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Encyclopedia > Altai Republic

The Altai Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Алта́й; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). The direct transliteration of the republic's Russian name is Respublika Altay, and the transliteration of the Altay name is Altay Respublika. It is a different administrative entity from the neighboring Altai Krai. Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 88 subjects (Russian: ; English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ... Altai Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) in the Siberian Federal District. ...

Altai Republic
Республика Алтай
Алтай Республика
   
Flag of Altai Republic Coat of arms of Altai Republic
Flag of Altai Republic Coat of arms of Altai Republic
Image:RussiaAltaiRepublic2005.png
Capital Gorno-Altaysk
Area

- total
- % water Image File history File links Flag_of_Altai_Republic. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Altai_Republic. ... Image File history File links RussiaAltaiRepublic2005. ... Gorno-Altaysk or Gorno-Altaisk (Russian: ) is the capital of the Altai Republic, Russia. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ...

Ranked 38th

- 92,600 km²
- no data Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...

Population

- Total
- Density Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ...

Ranked 79th

- est. 202,947 (2002)
- est. 2.2/km² Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 census. ...

Political status Republic
Federal district Siberian
Economic Region West Siberia
Cadaster # 04
Official languages Russian, Altay
Head of the Republic Alexander Vasilyevich Berdnikov
Chairman of the Government Alexander Vasilyevich Berdnikov
Legislature State Assembly—El Kurultai
Anthem National Anthem of the Altai Republic

Contents

The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Siberian Federal District (Russian: Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... Alexander Vasiliyevich Berdnikov (born 1953) is a Russian politician and the current chairman of the government of the Altai Republic. ... Alexander Vasiliyevich Berdnikov (born 1953) is a Russian politician and the current chairman of the government of the Altai Republic. ...

Geography

The republic is situated in the very center of Asia at the junction of Siberian taiga, steppes of Kazakhstan and semi-deserts of Mongolia. Forests cover about 25% of the republic's territory. World map showing the location of Asia. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... The taiga is found throughout the high northern latitudes, just below the tundra, and just above the steppes. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step, Kazakh: - dala), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being... Erg Chebbi, Morocco In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. ...

Kemerovo Oblast (Russian: ) (pop. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... The Tuva Republic (Russian: ; Tuvan: Тыва Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Altai Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) in the Siberian Federal District. ... Belukha Mountain or Muztau (Russian Белуха, 4506 m), located in the Katun Range, is the highest peak of the Altai Mountains. ...

Time zone

The Altai Republic is located in the Novosibirsk Time Zone (NOVT/NOVST). UTC offset is +0600 (NOVT)/+0700 (NOVST). Image File history File links RTZ5. ... Omsk Time (OMST) is the time zone 6 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+6) and 3 hours ahead of Moscow Time (MSK+3). ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ...

Rivers

Hydrographic network of the Republic counts more than 20,000 water courses stretching for more than 60,000 km. The largest rivers are the Katun and the Biya, which junction forms one of the largest Siberian rivers — the Ob River. The Katun River (Катунь in Russian) is a river in the Altai Krai in Russia. ... The Biya River (Бия in Russian) is a river in the Altai Krai in Russia. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Ob (also Obi, Russian Обь) is a river in West Siberia, Russia, the countrys fourth longest. ...


Lakes

Hydrographic network of the Republic counts about 7,000 lakes with the total area of more than 700 km². The largest lake is Lake Teletskoye, 80 km long and 5 km wide with the area of 230.8 km² and maximum depth 325 m. Mountain lakes of Altai contain enormous freshwater reserves of the highest quality. The Lake Teletskoye alone contains more than 40 km³ of the purest water. Potential use of underground water storage is evaluated at 22 million m³ per day, while the present use constitutes only about 44,000 m³ per day. Lake Teletskoye (Altay: Altyn-Köl) is the largest lake in the Altai mountain system and the Altai Republic, Russia. ...

Shavlo Lake in Northern Chuysky Range
Shavlo Lake in Northern Chuysky Range

Photo of Famous Lake Shavlo in Altai Mountains - July 2002 Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photo of Famous Lake Shavlo in Altai Mountains - July 2002 Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Mountains

Mountainous relief of landscape is the prevalent one. The Republic is situated within the Russian part of the mountain system of Altay Mountains, which means the relief of the Republic is characterized by high mountain ridges separated by narrow and deep river valleys. The highest peak — Mount Belukha (4,506 m) — is the highest point in Siberia. The Altai is a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the great rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. ... Belukha Mountain or Muztau (Russian Белуха, 4506 m), located in the Katun Range, is the highest peak of the Altai Mountains. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ...


Natural resources

Water resources are among the most important natural resources of the republic. There are mineral springs in Altay Mountains that are considered healthy. Altai glaciers contain great amount of fresh water. The general volume of ice of the registered Altai glaciers comes up to 57 km³, which constitutes 52 km³ of water. The whole water stock of glaciers exceeds an average annual effluent of Altai rivers for many years being equal to 43 km³ per year. The largest glaciers are: Bolshoy Taldurinsky (35 km²), Mensu (21 km²), Sofiysky (17 km²), and Bolshoy Maashey (16 km²).


Mineral resources include gold, silver, iron ores, lithium, and more. General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/grey Atomic mass 6. ...


Climate

The republic has temperate continental climate with relatively short and hot summers (June-August) and long, cold and at some places very frosty winters (November-March). In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ...


In general, the climate of the southeastern areas of the republic (Ulagansky and Kosh-Agachsky Districts) is harsher that the climate of the northern and northeastern areas.

  • Average annual temperature: +1°C to -6.7°C.
  • January temperature range: -9.2°C to -31°C.
  • July temperature range: +11°C to +19°C.
  • Average annual precipitation: 100-1000 mm.

Administrative divisions

Towns under republics jurisdiction Gorno-Altaysk (Го́рно-Алта́йск) Districts: Chemalsky (Чема́льский) with 7 selsovets under the districts jurisdiction Choysky (Чо́йский) with 7 selsovets under the districts jurisdiction Kosh-Agachsky (Кош-Ага́чский) with 12 selsovets under the districts jurisdiction Mayminsky (Майминский) with 7 selsovets under the districts jurisdiction Ongudaysky (Онгуда́йский) with 10 selsovets under the districts jurisdiction Shebalinsky...

Demographics

As per the 2002 Census, ethnic Russians at 116,510 make up 57.4% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Altay people at 62,192 is only 30.6%. Other groups include Kazakhs (12,108, or 6.0%), Telengits (2,368, or 1.2%), Tubalars (1,533, or 0.8%), Ukrainians (1,437 or 0.7%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population. Birth rate in 2004 was 17.29 per 1000. Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... The Altay people are a Turkic people living in the North Russian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks or Qazaqs), (in Kazakh: Қазақтар []; in Russian: Казахи; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 1565 Tubalars in Russia. ...

census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Altay 39,285 (24.2%) 38,019 (24.2%) 46,750 (27.8%) 50,203 (29.2%) 59,130 (31.0%) 67,9951 (33.5%)
Russians 114,209 (70.4%) 109,661 (69.8%) 110,442 (65.6%) 108,795 (63.2%) 115,188 (60.4%) 116,510 (57.4%)
Kazakhs 4,280 (2.6%) 4,745 (3.0%) 7,170 (4.3%) 8,677 (5.0%) 10,692 (5.6%) 12,108 (6.0%)
Others 4,405 (2.7%) 4,736 (3.0%) 3,899 (2.3%) 4,365 (2.5%) 5,821 (3.1%) 6,334 (3.1%)
  1. including 2368 Telengits, 1533 Tubalars, 931 Kumandins and 830 Chelkans, which were not recognized as separate nationalities in the censuses prior to 2002
  • Population: 202,947 (2002)
    • Urban: 53,538 (26.4%)
    • Rural: 149,409 (73.6%)
    • Male: 96,572 (47.6%)
    • Female: 106,375 (52.4%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,102
  • Average age: 30.5 years
    • Urban: 29.4 years
    • Rural: 30.9 years
    • Male: 29.0 years
    • Female: 32.0 years
  • Number of households: 69,004 (with 200,100 people)
    • Urban: 19,864 (with 55,578 people)
    • Rural: 49,140 (with 147,522 people)

Altay or Altai may refer to: Altay, Xinjiang, also spelled Aletai, a city in Xinjiang, China Altay, Govi-Altay, a city in Govi-Altay Province, Mongolia Altay Mountains Altay language Altay (sheep), a sheep breed Altai Republic, a federal subject of Russia Altai Krai, a federal subject of Russia This... The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks or Qazaqs), (in Kazakh: Қазақтар []; in Russian: Казахи; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 1565 Tubalars in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 3114 Kumandins in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 855 Chelkans in Russia. ...

History

The national autonomy for the Altai people was created on June 1, 1922 as Oyrot Autonomous Oblast (Ойро́тская автоно́мная о́бласть), part of Altai Krai. On January 7, 1948 it was renamed Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast (Го́рно-Алта́йская автоно́мная о́бласть). In 1991 it was reorganized into the Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR). In 1992 it was renamed as the Altai Republic. June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Oyrot Autonomous Oblast was created 1922. ... Altai Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) in the Siberian Federal District. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast was the name given to Oyrot Autonomous Oblast in 1948-01-07. ...


Politics

The head of government in Altai Republic is the Head of the Republic, popularly elected for a four-year term. As of 2006, the Head of the Republic is Alexander Vasilyevich Berdnikov, who succeeded Mikhail Lapshin in this post. The supreme legislative body of the republic is the State Assembly—El Kurultai, with 41 deputies popularly elected every four years. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Vasiliyevich Berdnikov (born 1953) is a Russian politician and the current chairman of the government of the Altai Republic. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Lapshin (born September 1, 1934) is the President of the Altai Republic in Russia. ...


The Republic's Constitution was adopted on June 7, 1997. June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Economy

Altai Republic is more agricultural than industrial, with the most developed industries being foodstuffs, non-ferrous metallurgy, chemicals, gold mining, footwear, dairying and timber. General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ...


Transportation

Due to geographical peculiarities of the Republic, two means of transport — motor transport (over 90% of all kinds of traffics) and air transport (passenger traffic and transport of mail) — were developed. Motor transport is the prevailing one. The extent of automobile roads is more than 3,500 km, 572 km of which is the main motor highway, the route of Federal importance Novosibirsk-Biysk-Tashanta (Chuysky Highway). Official website: http://www. ... Biysk (Russian: ) is a city in Altai Krai of Russia. ...


Education

There is one university (Gorno-Altaysk State University), 12 colleges, and 205 secondary schools in the republic.


Religion

The traditional religion of the native Altaians is shamanism; of the Russians, Orthodox Christianity. Tibetan Buddhism has recently begun making some inroads by way of neighboring Mongolia and Tuva. A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions (which descend through, or alongside of, the Roman Catholic Church) or the Eastern Rite Catholic churches. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Tuva Republic (Russian: ; Tuvan: Тыва Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


From 1904 until the 1930's, most Altaians had converted away from shamanism, to a new religious movement called Burkhanism (or Ak Jang, the "white faith"). Burkhanism remains an important component of Altaian national consciousness, and is now being revived in several forms. Burkhanism or Ak Jang is a new religious movement that flourished among the indigenous people of Russias Gorno Altai region (okrug) between 1904 and the 1930s. ...


Russian New Age followers of Agni Yoga often go on pilgrimage to Mount Belukha. New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Agni Yoga, also called the Teaching of Living Ethics or (in Russian) the Zhivaya Etica, is an esoteric teaching founded by the Russian painter Nicholas Roerich (Nikolai Konstantinovitch Rerikh) and his highly adept empathic wife, Helena Roerich (Elena Ivanovna Rerikh). ...


See also

Altai is a region in Russia, composed primarily of ethnic Russians and Altaians. ...

External links

  • (English) Official website of the Altai Republic.
  • (Russian) Official website of the Altai Republic.
  • (Russian) (English) Gorno-Altaysk State University.
  • (German) Altai-Portal
  • (English) Tourism in Altai.
  • (English)(German)(Russian) Altai branch book & economic support
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Krais Altai | Khabarovsk | Krasnodar | Krasnoyarsk1 | Perm | Primorsky | Stavropol
Oblasts Amur | Arkhangelsk | Astrakhan | Belgorod | Bryansk | Chelyabinsk | Chita | Irkutsk2 | Ivanovo | Kaliningrad | Kaluga | Kamchatka3 | Kemerovo | Kirov | Kostroma | Kurgan | Kursk | Leningrad | Lipetsk | Magadan | Moscow | Murmansk | Nizhny Novgorod | Novgorod | Novosibirsk | Omsk | Orenburg | Oryol | Penza | Pskov | Rostov | Ryazan | Sakhalin | Samara | Saratov | Smolensk | Sverdlovsk | Tambov | Tomsk | Tula | Tver | Tyumen | Ulyanovsk | Vladimir | Volgograd | Vologda | Voronezh | Yaroslavl
Federal cities Moscow | St. Petersburg
Autonomous oblast Jewish
Autonomous okrugs Aga Buryatia | Chukotka | Evenkia1 | Khantia-Mansia | Koryakia3 | Nenetsia | Taymyria1 | Ust-Orda Buryatia2 | Yamalia
  1. On January 1, 2007, Evenk and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs will be merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai.
  2. On January 1, 2008, Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug will be merged into Irkutsk Oblast.
  3. On July 1, 2007, Kamchatka Oblast and Koryak Autonomous Okrug will merge to form Kamchatka Krai.
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