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Encyclopedia > Alternate versions of Robin

Robin is a fictional character published by DC Comics. Robin has long been a fixture in the Batman comic books as Batman's sidekick. Since 1940, several different youths have appeared as Robin. In each incarnation, Robin's brightly colored visual appearance and youthful energy have served as a contrast to Batman's dark look and manner. DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ...


This page is a list of the alternate versions of Robin in comic books, including DC Comics, the multiverse, Elseworlds, et cetera. A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... The Earths of the Multiverse and the different variations of the Flash inhabiting each one. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

In mainstream comics continuity

  • Dick Grayson is the original Robin. Though he stops being Robin in the comics, Grayson is the most commonly portrayed version in other media. Dick Grayson later assumes the name Nightwing.
  • Jason Todd becomes Robin after Grayson, though his superheroic career is ended by his untimely death at the hands of The Joker. Jason Todd is later resurrected and assumes the name Red Hood.
  • Tim Drake assumes the Robin identity after Todd, but quits at the request of his father. After his replacement is killed, he reclaims the mantle and has remained the current Robin.
  • Stephanie Brown was Drake's girlfriend and a superheroine of her own design, but later took on the Robin name in place of Drake. She is killed by Black Mask.

Pre-Crisis on Infinite Earths a number of Robins lived on multiple Earths in the original multiverse which was destroyed during the Crisis. In a Batman story from the 1950s, Bruce Wayne assumes the identity of Robin. Richard Grayson of Earth-Two carried on his Robin mantle long into adulthood - in the new Earth-Two of the new multiverse, Robin still serves in adulthood. Post-52, an entirely new finite multiverse was discovered and created, and as such a number of Robins may exist now on other alternate Earths. In one frame of the final issue of 52, a new Earth-2 is depicted, along with a character that resembles the original, adult Earth-2 Robin. Whether it is that character or not remains to be seen, as this Earth-2 is not identical to the one that existed before Crisis on Infinite Earths. In another case, Red Talon, is an analogue of Robin, likely from the new Earth-3, his relationship with Owlman likely mirrors that of Batman and Robin in the mainstream universes. Dick Grayson is a fictional character, a superhero in the DC Comics Universe. ... Nightwing is a name used by at least six fictional characters in the DC Comics Universe. ... Jason Todd is a fictional character published in stories by DC Comics. ... The Joker can mean any of the following: The Joker is a comic strip character, also included in movies and television programs based on the comic strip. ... Red Hood is a fictional character and title in the DC Universe. ... Timothy Tim Drake is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ... A classic image of Batman and Robin reinterpreted by painter Alex Ross. ... Black Mask is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. ... Crisis on Infinite Earths was a 12-issue comic book limited series (identified as a 12-part maxi-series) and crossover event, produced by DC Comics in 1985 in order to simplify their fifty-year-old continuity. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Batman (disambiguation). ... First appearance of Earth-Two For other uses, see Earth 2. ... 52 is the title of a comic book limited series published by DC Comics, which debuted on May 10, 2006, one week after the conclusion of the seven-issue Infinite Crisis. ... A Roman law prohibits the execution of old and crippled slaves. ... Crisis on Infinite Earths was a 12-issue comic book limited series (identified as a 12-part maxi-series) and crossover event, produced by DC Comics in 1985 in order to simplify their fifty-year-old continuity. ... Talon is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics universe who was first mentioned in Teen Titans #38. ... In DC Comics, the Multiverse was a continuity construct in which multiple fictional versions of the universe existed in the same space, separated from each other by their vibrational resonances. ... Owlman, sometimes referred to as the Cornish Owlman or The Owlman of Mawnan, was a cryptozoological creature that was sighted in the late 70s in the village of Mawnan, in Cornwall. ...


Alternate versions

Bruce Wayne Junior

In a story from 1961, Alfred writes a tale about an imaginary future: Bruce Wayne married Kathy Kane and they had a son named Bruce Jr. As Bruce Sr. retires from being Batman, that post is filled by Dick Grayson. Dick's post as Robin is filled by Bruce Jr. The future dynamic duo wear the same costumes as the present versions, but with a II added on the chest of each. The villains featured in the story are the Joker and his son. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... The Joker is a comic book supervillain in the DC Comics universe. ...


Robin's mantle was also carried on by Bruce Wayne Jr. in the epilogue of the Batman/Captain America crossover from 1996. Characters similar to the Batman/Dick Grayson and Robin/Bruce Jr./"BJ" also appear in the miniseries Batman/Superman Generations I and II. Captain America is a fictional comic book superhero published by Marvel Comics. ...


Robert Chang

In the digitally rendered tale Digital Justice, James Gordon the grandson of his namesake, Commissioner Gordon, takes on the mantle of the Batman. A character named Robert Chang, who is somewhat reminiscent of the post-Crisis Jason Todd, takes on the mantle of Robin. There have been several notable figures, both real and fictional, named James Gordon. ... Crisis on Infinite Earths was a 12-issue comic book limited series (identified as a 12-part maxi-series) and crossover event, produced by DC Comics in 1985 in order to simplify their fifty-year-old continuity. ...


Red Robin (Kingdom Come)

Red Robin of Kingdom Come (1996). Art by Alex Ross.

In Kingdom Come, a middle-aged Dick Grayson reclaims the Robin mantle and becomes Red Robin, not at the side of his former mentor Batman, but rather with Superman's League. His uniform is closer to Batman's in design, rather than any previous Robin uniform. Age has not slowed him down, as he possesses all of his stealth and fighting skills. In this story he has a daughter with Starfire; the beautiful Nightstar. Starfire has apparently died by the time of the story, according to the Elliot S. Maggin novelization, and Nightstar calls Bruce Wayne "Grandpa", despite no blood relation. At the end of the comic and the novel, Bruce and Dick had reconciled. Image File history File links Red_robin. ... Image File history File links Red_robin. ... Nelson Alexander Alex Ross (born January 22, 1970) is an American comic book painter, acclaimed for the photorealism of his work. ... The cover to Absolute Kingdom Come by Alex Ross (2006) Kingdom Come is a comic book limited series published in 1996 by DC Comics, written by Mark Waid and painted by Alex Ross. ... Starfire is the name of three superheroes who have appeared in comic books published by DC Comics. ... Nightstar is a fictional character, the daughter of Red Robin (Dick Grayson, also known as Nightwing, the first Robin) and Starfire from the Kingdom Come and The Kingdom comic book miniseries by DC Comics. ... Elliot S. Maggin is an American writer. ... A novelization (or novelisation in British English) is a work of fiction that is written based on some other media story form rather than as an original work. ...


Red Robin is slated to appear in the DC Countdown event; however, Dan DiDio revealed it will not be Dick Grayson, but rather Jason Todd who will appear under the cape and cowl.[1] He then retracted this statement in March 2007.[2] DiDio recently came clean and clearly stated that Red Robin will be Jason Todd. [3][4] Countdown is a comic book limited series published by DC Comics, which debuted on May 9, 2007, directly following the conclusion of the last issue of 52. ... Jason Todd is a fictional character published in stories by DC Comics. ...


Stan Lee's Robin

DC did a version of Robin for Stan Lee's Just Imagine... line of comics, where a few DC Comics characters were re-imagined by Marvel Comics luminary Stan Lee. Robin was an orphan who had been controlled by Reverend Darkk, the series' main villain, into becoming a thief and a murderer. He met Batman, when Darkk assigned Robin to kill him. Batman survived the attack and in return showed Robin what kind of a man Darkk really was. Robin joined the good side for a time, but in the crisis issue it was revealed that Robin had in fact been working with Darkk the whole time; in the end he was transformed into a Hawkman, before being reborn through Yggdrasil as The Atom. Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber on December 28, 1921[1]) is an American writer, editor, was the Chairman Emeritus of Marvel Comics, and memoirist. ... In the 2000s, Stan Lee did his first work for DC Comics, launching the Just Imagine Stan Lees series, in which Lee reimagined several DC superheroes including Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern and The Flash. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Marvel Comics NYSE: MVL, (AKA Marvel Entertainment Group, Marvel Characters, Inc. ...


DC One Million

In the 853rd century, the current Batman is aided by the robot called 'Robin The Toy Wonder'. This Batman's parents were guards on the prison planet of Pluto and died in a prison riot that turned into a mass slaughter of the guards. Robin is programmed with the personality of this Batman as a boy and acts as a foil/source of perspective so that he will not become consumed by darkness in his quest for justice. This Robin believes this was the same reason Bruce Wayne brought Dick Grayson into his life. DC One Million was a crossover event published by DC Comics in 1998. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 0. ...


The Dark Knight Universe Robins

These stories are set in Frank Miller's Dark Knight Universe, which is not considered canonical. Miller has stated that the Dark Knight Universe consists of: All Star Batman and Robin, the Spawn/Batman crossover, The Dark Knight Returns, The Dark Knight Strikes Again and the upcoming Holy Terror, Batman! [1] Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder is an ongoing comic book series from DC Comics. ... The Dark Knight Returns (commonly abbreviated to DKR) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman and was written and drawn by Frank Miller. ... The Dark Knight Strikes Again (also refered to as DK2) is a Batman graphic novel by Frank Miller with Lynn Varley. ... Holy Terror, Batman! is a 200-page graphic novel by Frank Miller, set for a 2007 release. ...


In this version, Batman looks upon his sidekicks as employees rather than proteges, whom he threatens to "fire" from their "jobs" and even does so in the case of one of them.


Richard Grayson

Cover to All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder #1 (July 2005). Art by Jim Lee.

In Frank Miller's Dark Knight Universe, Grayson's origin differs in various ways to the official DC Comics Universe. As seen in the All Star Batman and Robin title, he is a twelve-year-old boy who performs in the circus with his two parents, as the Flying Graysons. Bruce Wayne had come to the show many times to watch him perform his stunts. One night, while Wayne watched the show with reporter Vicki Vale, the Graysons performed an amazing feat. The audience began to cheer and clap when suddenly a man arrived and shot Dick Grayson's parents in the head. They fell to the floor and died. Batman took out the gunman while some corrupted Gotham City Police officers took young Dick Grayson into custody, and absconded with him. They took him to a place outside Gotham City, into a deserted stretch of forest where they tortured and/or executed people, but Batman came to the rescue, and attacked the corrupt cops, forcing them into flight. Batman rescued Dick and took him in the Batmobile and asked him to join him in his crusade against crime in Gotham City. Dick agreed to join the crusade. Upon arrival in the Batcave, Batman intended Dick to survive in the cave without any help, however Alfred Pennyworth took pity on Dick and gave him food, and a decent place to sleep. Batman is displeased, as he wants Dick to go through the same things he did, whether Dick likes it or not. The story is still ongoing. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (465x700, 196 KB) Summary Artwork owned by DC Comics. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (465x700, 196 KB) Summary Artwork owned by DC Comics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... Cover to the History of the DC Universe trade paperback. ... All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder is an ongoing comic book series from DC Comics. ... For other uses, see Batman (disambiguation). ... Vicki Vale is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe, a reporter who was the most prominent and longest lasting love interest of Bruce Wayne and his alter-ego, Batman. ... The Gotham City Police Department (GCPD) is a fictional police department servicing the city of Gotham City in the DC Universe. ... This article is about the fictional place. ... It has been suggested that Batmissile, Bat-Humvee, Batmobile (Batman Forever) and Batmobile (Batman Begins) be merged into this article or section. ... The Batcave. ... Alfred Pennyworth is a fictional supporting character in the DC Comics Batman series. ...


Years later, in the Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again, it is revealed that after a rocky relationship, Batman fires Grayson for disobedience, replacing him with the much preferred Jason Todd. The Dark Knight Strikes Again is a Batman graphic novel by Frank Miller. ...


After Todd's death caused Batman to retire, Wayne remained inactive as a superhero until a crisis in Gotham forced him to don the cape and cowl once again at the age of 55. After faking his own death to continue to fight crime under ground, Grayson reemerges as a genetically altered and seemingly unkillable supervillain, taking on the persona of the recently deceased Joker. After maiming and killing a number of famous DC characters, he seeks out Carrie Kelley (see below), the new Robin/Catgirl, intending to kill her in order exact his final revenge on Batman. His plan fails, however, when Batman arrives to save Catgirl and eventually kills Grayson. The Joker is a comic book supervillain in the DC Comics universe. ...


In this version Batman shows no sympathy at all for Grayson in spite of his pleas.


Carrie Kelley

The 1986 limited series Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (1986), written and drawn by Frank Miller, introduced Carrie Kelley as the first female Robin in the Batman franchise's history. In that series, which takes place in the non-DC continuity Dark Knight Universe, Kelley was a schoolgirl whom Batman saved from muggers on the night of his sudden return. The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ... The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... The premiere issue of the series Spoiler warning: The Dark Knight Returns (known as DKR by fans) is a superhero comic book story published by DC Comics between 1985 and 1986, starring Batman. ...


She then spent her lunch money on a Robin outfit and set out to attack petty con-men and to find Batman. He accepted her as Robin when she saved his life just as he was on the verge of being killed by an enemy. She then played a crucial part in the final battle with the Joker. The Joker is a comic book supervillain in the DC Comics universe. ...


In this series, Todd's death had led to the Dark Knight's retirement, but Batman still accepted Kelley.


Unlike the previous Robins, Kelley was not an orphan, but she appears to have rather neglectful parents who are never actually seen (one of them mutters "Didn't we have a kid?" while their daughter is witnessing the fierce battle between Batman and the Mutants.) It is hinted through their dialogue that they were once activists and possibly yippies during the 1960s, but have since become apathetic stoners. The Youth International Party (whose adherents were known as Yippies, a variant on Hippies) was a highly theatrical political party established in the United States in 1967. ...


By the time of the 2001 sequel Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again, Kelley had taken the identity Catgirl, but was still Batman's able second-in-command. The Dark Knight Strikes Again is a Batman graphic novel by Frank Miller. ...


Other versions of Kelley
  • In an interesting scene in Teen Titans Vol. 3, #18, when the Titans were transported 10 years into the future, we are shown a graveyard full of deceased Batman allies and villains. One tombstone reads "Carrie Kelley".
  • In The New Batman Adventures episode "Legends of the Dark Knight", a girl named Carrie, who closely resembles Carrie Kelley, is one of three kids telling what they believe the Batman is really like. The story she tells is similar to the scene where Batman drives up in his tank and battles the mutants in Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, and includes herself as Carrie/Robin. She is voiced by Anndi McAfee.
  • In the Alex Ross-illustrated Kingdom Come graphic novel, Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman meet for lunch in a superhero-inspired restaurant. They are served by a waitress dressed as Robin and who may have been modeled on Carrie Kelley. She introduces herself as Robin, and Bruce quips, "Of course you are."
  • The character has also crossed over to a Marvel comic, New Mutants, as a background character. She can be seen in one of the Mojo stories watching the circus with her best friend.[citation needed]

The New Batman Adventures was the successor to the highly acclaimed American animated television series Batman: The Animated Series. ... Legends of the Dark Knight Legends of the Dark Knight is the title of an episode from The New Batman Adventures. ... Anndi Lynn McAfee is an American actress, voice actor and sister of Scott McAfee. ... Nelson Alexander Alex Ross (born January 22, 1970) is an American comic book painter, acclaimed for the photorealism of his work. ... The cover to Absolute Kingdom Come by Alex Ross (2006) Kingdom Come is a comic book limited series published in 1996 by DC Comics, written by Mark Waid and painted by Alex Ross. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Wonder Woman is a fictional DC Comics superheroine created by William Moulton Marston. ... New Mutants may also refer to the genetically engineered superhumans of Mutant X (TV series). ...

Elseworlds

See also: Elseworlds and List of Elseworlds publications

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of Elseworlds publications from DC Comics, separated by main character, and in alphabetical order by title. ...

Alfred Pennyworth

Alfred is a familiar character in the Batman books as Bruce Wayne's elderly butler. However, in Batman: Dark Allegiances, set in the World War II era, a young Alfred is Robin to that era's Batman. Alfred Pennyworth is a fictional supporting character in the DC Comics Batman series. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Richart Graustark

Set in the 1960s, Thrillkiller was written and drawn by Howard Chaykin and Dan Brereton and published in 1997-98. It has Bruce Wayne as a detective in the Gotham Police after his family was ruined by the Great Depression. Wayne Manor has been taken over by the rebellious, and a little demented, Barbara Gordon, daughter of police Commissioner James Gordon. Her live-in boyfriend is Richart Graustark, who goes under the name of "Dick Grayson", presumably to cover his German origins (WWII being still fresh in people's minds at the time). Howard Victor Chaykin (born 1950 in Newark, New Jersey) is an American comic book writer and artist famous for his innovative storytelling and sometimes controversial material. ... Dan Brereton is an artist who has worked in the comic book field. ... The Great Depression was the result of the economic downturn that started with the Stock Market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Barbara and Graustark fight crime as Batgirl and Robin, though, in true 1960s anti-establishment style, their main targets are corrupt cops, in particular those led by the Two-Face-like Detective Duell and the Joker-like but very feminine Bianca Steeplechase. This article is about the DC comics villain. ... The Joker is a comic book supervillain in the DC Comics universe. ...


In this version, Grayson's family are still circus acrobats, but their deaths are caused because of his activities as Robin rather than the traditional other way round. He is overcome by grief and rage over their murder and his subsequent recklessness leads to his own.


He is replaced as Barbara's partner by Detective Bruce Wayne, who takes the identity of Batman, but the memory of him drives even Barbara to the point of insanity and she adopts the Robin guise as part of seeking revenge.


Robin Drake

The main character in JLA: The Riddle of the Beast, young Robin Drake brings together all the heroes of The World to battle the Beast (Etrigan). The Demon is a DC Comics superhero series created by comic book master, Jack Kirby. ...


Rochelle Wayne

In the French Revolution set Batman: Reign of Terror, Bruce Wayne's sister learns his secret identity, and designs a Robin outfit to aid him. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


"Rodney"

Dark Knight Dynasty features three generations of Waynes, past, present and future. In the future section, Brenna Wayne is aided by an ape with augmented intelligence.


Redbird

In the American Civil War set The Blue, The Gray and the Bat, Captain Bruce Wayne is aided by a Native American named Redbird. Redbird's family were killed by white men, and, until he got his revenge, he wore war paint in a design similar to a domino mask. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ...


Robin 3000

In the futuristic Robin 3000, Earth is controlled by aliens. Batman (Bruce Wayne the 20th) is killed trying to stop them, but his mission is continued by his nephew, Tom Wayne. This was originally written as Tom Swift 3000, but rewritten as a Robin story when the original plans fell through. The first Tom Swift book: Tom Swift and his Motor Cycle Tom Swift is the protagonist in several series of juvenile adventure novels starting in the early twentieth century and continuing to present. ...


Tengu

In the Robin 1996 Elseworlds annual, an unnamed young warrior in 16th century Japan, is raised by the Bat-Samurai, and nicknamed Tengu, after the bird-spirits, by a female Cat-Ninja. Tengu was later revealed to be the rightful heir to the imperial throne, and the usurper (believing he knew this and plotted against him) attempted to kill him. He killed the usurper in self-defense but, since he had already sworn loyalty, was constrained to suicide as a result of this dishonor. Tengu and a Buddhist monk, by Kawanabe Kyōsai. ... Catwoman is a fictional character associated with DC Comics Batman franchise and created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane. ...


Robin Redblade

In the Detective Comics 1996 Elseworlds annual, an orphan on the streets of 17th century Kingston, who became cabin boy to Leatherwing the pirate. The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ...


Tris Plover

In the Robin 1998 Legends of The Dead Earth annual humanity is trying to reach other worlds in generation ships. On one of these, a group called the Proctors have seized control and everyone else are slaves who are executed on their 30th birthdays to conserve the ship's resources. A generation ship is a hypothetical starship that travels across great distances between stars at a speed much slower than that of light (see interstellar travel). ...


Tris Plover, a 29 year old slave, rebels against the Proctors. She meets another rebel, called the Batman, who gives her the Robin identity. At the cost of their lives, they succeed in defeating the Proctors and Robin sets the ship on a course for the planet New Gotham.


Deals and Geela

In the Detective Comics LOTDE annual, three kids on a war-torn planet redesign a soldier-robot to resemble Batman. Two of them then design Robin costumes (the third is told he can be "Alfred Gordon").


Darkbird

This is the name of Batman's partner in the somewhat garbled fables told on another colony world, as featured in the Batman LOTDE annual. While the name is based on Nightwing, the costume is in Robin's colours.


Batman/Captain America

During the epilogue of an intercompany crossover between DC and Marvel Comics, an adult Dick Grayson has taken over as Batman - Bruce Wayne has retired - and a red-headed Bruce Wayne, Jr. has claimed the Robin mantle. Wayne, Jr. resembles a male Carrie Kelley.[5] In comic books, an intercompany crossover (also called cross-company or company crossover) is a comic or series of comics where characters published by one company meet those published by another (for example, DC Comics Superman meeting Marvels Spider-Man). ... Marvel Comics is an American comic book line published by Marvel Publishing, Inc. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.newsarama.com/NYCC/2007/DC/DCU.html NYCC '07: DC NATION PANEL] by Kevin Huxford, Newsarama.com
  2. ^ http://comicnewsi.com/article.php?catid=144&itemid=9449
  3. ^ http://forum.newsarama.com/showthread.php?t=118774
  4. ^ "DC Nation" Justice Society of America v3 #7 (July 2007)  DC Comics
  5. ^ http://thebatman.bravepages.com/comics/books/captain.htm Batman/Captain America #1, Author: John Byrne

 
 

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