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Encyclopedia > Aluminium

Aluminum redirects here. For other uses, see Aluminium (disambiguation). Look up aluminium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

13 magnesiumaluminiumsilicon
B

Al

Ga
General
Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13
Chemical series poor metals
Group, period, block 133, p
Appearance silvery
Standard atomic weight 26.9815386(13) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 3
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 2.70 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 2.375 g·cm−3
Melting point 933.47 K
(660.32 °C, 1220.58 °F)
Boiling point 2792 K
(2519 °C, 4566 °F)
Heat of fusion 10.71 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 294.0 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 24.200 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790
Atomic properties
Crystal structure face centered cubic
0.40494 nm
Oxidation states 3, 2 [1], 1 [2]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.61 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 577.5 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1816.7 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2744.8 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 125 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 118 pm
Covalent radius 118 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 26.50 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 237 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 23.1 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (rolled) 5000 m·s−1
Young's modulus 70 GPa
Shear modulus 26 GPa
Bulk modulus 76 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.35
Mohs hardness 2.75
Vickers hardness 167 MPa
Brinell hardness 245 MPa
CAS registry number 7429-90-5
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of aluminium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
26Al syn 7.17×105y β+ 1.17 26Mg
ε - 26Mg
γ 1.8086 -
27Al 100% 27Al is stable with 14 neutrons
References
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Aluminium (IPA: /ˌæljʊˈmɪniəm/, /ˌæljəˈmɪniəm/) or aluminum (/əˈluːmɪnəm/, see spelling below) is a silvery white and ductile member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al; its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, and the third most abundant element overall, after oxygen and silicon. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. Aluminium is too reactive chemically to occur in nature as the free metal. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[1] The chief source of aluminium is bauxite ore. General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... Image File history File links Al-TableImage. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The Boron group is periodic table group 13 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. ... A period 3 element is one of the chemical elements in the third row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Aluminum sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various mass levels between 10−36 kg and 1053 kg. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Simple Illustration of a paramagnetic probe made up from miniature magnets. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Aluminium (Al) Standard atomic mass: 26. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 320 000 years and 3 200 000 years (1013 seconds and 1014 seconds) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... The abundance of a chemical element measures how common the element is, or how much of the element there is. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... World geologic provinces (USGS) Oceanic crust  0-20 Ma  20-65 Ma  >65 Ma Geologic province  Shield  Platform  Orogen  Basin  Large igneous province  Extended crust In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ore. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ...


Aluminium is remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion (due to the phenomenon of passivation) and its light weight. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building. Its reactive nature makes it useful as a catalyst or additive in chemical mixtures, including being used in ammonium nitrate explosives to enhance blast power. For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ... Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys are alloys of aluminium, often with copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Aluminium is a soft, lightweight, malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. Aluminium is nontoxic, nonmagnetic, and nonsparking. It is also insoluble in alcohol, though it can be soluble in water only in certain forms. The yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa.[2] Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel. It is ductile, and easily machined, cast, and extruded. Malleability is a physical property of matter, signifying its capability of deformation, especially by hammering or rolling. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Yield strength, or the yield point, is defined in engineering and materials science as the stress at which a material begins to plastically deform. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys are alloys of aluminium, often with copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... An elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, is the mathematical description of an object or substances tendency to be deformed when a force is applied to it. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Ductility is the physical property of being capable of sustaining large plastic deformations without fracture (in metals, such as being drawn into a wire). ... A lathe is a common tool used in machining. ... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Extruded aluminium; slots allow bars to be joined with special connectors. ...


Corrosion resistance is excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the metal is exposed to air, effectively preventing further oxidation. The strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper.[2] For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Alumina redirects here. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two different metals connected by a salt bridge or a porous disk between the individual half-cells. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


Aluminium atoms are arranged in an face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. Aluminium has a high stacking-fault energy of approximately 200 mJ/m².[3] In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... The stacking-fault energy (SFE) is a material property on a very small scale. ...


Aluminium is one of the few metals that retain full silvery reflectance in finely powdered form, making it an important component of silver paints. Aluminium mirror finish has the highest reflectance of any metal in the 200–400 nm (UV) and the 3000–10000 nm (far IR) regions, while in the 400–700 nm visible range it is slightly outdone by tin and silver and in the 700–3000 (near IR) by silver, gold, and copper.[citation needed] For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, by weight better than copper. Aluminium is capable of being a superconductor, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 kelvins and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss.[4] Heat conduction or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter, from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and acts to equalize temperature differences. ... In science and engineering, conductors, such as copper or aluminum, are materials with atoms having loosely held valence electrons. ... Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at low temperatures, characterised by the complete absence of electrical resistance and the damping of the interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... The gauss, abbreviated as G, is the cgs unit of magnetic flux density (B), named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss. ...


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of aluminium

Aluminium has nine isotopes, whose mass numbers range from 23 to 30. Only 27Al (stable isotope) and 26Al (radioactive isotope, t1/2 = 7.2 × 105 y) occur naturally, however 27Al has a natural abundance of 99.9+ %. 26Al is produced from argon in the atmosphere by spallation caused by cosmic-ray protons. Aluminium isotopes have found practical application in dating marine sediments, manganese nodules, glacial ice, quartz in rock exposures, and meteorites. The ratio of 26Al to 10Be has been used to study the role of transport, deposition, sediment storage, burial times, and erosion on 105 to 106 year time scales.[citation needed] Cosmogenic 26Al was first applied in studies of the Moon and meteorites. Meteorite fragments, after departure from their parent bodies, are exposed to intense cosmic-ray bombardment during their travel through space, causing substantial 26Al production. After falling to Earth, atmospheric shielding protects the meteorite fragments from further 26Al production, and its decay can then be used to determine the meteorite's terrestrial age. Meteorite research has also shown that 26Al was relatively abundant at the time of formation of our planetary system. Most meteoriticists believe that the energy released by the decay of 26Al was responsible for the melting and differentiation of some asteroids after their formation 4.55 billion years ago.[5] Aluminium (Al) Standard atomic mass: 26. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... This article is about the computer game. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Air redirects here. ... In general, spallation is a process in which fragments of material are ejected from a body due to impact or stress. ... The energy spectrum for cosmic rays Cosmic rays are energetic particles originating from space that impinge on Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Cosmogenic refers to rare radioactive isotopes created when cosmic radiation interacts with an atomic nucleus. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... In cosmogony, planetary differentiation is a process by which the denser portions of a planet will sink to the center; while less dense materials rise to the surface. ... Asteroids is a popular vector-based video arcade game released in 1979 by Atari. ...


Production and refinement

Although aluminium is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust (believed to be 7.5 to 8.1 percent), it is rare in its free form, occurring in oxygen-deficient environments such as volcanic mud, and it was once considered a precious metal more valuable than gold. Napoleon III, emperor of the French, is reputed to have given a banquet where the most honoured guests were given aluminium utensils, while the other guests had to make do with gold ones.[6][7] Aluminium has been produced in commercial quantities for just over 100 years. This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ...


Aluminium is a strongly reactive metal that forms a high energy chemical bond with oxygen. Compared to most other metals, it is difficult to extract from ore, such as bauxite, due to the energy required to reduce aluminium oxide (Al2O3). For example, direct reduction with carbon, as is used to produce iron, is not chemically possible, since aluminium is a stronger reducing agent than carbon. Aluminium oxide has a melting point of about 2,000 °C. Therefore, it must be extracted by electrolysis. In this process, the aluminium oxide is dissolved in molten cryolite and then reduced to the pure metal. The operational temperature of the reduction cells is around 950 to 980 °C. Cryolite is found as a mineral in Greenland, but in industrial use it has been replaced by a synthetic substance. Cryolite is a chemical compound of aluminium, sodium, and calcium fluorides: (Na3AlF6). The aluminium oxide (a white powder) is obtained by refining bauxite in the Bayer process of Karl Bayer. (Previously, the Deville process was the predominant refining technology.) This article is about the ore. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with sodium hexafluoroaluminate. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... The Bayer process is the principal industrial means of producing alumina, itself important in the Hall-Héroult process for producing aluminum. ... Karl Josef Bayer (March 4, 1847 - October 4, 1904) was an Austrian chemist that invented the Bayer process of extracting alumina from bauxite, essential to this day to the economical production of aluminum. ... The Deville process was the first industrial process used to produce alumina from bauxite. ...


The electrolytic process replaced the Wöhler process, which involved the reduction of anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium. Both of the electrodes used in the electrolysis of aluminium oxide are carbon. Once the ore is in the molten state, its ions are free to move around. The reaction at the cathode — the negative terminal — is Wöhler process was used in the production of aluminium. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ...

Al3+ + 3 e → Al

Here the aluminium ion is being reduced (electrons are added). The aluminium metal then sinks to the bottom and is tapped off. ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ...


At the positive electrode (anode), oxygen is formed: Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ...

2 O2− → O2 + 4 e

This carbon anode is then oxidized by the oxygen, releasing carbon dioxide. The anodes in a reduction cell must therefore be replaced regularly, since they are consumed in the process:

O2 + C → CO2

Unlike the anodes, the cathodes are not oxidized because there is no oxygen present at the cathode. The carbon cathode is protected by the liquid aluminium inside the cells. Nevertheless, cathodes do erode, mainly due to electrochemical processes. After five to ten years, depending on the current used in the electrolysis, a cell has to be rebuilt because of cathode wear.

World production trend of aluminium
World production trend of aluminium

Aluminium electrolysis with the Hall-Héroult process consumes a lot of energy, but alternative processes were always found to be less viable economically and/or ecologically. The world-wide average specific energy consumption is approximately 15±0.5 kilowatt-hours per kilogram of aluminium produced from alumina. (52 to 56 MJ/kg). The most modern smelters reach approximately 12.8 kW·h/kg (46.1 MJ/kg). (Compare this to the heat of reaction, 31 MJ/kg, and the Gibbs free energy of reaction, 29 MJ/kg.) Reduction line current for older technologies are typically 100 to 200 kA. State-of-the-art smelters operate with about 350 kA. Trials have been reported with 500 kA cells. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Hall-Héroult process is the major industrial process for the production of aluminum. ... The kilowatt-hour (symbol: kW·h) is a unit for measuring energy. ... A megajoule (abbreviation: MJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000000 joules. ... The standard enthalpy change of reaction (denoted ΔH° or ΔHo)is the enthalpy change that occurs in a system when one mole of matter is transformed by a chemical reaction under standard conditions. ... In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential which measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure. ...


Recovery of the metal via recycling has become an important facet of the aluminium industry. Recycling involves melting the scrap, a process that uses only five percent of the energy needed to produce aluminium from ore. However, a significant part (up to 15% of input material) is lost as dross (ash-like oxide).[8] Recycling was a low-profile activity until the late 1960s, when the growing use of aluminium beverage cans brought it to the public consciousness. The international recycling symbol. ... Dross is a mass of solid impurities floating on a molten metal bath. ... The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ...


Electric power represents about 20% to 40% of the cost of producing aluminium, depending on the location of the smelter. Smelters tend to be situated where electric power is both plentiful and inexpensive, such as South Africa, the South Island of New Zealand, Australia, the People's Republic of China, the Middle East, Russia, Quebec and British Columbia in Canada, and Iceland. The South Island The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...

Aluminium output in 2005
Aluminium output in 2005

In 2005, the People's Republic of China was the top producer of aluminium with almost one-fifth world share followed by Russia, Canada and USA reports the British Geological Survey. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of aluminium output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 7,806,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of aluminium output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 7,806,000 tonnes). ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


Over the last 50 years, Australia has become a major producer of bauxite ore and a major producer and exporter of alumina.[9] Australia produced 62 million tonnes of bauxite in 2005. The Australian deposits have some refining problems, some being high in silica but have the advantage of being shallow and relatively easy to mine.[10]

See also: Category:Aluminium minerals

Chemistry

Oxidation state one

  • AlH is produced when aluminium is heated in an atmosphere of hydrogen.
  • Al2O is made by heating the normal oxide, Al2O3, with silicon at 1800 °C in a vacuum.
  • Al2S can be made by heating Al2S3 with aluminium shavings at 1300 °C in a vacuum. It quickly disproportionates to the starting materials. The selenide is made in a parallel manner.
  • AlF, AlCl and AlBr exist in the gaseous phase when the tri-halide is heated with aluminium.

Aluminium halides usually exist in the form AlX3. e.g. AlF3, AlCl3, AlBr3, AlI3 etc. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Disproportionation is a concept in chemistry and is a redox reaction where a reactant is both oxidised and reduced in the same chemical reaction. ...


Oxidation state two

Aluminium monoxide, or aluminium(II) oxide, is a compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula AlO. Its spectrum exists in the infrared region and it is believed to exist in circumstellar matter. ...

Oxidation state three

  • Fajans' rules show that the simple trivalent cation Al3+ is not expected to be found in anhydrous salts or binary compounds such as Al2O3. The hydroxide is a weak base and aluminium salts of weak acids, such as carbonate, can't be prepared. The salts of strong acids, such as nitrate, are stable and soluble in water, forming hydrates with at least six molecules of water of crystallization.
  • Aluminium hydride, (AlH3)n, can be produced from trimethylaluminium and an excess of hydrogen. It burns explosively in air. It can also be prepared by the action of aluminium chloride on lithium hydride in ether solution, but cannot be isolated free from the solvent.
  • Aluminium carbide, Al4C3 is made by heating a mixture of the elements above 1000 °C. The pale yellow crystals have a complex lattice structure, and react with water or dilute acids to give methane. The acetylide, Al2(C2)3, is made by passing acetylene over heated aluminium.
  • Aluminium nitride, AlN, can be made from the elements at 800 °C. It is hydrolysed by water to form ammonia and aluminium hydroxide.
  • Aluminium phosphide, AlP, is made similarly, and hydrolyses to give phosphine.
  • Aluminium oxide, Al2O3, occurs naturally as corundum, and can be made by burning aluminium in oxygen or by heating the hydroxide, nitrate or sulfate. As a gemstone, its hardness is only exceeded by diamond, boron nitride, and carborundum. It is almost insoluble in water.
  • Aluminium hydroxide may be prepared as a gelatinous precipitate by adding ammonia to an aqueous solution of an aluminium salt. It is amphoteric, being both a very weak acid, and forming aluminates with alkalis. It exists in various crystalline forms.
  • Aluminium sulfide, Al2S3, may be prepared by passing hydrogen sulfide over aluminium powder. It is polymorphic.
  • Aluminium iodide, (AlI3)2, is a dimer with applications in organic synthesis.
  • Aluminium fluoride, AlF3, is made by treating the hydroxide with HF, or can be made from the elements. It consists of a giant molecule which sublimes without melting at 1291 °C. It is very inert. The other trihalides are dimeric, having a bridge-like structure.
  • Aluminium fluoride/water complexes: When aluminium and fluoride are together in aqueous solution, they readily form complex ions such as AlF(H2O)5+2, AlF3(H2O)30, AlF6-3. Of these, AlF6-3 is the most stable. This is explained by the fact that aluminium and fluoride, which are both very compact ions, fit together just right to form the octahedral aluminium hexafluoride complex. When aluminium and fluoride are together in water in a 1:6 molar ratio, AlF6-3 is the most common form, even in rather low concentrations.
  • Organo-metallic compounds of empirical formula AlR3 exist and, if not also giant molecules, are at least dimers or trimers. They have some uses in organic synthesis, for instance trimethylaluminium.
  • Alumino-hydrides of the most electropositive elements are known, the most useful being lithium aluminium hydride, Li[AlH4]. It decomposes into lithium hydride, aluminium and hydrogen when heated, and is hydrolysed by water. It has many uses in organic chemistry, particularly as a reducing agent. The aluminohalides have a similar structure.

In inorganic chemistry, what became know as Fajans Rules were formulated by Kasimir Fajans. ... Water of crystallization (alt. ... Aluminium hydride, chemical formula (AlH3)n, can be produced by reacting trimethylaluminium with hydrogen. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Ionic lattice structure of lithium hydride Lithium hydride (LiH) is the compound of lithium and hydrogen. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... Aluminium carbide, chemical formula Al4C3, is a carbide of aluminium. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... A metal acetylide is an alkyne that has had a proton (hydrogen) removed from the terminal end by a metal such as sodium or an organolithium. ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is a hydrocarbon belonging to the group of alkynes. ... Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a nitride of aluminium. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is the most stable form of aluminium in normal conditions. ... Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a compound of aluminium and phosphorus. ... This article is about the chemical. ... This article is about the mineral. ... Boron nitride is a binary chemical compound, consisting of equal proportions of boron and nitrogen, with formula BN. Structurally, it is isoelectronic to carbon and takes on similar physical forms: a hexagonal, graphite-like one, and a cubic, diamond-like one. ... Silicon carbide (SiC) or moissanite is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon. ... Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is the most stable form of aluminium in normal conditions. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Aluminum Sulfide (Al2S3) is a chemical compound. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Polymorphism in materials science is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. ... Aluminium iodide is any chemical compound containing only aluminium and iodine. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Aluminium fluoride, AlF3, is made by treating the aluminium hydroxide with HF, or can be made from the elements. ... Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4), commonly abbreviated to LAH, is a powerful reducing agent used in organic chemistry. ...

Clusters

In the journal Science of 14 January 2005 it was reported that clusters of 13 aluminium atoms (Al13) had been made to behave like an iodine atom; and, 14 aluminium atoms (Al14) behaved like an alkaline earth atom. The researchers also bound 12 iodine atoms to an Al13 cluster to form a new class of polyiodide. This discovery is reported to give rise to the possibility of a new characterisation of the periodic table: superatoms. The research teams were led by Shiv N. Khanna (Virginia Commonwealth University) and A. Welford Castleman Jr (Penn State University).[11] Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... This article contains information that has not been verified. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... Superatoms are clusters of atoms which seem to exhibit some of the properties of elemental atoms. ... Virginia Commonwealth University, or VCU, is a large public American research university with its main campuses located in downtown Richmond, Virginia. ... The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ...


Applications

General use

A piece of aluminium metal.
A piece of aluminium metal.

Aluminium is the most widely used non-ferrous metal.[12] Global production of aluminium in 2005 was 31.9 million tonnes. It exceeded that of any other metal except iron (837.5 million tonnes).[13] Relatively pure aluminium is encountered only when corrosion resistance and/or workability is more important than strength or hardness. A thin layer of aluminium can be deposited onto a flat surface by physical vapor deposition or (very infrequently) chemical vapor deposition or other chemical means to form optical coatings and mirrors. When so deposited, a fresh, pure aluminium film serves as a good reflector (approximately 92%) of visible light and an excellent reflector (as much as 98%) of medium and far infrared. Image File history File links Aluminum_Metal_coinless. ... Image File history File links Aluminum_Metal_coinless. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Physical vapor deposition (PVD) is a technique used to deposit thin films of various materials onto various surfaces (e. ... DC plasma (violet) enhances the growth of carbon nanotubes in this laboratory-scale PECVD apparatus. ... An optical coating is a thin layer of material placed on an optical component such as a lens or mirror which alters the way in which the optic reflects and transmits light. ... A mirror, reflecting a vase. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ...


Pure aluminium has a low tensile strength, but when combined with thermo-mechanical processing, aluminium alloys display a marked improvement in mechanical properties, especially when tempered. Aluminium alloys form vital components of aircraft and rockets as a result of their high strength-to-weight ratio. Aluminium readily forms alloys with many elements such as copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese and silicon (e.g., duralumin). Today, almost all bulk metal materials that are referred to loosely as "aluminium," are actually alloys. For example, the common aluminium foils are alloys of 92% to 99% aluminium.[14] Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals and alloys. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium or dural) is the trade name of one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some of the many uses for aluminium metal are in:

household aluminium foil
household aluminium foil

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1984x1784, 2406 KB) Summary I took it myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1984x1784, 2406 KB) Summary I took it myself. ... Car redirects here. ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car), also known as an item of rolling stock in British parlance, is a vehicle on a railroad or railway that is not a locomotive - one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... The aluminum can (North American English spelling) or aluminium can (other English spelling) is a popular beverage container introduced by the Coors Brewing Company. ... Control room and schematics of the water purification plant to Bret lake. ... Gyrodactylus salaris is a small monogenean ectoparasite (about 0. ... For other uses, see Window (disambiguation). ... This article is about the architectural feature. ... Corrugated steel siding, for the side of a barn. ... This is a list of food preparation utensils, also known as kitchenware. ... Transmission towers Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power transmission, or more accurately Electrical energy transmission, is the second process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... MKM steel, an alloy containing nickel and aluminum, was developed in 1931 by the Japanese metallurgist Tokuhichi Mishima. ... Alnico is an acronym[1] referring to alloys which are composed primarily of aluminium (symbol Al), nickel (symbol Ni) and cobalt (symbol Co), hence al-ni-co, with the addition of iron, copper, and sometimes titanium, typically 8-12% Al, 15-26% Ni, 5-24% Co, up to 6% Cu... CD redirects here. ... This article is about the substance or device. ... Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ... CPU redirects here. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... The word pyrotechnic (literally meaning fire technology) refers to any chemical explosive device, but especially fireworks. ... The Space Shuttle is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A Solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... A thermite mixture using Iron (III) Oxide A thermite mixture using Iron (II,III) Oxide Thermite is a kind of pyrotechnic composition of aluminium powder and a metal oxide which produces an aluminothermic reaction known as a thermite reaction. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... traditional Norse knife A knife is a sharp-edged hand tool used for cutting. ... Actresses Uma Thurman (right) and Vivica A. Fox performing a fight choreography Stage combat is a specialized technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. ...

Aluminium compounds

  • Aluminium borate (Al2O3 B2O3) is used in the production of glass and ceramic.
  • Aluminium borohydride (Al(BH4)3) is used as an additive to jet fuel.
  • Aluminium chlorohydride is used as an antiperspirant and in the treatment of hyperhidrosis.
  • Aluminium fluorosilicate (Al2(SiF6)3) is used in the production of synthetic gemstones, glass and ceramic.
  • Aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) is used: as an antacid, as a mordant, in water purification, in the manufacture of glass and ceramic and in the waterproofing of fabrics.
  • Aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) is used: in the manufacture of paper, as a mordant, in a fire extinguisher, in water purification and sewage treatment, as a food additive, in fireproofing, and in leather tanning.
  • In many vaccines, certain aluminium salts serve as an immune adjuvant (immune response booster) to allow the protein in the vaccine to achieve sufficient potency as an immune stimulant.

Ammonium alum (NH4Al(SO4)2·12H2O) is a white crystalline double sulfate of aluminium, used in water purification, in vegetable glues, in porcelain cements, in natural deodorants and in tanning, dyeing and in fireproofing textiles. ... Look up Mordant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... For other uses, see Leather (disambiguation). ... This article is about common table salt. ... A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ... This article is about the material. ... This article is about ceramic materials. ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ... Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is a compound of aluminium and chlorine. ... Deodorants are cosmetic substances applied to the body, most frequently the armpits, to reduce the odor of perspiration. ... Petro redirects here. ... Refining is the process of purification of a substance, usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in its pure form. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Primary hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is the most stable form of aluminium in normal conditions. ... Look up antacid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Alumina redirects here. ... Corundum (from Tamil kurundam) is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the rock-forming minerals. ... This article is about the mineral. ... For other uses, see Sapphire (disambiguation). ... Emery is a very hard rock type used to make abrasive powder. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Coherent waves. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Aluminium phosphate (AlPO4) is a chemical compound. ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... Make-up redirects here. ... Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. ... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... Aluminium sulfate is a widely used industrial chemical. ... Fire extinguisher A fire extinguisher is a device used to put out a fire, often in an emergency situation. ... In immunology an adjuvant is an agent which, while not having any specific antigenic effect in itself, may stimulate the immune system, increasing the response to a vaccine. ...

Aluminium alloys in structural applications

Aluminium foam
Aluminium foam
Main article: Aluminium alloy

Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures. Alloy systems are classified by a number system (ANSI) or by names indicating their main alloying constituents (DIN and ISO). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1635 × 2180 pixel, file size: 935 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1635 × 2180 pixel, file size: 935 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys are alloys of aluminium, often with copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. ... The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced an-see) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ... Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ...


The strength and durability of aluminium alloys vary widely, not only as a result of the components of the specific alloy, but also as a result of heat treatments and manufacturing processes. A lack of knowledge of these aspects has from time to time led to improperly designed structures and gained aluminium a bad reputation. (See main article)


One important structural limitation of aluminium alloys is their fatigue strength. Unlike steels, aluminium alloys have no well-defined fatigue limit, meaning that fatigue failure will eventually occur under even very small cyclic loadings. This implies that engineers must assess these loads and design for a fixed life rather than an infinite life. In materials science, fatigue is the progressive, localised, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of the material. ... Fatigue limit, also known as endurance limit, is a property of ferrous iron alloys and titanium [1]. It is the constant amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to a material without causing fatigue failure. ... In materials science, fatigue is the progressive, localised, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of the material. ...


Another important property of aluminium alloys is their sensitivity to heat. Workshop procedures involving heating are complicated by the fact that aluminium, unlike steel, will melt without first glowing red. Forming operations where a blow torch is used therefore requires some expertise, since no visual signs reveal how close the material is to melting. Aluminium alloys, like all structural alloys, also are subject to internal stresses following heating operations such as welding and casting. The problem with aluminium alloys in this regard is their low melting point, which make them more susceptible to distortions from thermally induced stress relief. Controlled stress relief can be done during manufacturing by heat-treating the parts in an oven, followed by gradual cooling -- in effect annealing the stresses. A blowtorch is a tool used in gas welding and metal cutting and brazing and sometimes in soldering. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Annealing. ...


The low melting point of aluminium alloys has not precluded their use in rocketry; even for use in constructing combustion chambers where gases can reach 3500 K. The Agena upper stage engine used a regeneratively cooled aluminium design for some parts of the nozzle, including the thermally critical throat region. The Agena was a rocket upper stage developed by Lockheed for the ill-fated WS-117L US reconnaissance satellite program. ...


Household wiring

See also: Aluminium wire

Aluminium has about 65% of the conductivity of copper, the traditional household wiring material. In the 1960s aluminium was considerably cheaper than copper, and so was introduced for household electrical wiring in the United States, even though many fixtures had not been designed to accept aluminium wire. However, in some cases the greater coefficient of thermal expansion of aluminium causes the wire to expand and contract relative to the dissimilar metal screw connection, eventually loosening the connection. Also, pure aluminium has a tendency to creep under steady sustained pressure (to a greater degree as the temperature rises), again loosening the connection. Finally, Galvanic corrosion from the dissimilar metals increased the electrical resistance of the connection. Aluminium wire is a type of wiring used in houses and power grids. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... This article is about screws and bolts. ... Creep is the term used to describe the tendency of a material to move or to deform permanently to relieve stresses. ... The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two metals connected by an electrolyte which forms a salt bridge between the metals. ...


All of this resulted in overheated and loose connections, and this in turn resulted in fires. Builders then became wary of using the wire, and many jurisdictions outlawed its use in very small sizes in new construction. Eventually, newer fixtures were introduced with connections designed to avoid loosening and overheating. At first they were marked "Al/Cu", but they now bear a "CO/ALR" coding. In older assemblies, workers forestall the heating problem using a properly-done crimp of the aluminium wire to a short "pigtail" of copper wire. Today, new alloys, designs, and methods are used for aluminium wiring in combination with aluminium terminations. Crimping is joining two pieces of metal or other malleable material by deforming one or both of them to hold the other. ... Pigtails is a hairstyle: long hair is parted in the middle and tied on the sides, often curled into ringlets. ...


History

Ancient Greeks and Romans used aluminium salts as dyeing mordants and as astringents for dressing wounds; alum is still used as a styptic. In 1761 Guyton de Morveau suggested calling the base alum alumine. In 1808, Humphry Davy identified the existence of a metal base of alum, which he at first termed alumium and later aluminum (see Etymology section, below). Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... A crystal of alum Alum, (IPA: ) a nonexistent compound that was imagined by Mary Daly, which serves no purpose than to supply highscool students with work. ... A Styptic pencil is a short stick of medication, usually alum, used for staunching blood, especially for cuts caused by shaving. ... Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (also Guyton-Morveau after the French Revolution; 1737-01-04 – 1816-01-02) was a French chemist and politician. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ...

The statue of the Angel of Christian Charity (commonly mistaken for Eros) in Piccadilly Circus London, was made in 1893 and is one of the first statues to be cast in aluminium.
The statue of the Angel of Christian Charity (commonly mistaken for Eros) in Piccadilly Circus London, was made in 1893 and is one of the first statues to be cast in aluminium.

Friedrich Wöhler is generally credited with isolating aluminium (Latin alumen, alum) in 1827 by mixing anhydrous aluminium chloride with potassium. As the metal had first been produced two years earlier (in an impure form) by Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted, Ørsted can also be listed as its discoverer.[16] Further, Pierre Berthier discovered aluminium in bauxite ore and successfully extracted it.[17] Frenchman Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville improved Wöhler's method in 1846, and described his improvements in a book in 1859, chief among these being the substitution of sodium for the considerably more expensive potassium. Download high resolution version (500x741, 23 KB) Statue of The Angel of Christian Charity at Piccadilly Circus in London. ... Download high resolution version (500x741, 23 KB) Statue of The Angel of Christian Charity at Piccadilly Circus in London. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Friedrich Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is a compound of aluminium and chlorine. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... “Ørsted” redirects here. ... Pierre Berthier (July 3, 1782 – August 24, 1861) was a French geologist who discovered the properties of Bauxite in 1821 in the village Les Baux de Provence in southern France. ... Henri Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville (March 9, 1818-July 1, 1881) was a French chemist. ...


(Note: The title of Deville's book is "De l'aluminium, ses propriétés, sa fabrication" (Paris, 1859). Deville likely also conceived the idea of the electrolysis of aluminium oxide dissolved in cryolite; however, Charles Martin Hall and Paul Héroult might have developed the more practical process after Deville.) In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ...


Before the Hall-Héroult process was developed, aluminium was exceedingly difficult to extract from its various ores. This made pure aluminium more valuable than gold. Bars of aluminium were exhibited alongside the French crown jewels at the Exposition Universelle of 1855, and Napoleon III was said to have reserved a set of aluminium dinner plates for his most honored guests. The Hall-Héroult process is the major industrial process for the production of aluminium. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Images of the Palais dIndustrie The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ...


Aluminium was selected as the material to be used for the apex of the Washington Monument in 1884, a time when one ounce (30 grams) cost the daily wage of a common worker on the project;[18] aluminium was about the same value as silver. This article is about the monument in Washington, D.C. For other monuments dedicated to George Washington, see Washington Monuments (world). ... This article is about Ounce (unit of mass). ...


The Cowles companies supplied aluminium alloy in quantity in the United States and England using smelters like the furnace of Carl Wilhelm Siemens by 1886.[19] Charles Martin Hall of Ohio in the U.S. and Paul Héroult of France independently developed the Hall-Héroult electrolytic process that made extracting aluminium from minerals cheaper and is now the principal method used worldwide. The Hall-Heroult process cannot produce Super Purity Aluminium directly. Hall's process,[20] in 1888 with the financial backing of Alfred E. Hunt, started the Pittsburgh Reduction Company today known as Alcoa. Héroult's process was in production by 1889 in Switzerland at Aluminium Industrie, now Alcan, and at British Aluminium, now Luxfer Group and Alcoa, by 1896 in Scotland.[21] This article is about the companies owned by the inventors of an electric smelter. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... Wilhelm Siemens Carl Wilhelm Siemens (en: Charles William Siemens) (April 4, 1823 – November 19, 1883) was a German engineer. ... Charles M. Hall (1863-1914) Charles Martin Hall (1863-1914) was an American inventor and engineer. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The French scientist Paul (Louis-Toussaint) Héroult (1863-1914) was the inventor of the aluminium electrolysis and of the electric steel furnace. ... The Hall-Heroult process is the major industrial process for the production of aluminum. ... Alfred E. Hunt was a 19th Century American metallurgist and industrialist best known for founding the company that would eventually become Alcoa (NYSE: AA), the worlds largest producer and distributor of aluminium. ... This article is about the company. ... Alcan (ALaska CANada) is also one of the common names for the Alaska Highway that connects Dawson Creek, British Columbia, with Fairbanks, Alaska. ... The Laggan Dam was constructed in 1934 to provide hydro-electric power for refining aluminium The aluminium producer British Aluminium Ltd was originally formed as the British Aluminium Company Ltd on 7 May 1894 and was subsequently known as British Alcan Aluminium Plc (1982-1996). ... This article is about the country. ...


By 1895 the metal was being used as a building material as far away as Sydney, Australia in the dome of the Chief Secretary's Building. This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


In November 2007 the price of aluminium on NYMEX was around $1.10 or $1.20 a pound. The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is the worlds largest physical commodity futures exchange located in New York City. ...


Etymology

Nomenclature history

The earliest citation given in the Oxford English Dictionary for any word used as a name for this element is alumium, which Humphry Davy employed in 1808 for the metal he was trying to isolate electrolytically from the mineral alumina. The citation is from his journal Philosophical Transactions: "Had I been so fortunate as..to have procured the metallic substances I was in search of, I should have proposed for them the names of silicium, alumium, zirconium, and glucium."[22] The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ...


By 1812, Davy had settled on aluminum, which, as other sources note,[citation needed] matches its Latin root. He wrote in the journal Chemical Philosophy: "As yet Aluminum has not been obtained in a perfectly free state."[23] But the same year, an anonymous contributor to the Quarterly Review, a British political-literary journal, objected to aluminum and proposed the name aluminium, "for so we shall take the liberty of writing the word, in preference to aluminum, which has a less classical sound."[24] Quarterly Review was a review journal started by John Murray, the celebrated London publisher, in March 1809 (though it bore a title page date of February), in rivalry with the Edinburgh Review, which had been seven years in possession of the field, and was exerting, as he judged, an evil...


The -ium suffix had the advantage of conforming to the precedent set in other newly discovered elements of the time: potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, and strontium (all of which Davy had isolated himself). Nevertheless, -um spellings for elements were not unknown at the time, as for example platinum, known to Europeans since the sixteenth century, molybdenum, discovered in 1778, and tantalum, discovered in 1802. General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ...


Americans adopted -ium to fit the standard form of the periodic table of elements, for most of the nineteenth century, with aluminium appearing in Webster's Dictionary of 1828. In 1892, however, Charles Martin Hall used the -um spelling in an advertising handbill for his new electrolytic method of producing the metal, despite his constant use of the -ium spelling in all the patents[20] he filed between 1886 and 1903.[25] It has consequently been suggested that the spelling reflects an easier to pronounce word with one fewer syllable, or that the spelling on the flier was a mistake. Hall's domination of production of the metal ensured that the spelling aluminum became the standard in North America; the Webster Unabridged Dictionary of 1913, though, continued to use the -ium version. Noah Webster Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – April 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, political writer, word enthusiast, and editor. ...


In 1926, the American Chemical Society officially decided to use aluminum in its publications; American dictionaries typically label the spelling aluminium as a British variant. The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. ...


Present-day spelling

In the UK and other countries using British spelling, only aluminium is used. In the United States, the spelling aluminium is largely unknown, and the spelling aluminum predominates.[26][27] The Canadian Oxford Dictionary prefers aluminum, whereas the Australian Macquarie Dictionary prefers aluminium. The spelling in virtually all other languages is analogous to the -ium ending. Spelling differences redirects here. ... The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, published by the Oxford University Press Canada, was first released in 1998 and quickly became the standard dictionary reference for Canadian English. ... Image:Macq4TH 3D NEW.jpg The Macquarie Dictionary, 4th edition. ...


The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) adopted aluminium as the standard international name for the element in 1990, but three years later recognized aluminum as an acceptable variant. Hence their periodic table includes both, but places aluminium first.[28] IUPAC officially prefers the use of aluminium in its internal publications, although several IUPAC publications use the spelling aluminum.[29] IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ...


Biological role

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Precautions

The toxicity of aluminium can be traced to increased deposition in bone and the central nervous system, particularly in the presence of reduced renal function. Because aluminium competes with calcium for absorption, increased amounts of dietary aluminium may contribute to the reduced skeletal mineralization (osteopenia) observed in preterm infants and infants with growth retardation. Full-term infants with normal renal function do not seem to be at substantial risk from aluminium toxicity from soy protein-based formulas. Aluminium can cause neurotoxicity in very high doses which can alter the function of the blood-brain barrier.[30] It is one of the few abundant elements that have no known function in living cells. A small percentage of people are allergic to it — they experience contact dermatitis: an itchy rash from using styptic or antiperspirant products, digestive disorders and inability to absorb nutrients from eating food cooked in aluminium pans, and vomiting and other symptoms of poisoning from ingesting such products as Amphojel, and Maalox (antacids). Such allergies are extremely rare though, in other people aluminium is not considered as toxic as heavy metals, but there is evidence of some toxicity if it is consumed in excessive amounts. The use of aluminium cookware, popular because of its corrosion resistance and good heat conduction, has not been shown to lead to aluminium toxicity in general. Excessive consumption of antacids containing aluminium compounds and excessive use of aluminium-containing antiperspirants are more likely causes of toxicity. Aluminium increases estrogen-related gene expression in human breast cancer cells grown in the laboratory.[31] These salts' estrogen-like effects have led to their classification as a metalloestrogen. Neurotoxicity occurs when the exposure to natural or manmade toxic substances ,which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. ... A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ... A Styptic pencil is a short stick of medication, usually alum, used for staunching blood, especially for cuts caused by shaving. ... Deodorants are cosmetic substances applied to the body, most frequently the armpits, to reduce the odor of perspiration. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Emesis redirects here. ... For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ... A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ... Maalox is a brand name antacid containing Aluminium hydroxide and Magnesium hydroxide to neutralize or reduce stomach acid. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... cast-iron iron enamel stainless steel The cooking pan is a type of food preparation utensil commonly found in the kitchen which includes many more specific cooking vessels such as saucepans and frying pans (or fry pans). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Heat conduction or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter, from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and acts to equalize temperature differences. ... Look up antacid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Estriol. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


It has been suggested that aluminium is a cause of Alzheimer's disease, as some brain plaques have been found to contain the metal. Research in this area has been inconclusive; aluminium accumulation may be a consequence of the Alzheimer's damage, not the cause. In any event, if there is any toxicity of aluminium it must be via a very specific mechanism, since total human exposure to the element in the form of naturally occurring clay in soil and dust is enormously large over a lifetime.[32][33] Senile plaques are clumps of A-beta peptides commonly found in Alzheimers disease on microscopic examination of brain tissue. ...


Mercury applied to the surface of an aluminium alloy can damage the protective oxide surface film by forming amalgam. This may cause further corrosion and weakening of the structure. For this reason, mercury thermometers are not allowed on many airliners, as aluminium is used in many aircraft structures. This article is about the element. ... Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys are alloys of aluminium, often with copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. ... A mercury-aluminum amalgam is a chemical reagent that uses aluminum coated with mercury to reduce compounds, such as the reduction of imines to amines. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ...


A mixture of powdered aluminium and Fe2O3 is known as thermite, and burns with a high energy output to form Fe and Al2O3. Thermite can be produced inadvertently during grinding operations, but the high ignition temperature makes incidents unlikely in most workshop environments. Iron(III) oxide — also known as ferric oxide, Hematite, red iron oxide, synthetic maghemite, colcothar, or simply rust — is one of the several oxide compounds of iron, and has paramagnetic properties. ... A thermite mixture using Iron (III) Oxide A thermite mixture using Iron (II,III) Oxide Thermite is a kind of pyrotechnic composition of aluminium powder and a metal oxide which produces an aluminothermic reaction known as a thermite reaction. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Aluminium oxide or aluminum oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. ... A combustion reaction taking place in igniting a match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ...


Aluminium and plants (phytoremediation)

Aluminium is primary among the factors that contribute to the loss of plant production on acid soils. Although it is generally harmless to plant growth in pH-neutral soils, the concentration in acid soils of toxic Al3+ cations increases and disturbs root growth and function. A cation is an ion with positive charge. ...


Wheat's adaptation to allow aluminium tolerance is such that the aluminium induces a release of organic compounds that bind to the harmful aluminium cations. Sorghum is believed to have the same tolerance mechanism. The first gene for aluminium tolerance has been identified in wheat. A group in the U.S. Department of Agriculture showed that sorghum's aluminium tolerance is controlled by a single gene, as for wheat. This is not the case in all plants. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ...


See also

Aluminium alloys or aluminum alloys are alloys of aluminium, often with copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, or magnesium. ... Aluminium batteries are commonly known as Aluminium-air batteries, due to the reaction of oxygen in the air with Aluminium. ... Aluminium in Africa is mined primarily in Guinea, Mozambique and Ghana. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ...

References

  1. ^ Bassam Z. Shakhashiri. Chemical of the Week: Aluminum. Science is Fun. Retrieved on 2007-08-28.
  2. ^ a b I. J. Polmear, Light Alloys, Arnold, 1995
  3. ^ G. E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill, 1988
  4. ^ John F. Cochran and D. E. Mapother (July 1958). "Superconducting Transition in Aluminum". Physical Review 111 (1): 132-142. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.111.132. 
  5. ^ Robert T. Dodd, Thunderstones and Shooting Stars, pp. 89-90. ISBN 0-674-89137-6.
  6. ^ S Venetski (July 1969). ""Silver" from clay" (translated). Metallurgist 13 (7): 451-453. doi:10.1007/BF00741130. 
  7. ^ ChemMatters October 1990 Page 14
  8. ^ Benefits of Recycling. Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
  9. ^ The Australian Industry. Australian Aluminium Council. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  10. ^ Australian Bauxite. Australian Aluminium Council. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  11. ^ Eberly College of Science (13 January 2005). "Clusters of Aluminum Atoms Found to Have Properties of Other Elements Reveal a New Form of Chemistry". Press release.
  12. ^ "aluminum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  13. ^ L E Hetherington, T J Brown, A J Benham, P A J Lusty, N E Idoine (2007). World Mineral Production: 2001 - 2005 (available online), British Geological Survey. ISBN 978-0-85272-592-4. 
  14. ^ L. S. Millberg. Aluminum Foil. How Products are Made. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  15. ^ Aluminum in Watchmaking
  16. ^ Yinon Bentor. Periodic Table: Aluminum. ChemicalElements.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  17. ^ Pierre Berthier. Today in Science History. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  18. ^ George J. Binczewski (1995). "The Point of a Monument: A History of the Aluminum Cap of the Washington Monument". JOM 47 (11): 20- 25. 
  19. ^ "Cowles' Aluminium Alloys" (January 1886). The Manufacturer and Builder 18 (1): 13. New York: Western and Company, via Cornell University Library. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.  and McMillan, Walter George (1891). A Treatise on Electro-Metallurgy. London, Philadelphia: Charles Griffin and Company, J.B. Lippincott Company, via Google Books scan of New York Public Library copy, 302-305. Retrieved on 2007-10-26.  and Sackett, William Edgar, John James Scannell and Mary Eleanor Watson (1917/1918). New Jersey's First Citizens. New Jersey: J.J. Scannell via Google Books scan of New York Public Library copy, 103-105. Retrieved on 2007-10-25. 
  20. ^ a b US400,664 (PDF version) (1889-04-02) Charles Martin Hall Process of Reducing Aluminium from its Fluoride Salts by Electrolysis 
  21. ^ Donald Holmes Wallace [1937] (1977). Market Control in the Aluminum Industry. Harvard University Press via Ayer Publishing via Google Books limited view, 6. ISBN 0-4050-9786-7. Retrieved on 2007-10-27. 
  22. ^ "alumium", Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner, second edition Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. OED Online Oxford University Press. Accessed October 29, 2006. Citation is listed as "1808 SIR H. DAVY in Phil. Trans. XCVIII. 353". The ellipsis in the quotation is as it appears in the OED citation.
  23. ^ "aluminum", ibid. Citation is listed as "1812 SIR H. DAVY Chem. Philos. I. 355"
  24. ^ "aluminium", ibid. Citation is listed as "1812 Q. Rev. VIII. 72"
  25. ^ Peter Meiers. Manufacture of Aluminum. The History of Fluorine, Fluoride and Fluoridation.
  26. ^ Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition, Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  27. ^ John Bremner, Words on Words: A Dictionary for Writers and Others Who Care about Words, page 22–23. ISBN 0-231-04493-3
  28. ^ IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements
  29. ^ IUPAC Web site publication search for 'aluminum'
  30. ^ Banks, W.A.; Kastin, A.J. (1989). "Aluminum-induced neurotoxicity: alterations in membrane function at the blood-brain barrier.". Neurosci Biobehav Rev 13 (1): 47-53. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(89)80051-X. 
  31. ^ Metalloestrogens: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast J Appl Toxicol. 2006 May-Jun;26(3):191-7
  32. ^ Alzheimer's Disease and Aluminum. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (October 2005).
  33. ^ Michael Hopkin. "Death of Alzheimer victim linked to aluminium pollution", news @ nature.com, 21 April 2006. doi:10.1038/news060417-10. 

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External links

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Look up aluminium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide (or actinoid) series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


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Aluminium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4863 words)
Aluminium is found primarily as the ore bauxite and is remarkable for its resistance to corrosion (due to the phenomenon of passivation) and its light weight.
Aluminium is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air.
Aluminium was selected as the material to be used for the apex of the Washington Monument, at a time when one ounce cost twice the daily wages of a common worker in the project; aluminium was a semiprecious metal at that time.
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