional disorders that occur in the context of mental or neurological illness. ... A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed false belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false, fanciful or derived from deception. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Home Care, AKA. domiciliary care, is health care provided in the patients home by healthcare professionals (often referred to as home health care or formal care; in the United States, it is known as skilled care) or by family and friends (also known as caregivers, primary caregiver, or voluntary...


Advanced

In the last stage of Alzheimer's disease all human behavior is likely to become entirely automatic. Language is reduced to simple phrases or even single words before being lost altogether.[25] Nevertheless many patients can receive and return emotional signals long after the loss of verbal language.[37] Although aggressiveness can still be present, extreme apathy and exhaustion are much more common.[22] Patients will ultimately not be able to perform even the most simple tasks independently. Finally, deterioration of muscle and mobility will develop, leading the patient to become bedridden[38] and to lose the ability to feed oneself[39] if death from some external cause, such as infection due to pressure ulcers or pneumonia, does not occur first.[40][41] For the Björk song, see Human Behaviour Human behavior is the collection of behaviors exhibited by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle is the contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Bedsores, also called pressure sores or decubitus ulcers, are ulcers (sores) caused by prolonged pressure or rubbing on vulnerable areas of the body. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Causes

Most cases of Alzheimer's disease do not exhibit familial inheritance. At least 80% of sporadic AD cases involve genetic risk factors. Inheritance of the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene is regarded as a risk factor for development of up to 50% of late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's. The presence of this gene allele along with infection by Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) further increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Several viral-host interactions are postulated, most relating to HSV-1’s targeting of Alzheimer’s susceptibility genes.[42][43] Genetic experts agree that there are other risk and protective factor genes that influence the development of late onset Alzheimer's disease. Over 400 genes have been tested for association with late-onset sporadic AD.[44] [45] An allele (pronounced , ) (from the Greek αλληλος, meaning each other) is one member of a pair or series of different forms of a gene. ... Apolipoprotein E (APOE), a main apoprotein of the chylomicron, binds to a specific receptor on liver cells and peripheral cells. ... This article is about the disease. ...


Five to ten percent of AD cases involve a clear familial pattern of inheritance in which the patient has at least two first-degree relatives with a history of AD. These cases often have an early age of onset (usually younger than sixty years). Nearly 200 different mutations in the presenilin-1 or presenilin-2 genes have been documented in over 500 families. Mutations of presenilin 1 (PS1) lead to the most aggressive form of familial Alzheimer's disease. Over twenty different mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene on chromosome 21 can also cause early onset of the disease. The presenilins have been identified as essential components of the proteolytic processing machinery that produces beta amyloid peptides through cleavage of APP. Most mutations in the APP and presenilin genes increase the production of a small protein (peptide) called Abeta42, the main component of senile plaques in brains of AD patients.[46] Presenilins are a family of related multi-pass transmembrane proteins that function as a part of the gamma-secretase protease complex. ... Familial Alzheimers disease (FAD) is an uncommon form of Alzheimers disease that comes on earlier in life, defined as before the age of 65 (usually between 30 and 65 years of age) and is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. ... The metal-binding domain of APP with a bound copper ion. ... Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intramolecular digestion. ...


Pathophysiology

Alzheimers disease (AD), one of the most common causes of adult dementia, is as yet not well understood at the molecular level. ...

Neuropathology

MRI images of a normal aged brain (right) and an Alzheimer's patient's brain (left). In the Alzheimer brain, atrophy is clearly seen.
MRI images of a normal aged brain (right) and an Alzheimer's patient's brain (left). In the Alzheimer brain, atrophy is clearly seen.

At a macroscopic level, AD is characterized by loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and certain subcortical regions. This results in gross atrophy of the affected regions, including degeneration in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe, and parts of the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus.[47] Image File history File links Alzheimer's_disease_-_MRI.jpg‎ Beskrivelse Source: http://rst. ... Image File history File links Alzheimer's_disease_-_MRI.jpg‎ Beskrivelse Source: http://rst. ... The mri are a fictional alien species in the Faded Sun Trilogy of C.J. Cherryh. ... Macroscopic is commonly used to describe physical objects that are measurable and observable by the naked eye. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brains of vertebrates. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ...


Both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are clearly visible by microscopy in AD brains.[9] Plaques are dense, mostly insoluble deposits of amyloid-beta protein and cellular material outside and around neurons. Tangles are insoluble twisted fibers that build up inside the nerve cell. Though many older people develop some plaques and tangles, the brains of AD patients have them to a much greater extent and in different brain locations.[48] For other uses, see Amyloid (disambiguation). ... Neurofibrillary tangles are pathological protein aggregates found within neurons in cases of Alzheimers disease. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ... Insoluble Not soluble ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Look up cell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Biochemical characteristics

Alzheimer's disease has been identified as a protein misfolding disease, or proteopathy, due to the accumulation of abnormally folded A-beta and tau proteins in the brains of AD patients.[49] Plaques are made of a small peptide (39 to 43 amino acid residues) called beta-amyloid (also A-beta or Aβ), a protein fragment snipped from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP is a transmembrane protein; which means that it sticks through the neuron's membrane; and is believed to help neurons grow, survive and repair themselves after injury.[50][51] In AD, something causes APP to be divided by enzymes through a mechanism called proteolysis.[52] One of these fragments is beta-amyloid. Beta-amyloid fragments (amyloid fibrils) outside the cell come together into clumps that deposit outside neurons in dense formations known as senile plaques.[53][9] Protein before and after folding. ... Proteopathy (Proteo- [pref. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a protein fragment of 39-42 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in various neurological disorders, most prominently Alzheimers disease. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The metal-binding domain of APP with a bound copper ion. ... A transmembrane protein is a protein that spans the entire biological membrane. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intramolecular digestion. ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a protein fragment of 39-42 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in various neurological disorders, most prominently Alzheimers disease. ... Senile plaques are clumps of A-beta peptides commonly found in Alzheimers disease on microscopic examination of brain tissue. ...


AD is also considered a tauopathy due to abnormal aggregation of the tau protein. Healthy neurons have an internal support structure, or cytoskeleton, partly made up of structures called microtubules. These microtubules act like tracks, guiding nutrients and molecules from the body of the cell down to the ends of the axon and back. A special kind of protein, tau, makes the microtubules stable through a process named phosphorylation and is therefore called a microtubule-associated protein.[54] In AD, tau is changed chemically, becoming hyperphosphorylated. Tauopathy is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from the aggregation of tau protein. ... Tau proteins are normal proteins found within the brain. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... Microtubules are protein structures found within cells. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... A phosphorylated serine residue Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein molecule or a small molecule. ... In cell biology, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that interact with the microtubules of the cellular cytoskeleton. ... Hyperphosphorylation occurs when a biochemical with multiple phosphorylation sites is fully saturated. ...


Disease mechanism

Three major competing hypotheses exist to explain the cause of the disease. The oldest, on which most currently available drug therapies are based, is known as the cholinergic hypothesis and suggests that AD is due to reduced biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. However, the medications that treat acetylcholine deficiency only affect symptoms of the disease and neither halt nor reverse it.[55] The cholinergic hypothesis has not maintained widespread support in the face of this evidence, although cholinergic effects have been proposed to initiate large-scale aggregation,[56] leading to generalized neuroinflammation.[47] A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ...


In 1991 the amyloid hypothesis was proposed, [57] while research after 2000 is also centered on tau proteins. The two positions differ with one stating that the tau protein abnormalities initiate the disease cascade, while the other states that amyloid beta (Aβ) deposits are the causative factor in the disease.[58] Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39–43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... Tau proteins are normal proteins found within the brain. ...


The tau hypothesis is supported by the long-standing observation that deposition of amyloid plaques does not correlate well with neuron loss,[59]. In this model, hyperphosphorylated tau begins to pair with other threads of tau and they become tangled up together inside nerve cell bodies in masses known as neurofibrillary tangles.[60] When this happens, the microtubules disintegrate, collapsing the neuron's transport system. This may result first in malfunctions in communication between neurons and later in the death of the cells.[61] Neurofibrillary tangles are pathological protein aggregates found within neurons in cases of Alzheimers disease. ...


A majority of researchers support the alternative hypothesis that Aβ is the primary causative agent.[58] The amyloid hypothesis is compelling because the gene for the amyloid beta precursor (APP) is located on chromosome 21, and patients with trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) who thus have an extra gene copy almost universally exhibit AD-like disorders by 40 years of age.[62][63] It should be noted further that ApoE4, the major genetic risk factor for AD, leads to excess amyloid build-up in the brain before AD symptoms arise. Thus, Aβ deposition precedes clinical AD.[64] It is known that some types of inherited AD involve only mutations in the APP gene (although this is not the most common type-- others involve genes for "pre-senilin" proteins which process APP and may also have still-unknown functions). [65] However, another strong support for the amyloid hypothesis, which looks at Aβ as the common initiating factor for Alzheimer's disease, is that transgenic mice solely expressing a mutant human APP gene develop fibrillar amyloid plaques.[66] Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. ... A child with Down syndrome Down syndrome (also called Downs syndrome) encompasses a number of genetic disorders, of which trisomy 21 (a nondisjunction) is the most representative, causing highly variable degrees of learning difficulties and physical disabilities. ... Gene dosage is the number of copies of a gene present in a cell or nucleus. ... Apolipoprotein E (APOE), a main apoprotein of the chylomicron, binds to a specific receptor on liver cells and peripheral cells. ... GMO redirects here. ...


If damage from Aβ is the primary initiating cause of AD, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. The traditional formulation of the amyloid hypothesis points to the cytotoxicity of mature aggregated amyloid fibrils, which are believed to be the toxic form of the protein responsible for disrupting the cell's calcium ion homeostasis and thus inducing apoptosis.[67] It is also known that Aβ selectively builds up in the mitochondria of samples from the brains of humans with AD, and in mitochondria from transgenic mice with APP genes, and in both cases inhibits certain mitochondrial enzyme functions, and a similar decrease in glucose utilization in neurons to the one which is a known characteristic of AD. This process may also lead to the formation of damaging reactive oxygen species, calcium influx, and apoptosis. Mechanisms which involve direct damage from Aβ before it forms fibrils and plaques also address the issue that neuronal damage is not correlated as well with plaques, since in this model it is not the plaques themselves which cause the major damage, but rather the precursor Aβ protein directly, via another mechanism. [68] A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ...


Various inflammatory processes and inflammatory cytokines may also have a hand in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. However, these are general markers of tissue damage in any disease, and may also be either secondary causes of tissue damage in AD, or else bystander "marker" effects. [69]


Diagnosis

Dementia is by definition a clinical condition but not an exact diagnosis. Alzheimer's disease is usually diagnosed clinically from the patient history, collateral history from relatives, and clinical observations, based on the presence of characteristic neurological and neuropsychological features and the absence of alternative conditions.[70][71] Advanced medical imaging with CT or MRI are generally used to help to diagnose the subtype of dementia and exclude other cerebral pathology.[72] Neuropsychological evaluation including memory testing and assessment of intellectual functioning can further characterize the dementia.[73] Medical organizations have created diagnostic criteria to ease and standardize the process for practicing physicians. Sometimes the diagnoses can be confirmed or made at postmortem when brain material is available and can be examined histologically and histochemically.[74] For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... The term diagnosis of exclusion (per exclusionem) refers to a medical condition whose presence cannot be established with complete confidence from examination or testing. ... Medical imaging designates the ensemble of techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... MRI redirects here. ...


Diagnostic criteria

The diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer of the NINCDS-ADRDA (NINCDS and the ADRDA) are among the most used.[75] These criteria require that the presence of cognitive impairment and a suspected dementia syndrome be confirmed by neuropsychological testing for a clinical diagnosis of possible or probable AD while they need histopathologic confirmation (microscopic examination of brain tissue) for the definitive diagnosis. They have shown good reliability and validity.[76] They specify as well eight cognitive domains that may be impaired in AD (i.e., memory, language, perceptual skills, attention, constructive abilities, orientation, problem solving and functional abilities). Similar to the NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria are the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) criteria published by the American Psychiatric Association.[77][78] Neuropsychological assessment was traditionally carried out to assess the extent of impairment to a particular skill and to attempt to locate an area of the brain which may have been damaged after brain injury or neurological illness. ... Histopathology is a field of pathology which specialises in the histologic study of diseased tissue. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... In statistics, reliability is the consistency of a set of measurements or measuring instrument, often used to describe a test. ... In psychology, validity has two distinct fields of application. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... This article is about psychological concept of attention. ... Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ...


Diagnostic tools

Neuropsychological screening tests can help in the diagnosis of AD. In them patients have to copy drawings similar to the one shown in the picture, remember words, read or sum.

Neuropsychological screening tests as the Mini mental state examination (MMSE) are widely used to evaluate the cognitive impairments needed for diagnosis, but more comprehensive batteries are necessary for high reliability by this method; especially in the earliest stages of the disease.[79][80] On the other hand neurological examination in early AD will usually be normal, independent of cognitive impairment; but for many of the other dementing disorders is key for diagnosis. Therefore, neurological examination is crucial in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer and other diseases.[73] In addition, interviews with family members are also utilized in the assessment of the disease. Caregivers can supply important information on the daily living abilities, as well as on the decrease over time of the patient's mental function.[81] This is especially important since a patient with AD is commonly unaware of his or her own deficits (anosognosia).[82] Many times families also have difficulties in the detection of initial dementia symptoms and in adequately communicating them to a physician.[83] Finally supplemental testing provide extra information on some features of the disease or are utilized to rule out other diagnoses. Examples are blood tests, which can identify other causes for dementia different than AD;[73] which rarely may even be reversible;[84] or psychological tests for depression, as depression can both co-occur with AD or on the contrary be at the origin of the patient's cognitive impairment.[85][86] Image File history File links InterlockingPentagons. ... Image File history File links InterlockingPentagons. ... Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used to identify disease in an unsuspecting population. ... The mini mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anosognosia is a condition in which a person who suffers disability due to brain injury, seems unaware of or denies the existence of their handicap. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to infer generalizations about a given individual. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


Increasingly, the functional neuroimaging modalities of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are being used to diagnose Alzheimer's, as they have shown similar ability to diagnose Alzheimer's disease as methods involving mental status examination.[87] Furthermore, the ability of SPECT to differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other possible causes, in a given patient already known to be suffering from dementia, appears to be superior to attempts to differentiate the cause of dementia cause by mental testing and history.[88] A new technique known as "PiB PET" has been developed for directly and clearly imaging beta-amyloid deposits in vivo using a contrasting tracer that binds selectively to the Abeta deposits.[89][90][91] Another recent objective marker of the disease is the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for amyloid beta or tau proteins.[92] Both advances (neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis) have led to the proposal of new diagnostic criteria.[75][73] Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions. ... Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Mental status examination, or MSE, is a medical process where a clinician working in the field of mental health (usually a social worker, psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse or psychologist) systematically examines a patients mind. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... A contrast medium is a radiopaque substance used to facilitate roentgen visualization of internal structures of the body such as the urogenital sinus. ... A radioactive tracer is a substance containing a radioactive isotope (radioisotope). ... Molecular binding is a method of molecular interaction to bind together or separate two or more molecules, and is important in the development of new medical drugs and other chemicals. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39–43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... Tau proteins are normal proteins found within the brain. ...


Prevention

Intellectual activities such as playing chess or regular social interaction have been linked to a reduced risk of AD in epidemiological studies, although no causal relationship has been found.
Intellectual activities such as playing chess or regular social interaction have been linked to a reduced risk of AD in epidemiological studies, although no causal relationship has been found.

At present contradictory results in global studies, incapacity to prove causal relationships between risk factors and the disease, and possible secondary effects indicate a lack of specific measures to prevent or delay the onset of AD.[93] Different epidemiological studies have proposed relationships between certain modifiable factors, such as diet, cardiovascular risk, pharmaceutical products, or intellectual activities among others, and a population's likelihood of developing AD. Only further research, including clinical trials, will reveal whether, in fact, these factors can help to prevent AD.[94] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1564, 273 KB) Description: Title: de: Schachspieler Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 24 × 32 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Petit-Palais Other notes: Source: The Yorck... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1564, 273 KB) Description: Title: de: Schachspieler Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 24 × 32 cm Country of origin: de: Frankreich Current location (city): de: Paris Current location (gallery): de: Musée du Petit-Palais Other notes: Source: The Yorck...


The components of a Mediterranean diet, which include fruit and vegetables, bread, wheat and other cereals, olive oil, fish, and red wine, may all individually or together reduce the risk and course of Alzheimer's disease.[95] Vitamins E, B, and C, or folic acid have appeared to be related to a reduced risk of AD,[96] but other studies indicate that they do not have any significant effect on the onset or course of the disease, while at the same time may have important secondary effects in conjunction with other therapies. [97] Curcumin in curry has shown some effectiveness in preventing brain damage in mouse models.[98] For cuisine, see Cuisine of the Mediterranean. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Grain redirects here. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This article is about the beverage. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Curcumin is the active ingredient of the Indian curry spice turmeric. ... This article is about the dish. ...


Although cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking, are associated with a higher risk of onset and course of AD,[99][100] statins, which are cholesterol lowering drugs, have not been effective in preventing or improving the course of the disease.[101][102] However long-term usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs), is associated with a reduced likelihood of developing AD in some individuals.[103] Other pharmaceutical therapies such as female hormone replacement therapy are no longer thought to prevent dementia,[104][105] while a 2007 systematic review concluded that there was inconsistent and unconvincing evidence that ginkgo has any positive effect on dementia or cognitive impairment.[106] Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood [1]. It is not a disease but a metabolic derangement that can be secondary to many diseases and can contribute to many forms of disease, most notably cardiovascular disease. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Lovastatin, the first statin to be marketed The statins form a class of hypolipidemic agents. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... Systematic reviews are named as the highest level of medical evidence, by evidence based medicine professionals. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ...


Intellectual activities such as playing chess, completing crossword puzzles or regular social interaction, may also delay the onset or reduce the severity of Alzheimer's disease.[107][108] Bilingualism is also related to a later onset of Alzheimer.[109] This article is about the Western board game. ... A crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square grid of black and white squares. ... A puzzle undone, which forms a cube Puzzle cube; a type of puzzle For other uses, see Puzzle (disambiguation). ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... Bilingual redirects here. ...


Management

There is no known cure for Alzheimer's disease. Available treatments offer relatively small symptomatic benefit but remain palliative in nature. Current treatments can be divided into pharmaceutical, psychosocial and caregiving. Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ...


Pharmaceutical

3d molecular spacefill of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of AD symptoms.
3d molecular spacefill of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of AD symptoms.
Molecular structure of memantine, a medication approved for advanced AD symptoms.

Four medications are currently approved to treat the cognitive manifestations of AD by regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA). Three are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the other is memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist. No drug has an indication for delaying or halting the progression of the disease. Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept® (Eisai), is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. ... A cholinesterase inhibitor or anticholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits a cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... Image File history File links Memantine. ... Image File history File links Memantine. ... Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimers disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate receptors. ... FDA redirects here. ... The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is a European agency for the evaluation of medicinal products. ... A cholinesterase inhibitor or anticholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits a cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimers disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate receptors. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ...


Because reduction in the activity of the cholinergic neurons in the disease is well known,[110] acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are employed to reduce the rate at which acetylcholine (ACh) is broken down and so to increase the concentration of ACh in the brain, thereby combatting the loss of ACh caused by the death of the cholinergin neurons.[111] Cholinesterase inhibitors currently approved include donepezil (brand name Aricept),[112] galantamine (Razadyne),[113] and rivastigmine (branded as Exelon,[114] and Exelon Patch[115]). There is also evidence for the efficacy of these medications in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease,[116] and some evidence for their use in the advanced stage. Only donepezil is approved for treatment of advanced AD dementia.[117] The use of these drugs in mild cognitive impairment has not shown any effect in a delay of the onset of AD.[118] Most common side effects include nausea and vomiting, both of which are linked to cholinergic excess. These side effects arise in approximately 10% to 20% of users and are mild to moderate in severity. Less common secondary effects include muscle cramps; decreased heart rate (bradycardia), decreased appetite and weight, and increased gastric acid.[119][120][121][122] A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... A cholinesterase inhibitor or anticholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits a cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept® (Eisai), is a centrally acting reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor. ... Galantamine (trade name Razadyne®) is a medication used in the treatment of Alzheimers disease. ... Exelon (rivastigmine tartrate) is a pharmaceutical product developed and marketed by Novartis for the treatment of Alzheimers disease. ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a diagnosis given to individuals who have cognitive impairments beyond that expected for their age and education, but that do not interfere significantly with their daily activities [1]. MCI is also used interchangeably with incipient dementia, or isolated memory impairment. ... Side-effect can mean: Side-effect (computer science), a state change caused by a function call Adverse drug reaction, an unintended consequence specifically arising from drug therapy Therapeutic effect (medicine), a desirable consequence of any kind of medical treatment, even though resulting as an unintended, unexpected consequence of the treatment... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ... Severity is an upcoming First Person Shooter (FPS) being developed for both the PC and console systems. ... This article is about muscular pain. ... Heart rate is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine, is defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ...


Glutamate is a useful excitatory neurotransmitter of the nervous system, although excessive amounts in the brain can lead to cell death through a process called excitotoxicity which consists of the overstimulation of glutamate receptors. Excitotoxicity occurs not only in Alzheimer's disease, but also in other neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.[123] Memantine (brand names Akatinol, Axura, Ebixa/Abixa, Memox and Namenda),[124] is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist first used as an anti-influenza agent. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate receptors and inhibits their overstimulation by glutamate.[123] Memantine has been shown to be moderately efficacious in the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease. Its effects in the initial stages are unknown.[125] Reported adverse events with memantine are infrequent and mild, including hallucinations, confusion, dizziness, headache and fatigue.[126] Memantine used in combination with donepezil has been shown to be "of statistically significant but clinically marginal effectiveness."[127] Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Look up cell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged and killed by glutamate and similar substances. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Memantine is the first in a novel class of Alzheimers disease medications acting on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA glutamate receptors. ... The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is an ionotropic receptor for glutamate (NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) is a name of its selective specific agonist). ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... Flu redirects here. ... The glutamatergic neurotransmitter system plays a crucial role in memory formation and information processing. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ...


Neuroleptic anti-psychotic drugs commonly given to Alzheimer's patients with behavioural problems are modestly useful in reducing aggression and psychosis, but are associated with serious adverse effects, such as cerebrovascular events, movement difficulties or cognitive decline, that do not permit their routine use.[128][129][130] The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Psychosocial intervention

A specifically designed room for sensory integration therapy, or snoezelen; an emotion-oriented psychosocial intervention for people with dementia.
A specifically designed room for sensory integration therapy, or snoezelen; an emotion-oriented psychosocial intervention for people with dementia.

Psychosocial interventions are used as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment and can be classified within behavior, emotion, cognition or stimulation oriented approaches. Research on efficacy is unavailable and rarely specific to the disease, focusing instead on dementia.[131] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1,000 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1,000 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Psychosocial refers to ones psychological development in the context of a social environment. ...


Behavioral interventions attempt to identify and reduce the antecedents and consequences of problem behaviors. This approach has not shown success in the overall functioning of patients,[132] but can help to reduce some specific problem behaviors, such as incontinence.[133] There is still a lack of high quality data on the effectiveness of these techniques in other behavior problems such as wandering.[134][135] Behavior modification is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to improve behavior, such as altering an individuals behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior and/or the reduction of maladaptive behavior through positive and negative punishment. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Emotion-oriented interventions include reminiscence therapy, validation therapy, supportive psychotherapy, sensory integration or snoezelen, and simulated presence therapy. Supportive psychotherapy has received little or no formal scientific study, but some clinicians find it useful in helping mildly impaired patients adjust to their illness.[131] Reminiscence therapy (RT) involves the discussion of past experiences individually or in group, many times with the aid of photographs, household items, music and sound recordings, or other familiar items from the past. Although there are few quality studies on the effectiveness of RT it may be beneficial for cognition and mood.[136] Simulated presence therapy (SPT) is based on attachment theories and is normally carried out playing a recording with voices of the closests relatives of the patient. There is preliminary evidence indicating that SPT may reduce anxiety and challenging behaviors.[137][138] Finally, validation therapy is based on acceptance of the reality and personal truth of another's experience, while sensory integration is based on exercises aimed to stimulate senses. There is little evidence to support the usefulness of these therapies.[139][140] Reminiscence therapy is a relatively low cost therapy usually used to counsel and support older people, and is a useful intervention in work with brain-injured patients. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Children with a handicap in a room designed for snoezelen. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A mood is a relatively lasting affective state. ... Mother and child Attachment theory is a psychological, evolutionary and ethological theory that provides a descriptive and explanatory framework for discussion of interpersonal relationships between human beings. ... This article is about state anxiety. ... Challenging behaviour is defined as culturally abnormal behaviour(s) of such intensity, frequency or duration that the physical safety of the person or others is placed in serious jeopardy, or behaviour which is likely to seriously limit or deny access to the use of ordinary community facilities [1]. Challenging behaviour... This article is about the senses of living organisms (vision, taste, etc. ...


The aim of cognition-oriented treatments, which include reality orientation and cognitive retraining is the restoration of cognitive deficits. Reality orientation consists in the presentation of information about time, place or person in order to ease the understanding of the person about its surroundings and his place in them. On the other hand cognitive retraining tries to improve impaired capacities by exercitation of mental abilities. Both have shown some efficacy improving cognitive capacities,[141][142] although in some works these effects were transient and negative effects, such as frustation, have also been reported.[131] Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or traumatic injury. ... Cognitive deficit is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to cognitive performance. ...


Stimulation-oriented treatments include art, music and pet therapies, exercise, and any other kind of recreational activities for patients. Stimulation has modest support for improving behavior, mood, and, to a lesser extent, function. Nevertheless, as important as these effects are, the main support for the use of stimulation therapies is the improvement in the patient daily life routine they suppose.[131] Art therapy was invented by the great philosopher David Chapelle of the enlightenent era. ... Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... A recreational therapist utilizes a wide range of techniques to improve the physical, emotional, social and leisure needs of their clients. ...


Caregiving

Further information: Caregiving and dementia

Since there is no cure for Alzheimer's, caregiving is an essential part of the treatment. Due to the eventual inability for the sufferer to self-care, Alzheimer's has to be carefully care-managed. Home care in the familiar surroundings of home may delay onset of some symptoms and delay or eliminate the need for more professional and costly levels of care.[citation needed] Many family members choose to look after their relative,[12] but two-thirds of nursing home residents have dementias.[143]


Modifications to the living environment and lifestyle of the Alzheimer's patient can improve functional performance and ease caretaker burden. Assessment by an occupational therapist is often indicated. Adherence to simplified routines and labeling of household items to cue the patient can aid with activities of daily living, while placing safety locks on cabinets, doors, and gates and securing hazardous chemicals can prevent accidents and wandering. Changes in routine or environment can trigger or exacerbate agitation, whereas well-lit rooms, adequate rest, and avoidance of excess stimulation all help prevent such episodes.[144][145] Appropriate social and visual stimulation can improve function by increasing awareness and orientation. For instance, boldly colored tableware aids those with severe AD, helping people overcome a diminished sensitivity to visual contrast to increase food and beverage intake.[146] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Occupational therapy. ... Activities of daily living (ADLs), is a way to describe the functional status of a person. ...


Prognosis

As the disease progresses, the patient will advance from mild cognitive impairment, when the suspected underlying pathology may or may not yet have been diagnosed, to mild and advanced stages of dementia, finally reaching a severe stage of dementia.[22] Individual variations in the presentation and development of the symptoms can make a patient's disease difficult to classify into one specific stage. Once Alzheimer's has been diagnosed, the average life expectancy is approximately seven years, while less than 3% of the patients live more than fourteen years.[147][148][149][6] This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


Epidemiology

Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent type of dementia in the elderly and affects almost half of all patients with dementia. Correspondingly, advancing age is the primary risk factor for the disease. Among people aged 65, 2–3% show signs of the disease, while 25–50% of people aged 85 have symptoms of Alzheimer's and an even greater number have some of the pathological hallmarks of the disease without the characteristic symptoms. Every five years after the age of 65, the probability of having the disease doubles.[150] The share of Alzheimer's patients over the age of 85 is the fastest growing segment of the Alzheimer's disease population in the US, although current estimates suggest the 75–84 population has about the same number of patients as the over 85 population.[151]


The World Health Organization estimates that globally the total disability adjusted life years (DALY) for AD and other dementias exceeded eleven million in 2005, with a projected 3.4% annual increase.[152]


A study in Denmark found that women aged 65 are at significantly higher risk (22 percent) of developing AD by age 95 than their male counterparts (9 percent), while vascular dementias were nearly equal.[153] Multi-infarct dementia, also known as vascular dementia, is a form of dementia resulting from brain damage caused by stroke or transient ischemic attacks (also known as mini-strokes). ...


Some studies have shown a relationship between Alzheimer's Disease and magnetic field exposure, although the mechanism is unknown.[154][155] Other research does not confirm this link.[156] The role of metals in the disease is also controversial.[157] This article is about metallic materials. ...


History

Auguste D, first described patient with AD.
Auguste D, first described patient with AD.

Although the concept of dementia goes as far back as the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers and physicians,[158] it was in 1901 when Alöis Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist, identified the first case of what became known as Alzheimer's disease in a fifty-year-old woman he called Auguste D. Alöis Alzheimer followed her until she died in 1906, when he first reported the case publicly.[159] In the following five years, eleven similar cases were reported in the medical literature, some of them already using the term Alzheimer's disease.[158] The official consideration of the disease as a distinctive entity is attributed to Emil Kraepelin, who included Alzheimer’s disease or presenile dementia as a subtype of senile dementia in the eighth edition of his Textbook of Psychiatry, published in 1910.[160] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (702x710, 115 KB) Description: Auguste D. from Marktbreit, Germany - Alois Alzheimers patient in 1906 Uploaded by: --Immanuel Giel 09:25, 24 January 2007 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (702x710, 115 KB) Description: Auguste D. from Marktbreit, Germany - Alois Alzheimers patient in 1906 Uploaded by: --Immanuel Giel 09:25, 24 January 2007 (UTC) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... | death_place = | education = | occupation = | title = | spouse = bll von robiistineksh | website = }} Auguste D was born in May 1850 in Europe. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... | death_place = | education = | occupation = | title = | spouse = bll von robiistineksh | website = }} Auguste D was born in May 1850 in Europe. ... A medical journal is a scientific journal devoted to the field of medicine. ... Emil Kraepelin (February 15, 1856–October 7, 1926) was a German psychiatrist. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


For most of the twentieth century, the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was reserved for individuals between the ages of 45 and 65 who developed symptoms of dementia. The terminology changed after 1977 when a conference concluded that the clinical and pathological manifestations of presenile and senile dementia were almost identical, although the authors also added that this did not rule out the possibility of different etiologies. This eventually led to the use of Alzheimer's disease independently of onset age of the disease.[161][162] The term senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) was used for a time to describe the condition in those over 65, with classical Alzheimer's disease being used for those younger. Eventually, the term Alzheimer's disease was formally adopted in medical nomenclature to describe individuals of all ages with a characteristic common symptom pattern, disease course, and neuropathology.[163] Pathology (in ancient Greek pathos = pain/pation and logos = word) is the study of diseases. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Nomenclature refers to a method of assigning (unique) names. ... Neuropathology is the study of diseases of the nervous system, and is a medical subspecialty within the specialty of anatomical pathology, itself a division within pathology in many English speaking countries. ...


Society and culture

Social costs

Because the median age of the industrialized world's population is gradually increasing, Alzheimer's is a major public health challenge. Much of the concern about the solvency of governmental social safety nets is founded on estimates of the costs of caring for baby boomers, assuming that they develop Alzheimer's in the same proportions as earlier generations. For this reason, money spent informing the public of available effective prevention methods may yield disproportionate benefits.[164] A baby boom is defined as a period of increased birth rates relative to surrounding generations. ...


Caregiving burden

Further information: Caregiving and dementia

The role of family caregivers has become more prominent in both reducing the social cost of care and improving the quality of life of the patient. Home-based care also can have economic, emotional, and psychological costs to the patient's family. Although family members in particular often express the desire to care for the sufferer to the end,[11] Alzheimer's disease is known for effecting a high burden on caregivers.[12] The words carer and carers are universally accepted in most English speaking countries to refer to the care of people with disabilities by unpaid relatives or friends. ... Elderly care or simply eldercare is the fulfillment of the special needs and requirements that are unique to senior citizens. ...


Alzheimer's disease can incur a variety of stresses on the caregivers: typical complaints are stress, depression, and an inability to cope. Reasons for these complaints can include: high-demands on the caregiver's concentration, as Alzheimer's sufferers have a decreasing regard for their own safety (and can wander when unattended, for example); the lack of gratitude received when the sufferer is unaware of the help being given; and the lack of satisfaction when the sufferer's condition does not abate. Alzheimer's sufferers can be verbally and physically aggressive, and can stubbornly refuse to be helped. Aggression in particular can lead to a temptation to retaliate, which can put both the sufferer and carer at risk. It is additionally stressful for caregivers who are friends and family to witness a sufferer lose his or her identity, and eventually be unable to recognise them.[12] Stress has different meanings in different fields: Look up stress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Family caregivers often give up time from work and forego pay to spend 47 hours per week on average with the person with AD. From a 2006 survey of US patients with long term care insurance, direct and indirect costs of caring for an Alzheimer's patient average $77,500 per year.[165] Long-term care insurance, an insurance product sold in the United States, helps provide for the cost of long-term care beyond a predetermined period. ...


Notable cases

Further information: Alzheimer's in the media

As a result of the prevalence of the disease, many notable people have contracted it. Well-known examples are former United States President Ronald Reagan and Irish writer Iris Murdoch, both of whom have scientific articles on how their cognitive capacities deteriorated with the disease.[166][167] Other cases include the retired footballer Ferenc Puskas,[168] the former British Prime Minister Harold Wilson,[169] the actress Rita Hayworth,[170] the actor Charlton Heston,[171] and the novelist Terry Pratchett.[172][173] The media attention given to the cases of these prominent individuals has helped further awareness of the disease.[citation needed] For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE (July 15, 1919 – February 8, 1999) was an Irish-born British writer and philosopher, best known for her novels, which combine rich characterization and compelling plotlines, usually involving ethical or sexual themes. ... A footballer is a person who plays one of the various games known as football – especially association football, although the term is also used to refer to participants in Australian rules football and Gaelic football. ... Ferenc Puskás (Hungarian: Puskás Ferenc, surname first; nicknamed Puskás Öcsi, born 2 April 1927 in Budapest) was a Hungarian football player. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... Rita Hayworth (October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987), was an American actress who attained fame during the 1940s as the eras leading sex symbol. ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an US-american film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ...


Alzheimers has also been portrayed in films such as Iris (2001),[174] (based on John Bayley's memoir of his wife Iris Murdoch),[175] The Notebook (2004),[176] (based on Nicholas Sparks' 1996 novel of the same name)[177] Thanmathra (2005),[178] Memories of tomorrow (Ashita no Kioku) (2006),[179] (based on Hiroshi Ogiwara's novel of the same name),[180] and Away From Her (2006), (based on Alice Munro's short story The Bear Came Over the Mountain),[181] in documentaries, such as Malcolm and Barbara: A Love Story (1999) and Malcolm and Barbara: Love’s Farewell (2007) both featuring Malcolm Pointon,[182] and in television series. In The Cider House Rules the affliction of a character with Alzheimer's is mistaken as Alcoholism. The Notebook is a 1996 American romantic novel by Nicholas Sparks that was later adapted into a popular romantic film by the same name in 2004. ... Thanmathra is a 2005 Malayalam film. ... Ashita no Kioku/Memories of Tomorrow is a 2006 Japanese drama film starring Ken Watanabe and directed by Yukihiko Tsutsumi. ... Away From Her is a Canadian film, currently in post-production and scheduled for release in late 2006. ... Malcolm Pointon (Unknown - February, 2007) was a pianist and lecturer from Thriplow, England, and the subject the film Malcolm and Barbara - A Love Story shown in 1999 and, more recently of an Independent Television program entitled Malcolm and Barbara: Love’s Farewell, broadcast on Wednesday, August 8, 2007. ... This article is about the novel. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Research directions

Main article: Alzheimer's disease clinical research

As of 2008, the safety and efficacy of more than 400 pharmaceutical treatments are being investigated in clinical trials worldwide, and approximately one-fourth of these compounds are in Phase III trials, which is the last step prior to review by regulatory agencies.[183] It is unknown as to whether any of these trials will ultimately prove successful in treating the disease. This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ...


A critical area of clinical research is focused on treating the underlying disease pathology. Reduction of amyloid beta levels is a common target of compounds under investigation. Immunotherapy or vaccination for the amyloid protein is one treatment modality under study. Unlike vaccines which seek to prevent disease, this therapy would be used to treat diagnosed patients, and is based upon the concept of training the immune system to recognize, attack, and reverse deposition of amyloid, thereby altering the course of the disease.[184] An example of such a vaccine under investigation is ACC-001[185]. Similar agents are bapineuzumab, an antibody designed as identical to the naturally-induced anti-amyloid antibody,[186] and MPC-7869, a selective amyloid beta-42 lowering agent.[187] Other approaches are neuroprotective agents, such as AL-108,[188] metal-protein interaction attenuation agents, such as PBT2,[189] or tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor fusion proteins, such as etanercept.[190][191][192] There are also many basic investigations attempting to increase the knowledge on the origin and mechanisms of the disease that may lead to new treatments. Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) is a peptide of 39–43 amino acids that is the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients. ... The term immunotherapy incorporates an array of strategies of treatment based upon the concept of modulating the immune system to achieve a prophylactic and/or therapeutic goal. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Bapineuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which acts on the nervous system and has potential therapeutic value for the treatment of Alzheimers disease and quite possibly Glaucoma [1]. Bapineuzumab is an antibody to the beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques that are believed to underlie Alzheimers disease neuropathology. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Look up Receptor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Etanercept (Enbrel®, co-marketed by Amgen and Wyeth) is a human recombinant, soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) receptor. ...


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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence or NICE is an agency of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • Cummings JL, Frank JC, Cherry D, Kohatsu ND, Kemp B, Hewett L, Mittman B (2002). "Guidelines for managing Alzheimer's disease: Part I. Assessment". American Family Physician 65 (11): 2263–2272. PMID 12074525. 
  • Cummings JL, Frank JC, Cherry D, Kohatsu ND, Kemp B, Hewett L, Mittman B (2002). "Guidelines for managing Alzheimer's disease: Part II. Treatment". American Family Physician 65 (12): 2525–2534. PMID 12086242. 
  • Genes, lifestyles, and crossword puzzles: Can Alzheimer's disease be prevented (PDF). US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Aging. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  • Russell D, Barston S, White M (2007-12-19). Alzheimer’s Behavior Management: Learn to manage common behavior problems. helpguide.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
  • Warner Mark J (2006). In Search of the Alzheimer's Wanderer: A Workbook to Protect Your Loved One. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press, 145. ISBN 9781557533999. OCLC 63807670. 

// Chorea sancti viti (Latin for St. ... Choreoathetosis is a combination of chorea and athetosis. ... Restless legs syndrome (RLS, Wittmaack-Ekboms syndrome, or sometimes, but inaccurately, referred to as Nocturnal myoclonus) is a condition that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move ones legs (occasionally arms or torso). ... Stiff person syndrome (SPS) (or occasionally, stiff-man syndrome) is a rare neurologic disorder of unknown etiology. ... A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged. ... Pick’s disease, also known as Pick disease and PiD, is a rare fronto-temporal neurodegenerative disease. ... Alpers disease, also called progressive infantile poliodystrophy, is a progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system that occurs in infants and children. ... Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most frequent cause of hospitalization for dementia, after Alzheimers disease. ... Leighs disease, a form of Leigh syndrome, also known as Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyelopathy (SNEM), is a rare neurometabolic disorder that affects the central nervous system. ... Devics disease, also known as Devics syndrome, neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or optic-spinal MS, is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder in which a persons own immune system attacks myelin of the neurons of the optic nerves and spinal cord. ... Central pontine myelinolysis is a neurologic disease caused by severe damage of the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the brainstem, more precisely in the area termed the pons. ... Transverse myelitis is a neurological disorder caused by a loss of the myelin encasing the spinal cord, also known as demyelination. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... Focal seizures (also called partial seizures) are seizures which are characterized by: preserved consciousness in simple focal seizures impaired consciousness (dream-like) in complex focal seizures experience of unusual feelings or sensations sudden and inexplainable feelings of joy, anger, sadness, or nausea altered sense of hearing, smelling, tasting, seeing, or... Simple partial seizures are seizures which affect only a small region of the brain, often the temporal lobes and/or hippocampi. ... A complex partial seizure is an epileptic seizure that is limited to one cerebral hemisphere and causes impairment of awareness or responsiveness [1]. // Complex partial seizures are often preceded by a seizure aura[2]. The seizure aura is a simple partial seizure [3]. The seizure aura might occur as a... Generalised epilepsy is a form of epilepsy, a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures, which are a result of abnormal activity in both sides of the brain. ... Tonic-clonic seizures (also known as Grand Mal Seizures, though this term is now discouraged and rarely used in a clinical setting) are a type of generalised seizure affecting the whole brain. ... Absence seizures are one of several kinds of seizures. ... Atonic seizures (also called drop seizures, drop attacks, or akinetic seizures), are a minor type of seizure. ... Benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of epilepsy. ... Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), also known as Lennox syndrome, is a difficult to treat form of childhood-onset epilepsy, that most often appears between the second and sixth year of life and is characterized by frequent seizures and different seizure types and is often accompanied by mental retardation and behavior... West syndrome, otherwise known as infantile spasms, is an uncommon to rare and serious form of epilepsy in infants. ... Epilepsia partialis continua is a rare type of recurrent motor epileptic seizures that are focal (hands and face), and recur every few seconds or minutes for extended periods (days or years). ... Complex Partial Status Epilepticus (CPSE) is one of the non-convulsive forms of Status epilepticus, a rare form of epilepsy defined by its recurrent nature. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is an autosomal dominant classical migraine subtype that typically includes hemiparesis (weakness of half the body) during the aura phase. ... Cluster headaches are rare, extremely painful and debilitating headaches that occur in groups or clusters. ... A vascular headache is a headache where blood vessel swelling or disturbance is causing the pain. ... Tension headaches, which were renamed tension-type headaches by the International Headache Society in 1988, are the most common type of primary headaches. ... A transient ischemic attack (TIA, often colloquially referred to as mini stroke) is caused by the temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that usually persists for less than 24 hours. ... Amaurosis fugax is a type of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). ... Transient global amnesia (TGA), is an anxiety-producing temporary loss of short-term memory. ... Cerebrovascular disease is damage to the blood vessels in the brain, resulting in a stroke. ... Middle cerebral artery syndrome is a condition where the blood supply from the middle cerebral artery is restricted, leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel. ... Anterior cerebral artery syndrome is a condition where the blood supply from the anterior cerebral artery is restricted, leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel. ... Posterior cerebral artery syndrome is a condition where the blood supply from the posterior cerebral artery is restricted, leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel. ... Fovilles syndrome is caused by the blockage of the perforating branches of the basilar artery in the region of the brainstem known as the pons. ... Millard-Gubler syndrome is a syndrome of unilateral softening of the brain tissue arising from obstruction of the blood vessels of the pons, involving the sixth and seventh cranial nerves and fibers of the corticospinal tract, and is associated with paralysis of the abducens (including diplopia, internal strabismus, and loss... Lateral medullary syndrome (also called Wallenbergs syndrome) is a disease in which the patient has difficulty with swallowing or speaking or both owing to one or more patches of dead tissue (known as an infarct) caused by interrupted blood supply to parts of the brain. ... Webers Syndrome (superior alternating hemiplegia) is characterized by the presence of an oculomotor nerve palsy and contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Hypersomnia, also known as excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), is excessive amount of sleepiness. ... Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. ... Ondines Curse, also called congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) or primary alveolar hypoventilation, is a respiratory disorder that is fatal if untreated. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ... Cataplexy is a medical condition which often affects people who have narcolepsy, a disorder whose principal signs are EDS (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness), sleep attacks, and disturbed nighttime sleep. ... Kleine-Levin Syndrome, or KLS, is a rare sleep disorder characterized by episodes of near-constant sleep and altered behavior. ... Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a family of sleep disorders affecting the timing of sleep. ... Delayed sleep-phase syndrome (DSPS) is a chronic disorder of sleep timing. ... Advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS) is a sleep disorder in which patients feel very sleepy early in the evening (e. ... Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), sometimes called benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), in the absence of a tumor or other intracranial pathology. ... Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a chronic type of communicating hydrocephalus whereby the increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) due to accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) becomes stable and that the formation of CSF equilibrates with absorption. ... Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), sometimes called benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), in the absence of a tumor or other intracranial pathology. ... Encephalopathy literally means disease of the brain. ... Herniation, a deadly side effect of very high intracranial pressure, occurs when the brain shifts across structures within the skull. ... Cerebral edema (cerebral oedema in British English) is an excess accumulation of water in the intra- and/or extracellular spaces of the brain. ... Reyes syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. ... An uncollapsed syrinx (before surgery). ... Syringobulbia is a medical condition when syrinxes, or fluid filled cavities, affect the brainstem. ... Spinal cord compression develops when the spinal cord is compressed by a tumor, abscess or other lesion. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alzheimer's disease - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4061 words)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration together with declining activities of daily living and neuropsychiatric symptoms or behavioral changes.
Eventually, the term Alzheimer's disease was adopted formally in the psychiatric and neurological nomenclature to describe individuals of all ages with the characteristic common symptom pattern, disease course, and neuropathology.
Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent type of dementia in the elderly and affects almost half of all patients with dementia.
understanding Alzheimers Disease (2198 words)
Alzheimers disease is a gradual progression from mild to moderate to severe.
The cause of Alzheimers disease, isolated by the German neurologist Dr. Alois Alzheimer, is the isolation of abnormal clumps and irregular brain cells.
Alzheimers care is a challenge because the slow and unpredictable decline is lengthy and progresses at a different pace.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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