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Encyclopedia > Also Sprach Zarathustra
The cover for the first part of the first edition.
The cover for the first part of the first edition.

Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None is a book written during the 1880s by the German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche. Hard to categorize, the work is a treatise on philosophy, a highly praised work of literature, and in parts a collection of poetry and in others a parody of and amendment to the Bible. Consisting largely of speeches by the book's tragic hero and prophet Zarathustra, the work's content extends across a vast range of styles and subject matter. Nietzsche himself described the work as "the deepest ever written". Image File history File links Zarathustra. ... Image File history File links Zarathustra. ... // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (IPA:) (October 15, 1844–August 25, 1900), a German philologist and philosopher, produced critiques of contemporary culture, religion, and philosophy centered around a basic question regarding the positive and negative attitudes of various systems of morality toward life. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos, the book) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word of God, The Word, The Good Book, Scripture, or The Scriptures), is the name used by Jews and Christians... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... From the Greek cognate , in mythology and folklore, a hero (male) or heroine (female) is an eminent character archetype that quintessentially embodies key traits valued by its originating culture. ... A prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ... Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ...

Contents


Background

The book's English title varies depending on translation; the titles of the Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale translations are "Thus Spoke Zarathustra", while it was also translated before as the more archaic Thus Spake Zarathustra, for example, alike to Thomas Common's translation. The German title is "Also sprach Zarathustra. Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen". Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 - September 4, 1980) was a 20th-century Jewish German philosopher, scholar, and poet. ... Reginald John (R.J.) Hollingdale (October 20, 1930 - September 28, 2001) was best known as a biographer, and a translator of German philosophy and literature, especially the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Goethe, E.T.A. Hoffman, Lichtenberg, and Schopenhauer. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... Thomas Common was a translator and critic, who translated several books by Nietzsche into English. ...


Thus Spoke Zarathustra was conceived by Nietzsche while he was writing his book, The Gay Science; he made a small note, reading "6,000 feet beyond man and time", as evidence of this. More specifically, this note related to the concept of the Eternal Recurrence, which is, by Nietzsche's admission, the central idea of Zarathustra. Nietzsche planned to write the book in three parts over several years. The Gay Science (German: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft (la gaya scienza)), which has been canonically translated thus by contemporaneous academia as instated by Walter Kaufmann since the 1960s, is a book written by Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1882 and followed by a second edition. ... Eternal return or sometimes eternal recurrence is a concept originating from ancient Egypt and developed in the teachings of Pythagoras. ...


While developing the general outlook of the book, he subsequently decided that he would write an extra three parts; ultimately, however, he composed only the fourth part, which is viewed to constitute an intermezzo. InterMezzo is a distributed file system written for Linux, distributed with a GPL licence. ...


Nietzsche commented in Ecce Homo that for the completion of each part: "Ten days sufficed; in no case, neither for the first nor for the third and last, did I require more" (trans. Kaufmann). The first three parts were first published separately, and were subsequently published in a single volume in 1887. The fourth part remained private after Nietzsche wrote it in 1885; a scant forty copies were all that were printed, apart from seven others that were distributed to Nietzsche's close friends. In March 1892, the four parts were finally reprinted as a single volume. Since then, the version most commonly produced has included all four parts. Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is (Ecce Homo: Wie Man wird Was Man Ist) is the title of the last original book written by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche before his last years of insanity that spanned until his death in 1900. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The original text contains a great degree of word-play. An example of this exists in the use of the words "over" or "super" and the word "down": for instance, in the terms "superman" or "overman", "overgoing", "downgoing", and "self-overcoming".


Synopsis

The book chronicles the fictitious travels and pedagogy of Zarathustra. "Zarathustra" (/tsaratuʃtra/) is the German version of the name of the Persian prophet Zoroaster, the presumed founder of Zoroastrianism. Nietzsche is clearly portraying a "new" or "different" Zarathustra, one who turns traditional morality on its head. He goes on to characterize "what the name of Zarathustra means in my mouth, the mouth of the first immoralist [e.g., himself]:" Pedagogy is the art or science of teaching. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ... Zoroastrianism is the name of the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... Morality deals with that which is regarded as right or wrong. ...

[F]or what constitutes the tremendous historical uniqueness of that Persian is just the opposite of this. Zarathustra was the first to consider the fight of good and evil the very wheel in the machinery of things: the transposition of morality into the metaphysical realm, as a force, cause, and end in itself, is his work. ... Zarathustra created this most calamitous error, morality; consequently, he must also be the first to recognize it. ... His doctrine, and his alone, posits truthfulness as the highest virtue; this means the opposite of the cowardice of the “idealist” who flees from reality….—Am I understood?— The self-overcoming of morality, out of truthfulness; the self-overcoming of the moralist, into his opposite—into me—that is what the name of Zarathustra means in my mouth. The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... Metaphysical may refer to: Metaphysics, a branch of philosophy dealing with the ultimate nature of reality; or The Metaphysical poets, a poetic school from seventeenth century England who correspond with baroque period in European literature. ...

— trans. Walter Kaufmann, Ecce Homo, Why I Am a Destiny, sec. 3

Zarathustra has a simple plot, narrated sporadically throughout the text. It possesses a unique experimental style, one that is, for instance, evident in newly invented "dithyrambs" narrated or sung by Zarathustra. Likewise, the separate Dionysus-Dithyrambs, written in autumn, 1888, were printed with the full volume, in 1892, as the corollaries of Zarathustra's "abundance". Experimental music is any music that challenges the commonly accepted notions of what music is. ... The dithyramb was originally an ancient Greek hymn sung to the god Dionysus. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Some speculate that Nietzsche intended to write about final acts of creation and destruction brought about by Zarathustra. However, the book lacks a finale to match that description; its actual ending focuses more on Zarathustra recognizing his legacy is beginning to perpetuate, and consequently choosing to leave the higher men to their own devices in carrying his legacy forth. A finale is a closing part, act or movement of a dramatic or musical composition, or more generally any event or procedure with a dramatically concluding effect. ...


Zarathustra also contains the famous dictum "God is dead", which had appeared earlier in The Gay Science. However, in his autobiography Nietzsche states that the book's true underlying concept is discussed within "the penultimate section of the fourth [part]" (Ecce Homo, Kaufmann), namely, "The Drunken Song". It is Zarathustra's vision of the Eternal Recurrence of the Same Events. A Time Magazine cover story (April 8, 1966) on religion in America, asked Is God Dead? It would become one of Times most controversial issues. ... The Gay Science (German: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft (la gaya scienza)), which has been canonically translated thus by contemporaneous academia as instated by Walter Kaufmann since the 1960s, is a book written by Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1882 and followed by a second edition. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... This article is a work in progress being translated from the German Wiki Ecce Homo by Quentin Massys, ca. ... Eternal return or sometimes eternal recurrence is a concept originating from ancient Egypt and developed in the teachings of Pythagoras. ...


This concept first occurred to Nietzsche while he was walking in Switzerland through the woods along the lake of Silvaplana (close to Surlei); he was inspired by the sight of a gigantic, towering, pyramidal rock.[1] Before Zarathustra, Nietzsche had mentioned the concept in the fourth book of The Gay Science (e.g., sect. 341); this was the first public proclamation of the notion by him. Apart from its salient presence in Zarathustra, it is also echoed throughout Nietzsche's work. At any rate, it is by Zarathustra's transfiguration that he embraces eternity, that he at last ascertains "the supreme will to power"[2]. This inspiration finds its expression with Zarathustra's Roundelay, featured twice in the book, once near the story's close (trans. Thomas Common; Thus Spake Zarathustra): Village (1815 mt. ... The Gay Science (German: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft (la gaya scienza)), which has been canonically translated thus by contemporaneous academia as instated by Walter Kaufmann since the 1960s, is a book written by Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1882 and followed by a second edition. ... Zarathustras Roundelay is a philosophical poem that features as a central motif in the book Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche. ...

   
O man! Take heed!
What saith deep midnight's voice indeed?
I slept my sleep—
From deepest dream I've woke and plead:—
The world is deep,
And deeper than the day could read.
Deep is its woe—
Joy—deeper still than grief can be:
Woe saith: Hence! Go!
But joys all want eternity—
Want deep profound eternity!
   

Another singular feature of Zarathustra, first presented in the prologue, is the designation of human beings as a transition between apes and the "Übermensch" (in English, either the "overman" or "superman"). The Übermensch is one of the many interconnecting, interdependent themes of the story, and is represented through several different metaphors. Examples include: the lightning that is portended by the silence and raindrops of a travelling storm cloud; or the sun's rise and culmination at its midday zenith; or a man traversing a rope stationed above an abyss, moving away from his uncultivated animality and towards the 'Übermensch. Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ... The , (sometimes translated as Overman, or superman) is a concept expounded upon by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. ... The , (sometimes translated as Overman, or superman) is a concept expounded upon by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. ...


The symbol of the Übermensch also alludes to Nietzsche's notions of "self-mastery", "self-cultivation", "self-direction", and "self-overcoming". Expostulating these concepts, Zarathustra declares:

I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him?


All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. You have made your way from worm to man, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape.


Whoever is the wisest among you is also a mere conflict and cross between plant and ghost. But do I bid you become ghosts or plants?


Behold, I teach you the overman. The overman is the meaning of the earth. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth! I beseech you, my brothers, remain faithful to the earth, and do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes! Poison-mixers are they, whether they know it or not. Despisers of life are they, decaying and poisoned themselves, of whom the earth is weary: so let them go.

— trans. Walter Kaufmann, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Prologue, sec. 3

The book embodies a number of innovative poetical and rhetorical methods of expression. It serves as a parallel and supplement to the various philosophical ideas present in Nietzsche's body of work. He has, however, said that among my writings my Zarathustra stands to my mind by itself (Ecce Homo, Preface, sec. 4, Kaufmann). Emphasizing its centrality and its status as his magnum opus, it is stated by Nietzsche that: Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum), from the Latin meaning great work, refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer. ...

With [Thus Spoke Zarathustra] I have given mankind the greatest present that has ever been made so far. This book, with a voice bridging centuries is not only the highest book there is, the book that is truly characterized by the air of the heights—the whole fact of man lies beneath it at a tremendous distance—it is also the deepest, born out of the innermost wealth of truth, an inexhaustible well to which no bucket descends without coming up again filled with gold and goodness.

— trans. Walter Kaufmann, Ecce Homo

Since, as stated, many of the book's ideas are also present in his other works, Zarathustra is seen to have served as a precursor to his later philosophical thought. With the book, Nietzsche embraced a distinct aesthetic assiduity. He later reformulated many of his ideas, in his book Beyond Good and Evil and various other writings that he composed thereafter. He continued to emphasize his philosophical concerns; generally, his intention was to show an alternative to repressive moral codes and to avert "nihilism" in all of its varied forms. Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future (Jenseits von Gut und Böse) is a major 19th century philosophical work by Friedrich Nietzsche. ... Nihilism is a philosophical position which argues that the world, and especially human existence, is without objective meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. ...


Other aspects of Thus Spoke Zarathustra pertain to Nietzsche's proposed "Revaluation of All Values". This incomplete project began with The Antichrist. The Antichrist (Der Antichrist) is a German philosophical book by Friedrich Nietzsche, originally published in 1895. ...


Style

Nietzsche is unique among philosophers for what is widely regarded as the remarkable power and effectiveness of his rhetorical style — particularly as manifested in Zarathustra. The indigestible "heaviness" long associated with German-language philosophy is eschewed, with puns and paradoxes abounding, and aphoristic brevity symptomatic of parable and even poetry are in his rhetoric. The end result is a manner of writing which, being "pitched half-way between metaphor and literal statement", is "something quite extraordinary".[3] Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ... The cover for the first part of the first edition. ... It has been suggested that dajare be merged into this article or section. ... Robert Boyles self-flowing flask fills itself in this diagram, but perpetual motion machines cannot exist (according to our present understanding of physics). ... An ill digested lesson The Governess. ... Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is the art or technique of persuasion, usually through the use of language. ...


His work has been described as "half philosophic, half poetic"[citation needed]; the fact that it can thus manage to convince the reader emotionally as well as intellectually is one reason for its appeal among many — but it also means that the theory behind the metaphors is never fully or clearly written out, inviting the reader alone to interpret the text.


One problem inevitably caused by this is that the boundaries of his thinking are not easily discerned: for example, many people not only feel that Nietzsche's term "Übermensch" conjures up the "pure Aryan" of Hitlerian doctrine, but further assume that it must have been accompanied by the complementary lesser human or sub-human "Untermensch" — whereas the latter term is in fact a creation of Nazi racial ideology. The , (sometimes translated as Overman, or superman) is a concept expounded upon by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Another vulnerability entailed by Nietzsche's style is that nuances and shades of meaning are very easily lost — and all too easily gained — in translation. Here the Übermensch is a case in point: the equivalent "Superman" found in dictionaries and in the translations by Thomas Common and R.J. Hollingdale may create an unfortunate association with the heroic comic-character "Superman" — while other logical alternatives which one might propose ("Over-human", "Above-human", "Super-human", or "Beyond-human"[citation needed]) are either uselessly clumsy or are evidence of a "political correctness" foreign to Nietzsche's outlook. Walter Kaufmann's "Overman" would perhaps be more serviceable — were it not for the overtone of hierarchical authoritarianism it introduces[citation needed]. A little used alternative is "Hyperman"[citation needed]. It is as precise as "Superman" without the pop-political connotations. (The Greek prefix hyper, pronounced more like "hüper", is from the same root and has the same meaning as the Latin prefix super: cf. hüper/super.) The , (sometimes translated as Overman, or superman) is a concept expounded upon by philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. ... Superman is a fictional character regarded as the most famous and popular superhero of all time. ...


The translations of Zarathustra dissent according to the sentiments of the translators for the English language. For instance, the Thomas Common translation, widely available, favors a more biblical approach. As a partial consequence, that is, these claims are not limited to its biblical features, some have claimed it to be inaccurate and/or to possess Nazi distortions by Nietzsche's sister; however, on comparison between it and the translations claimed to be superior, there is little discrepancy between the meaning of the original and translation[citation needed]. By contrast, the current and much more critical translations, titled Thus Spoke Zarathustra, separately by R.J. Hollingdale and Walter Kaufmann, who also contested the inaccuracies of Common's translation, are considered, in various circles, to convey more accurately the minutiae of the German text than Thus Spake Zarathustra[citation needed]. In these translations the work is rendered in a far more modern and mundane style of language. Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to an idea (eg. ... Thomas Common was a translator and critic, who translated several books by Nietzsche into English. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Reginald John (R.J.) Hollingdale (October 20, 1930 - September 28, 2001) was best known as a biographer, and a translator of German philosophy and literature, especially the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Goethe, E.T.A. Hoffman, Lichtenberg, and Schopenhauer. ... Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 - September 4, 1980) was a 20th-century Jewish German philosopher, scholar, and poet. ... The cover for the first part of the first edition. ...


Regardless of the translations, it is illuminating to think of "Über" in relationship to the development of the individual subject. The "Übermensch" is the being that overcomes the "great nausea" associated with nihilism; that overcomes that most "abysmal" realization of the eternal return. He is the being that "sails over morality", and that dances over gravity (the "spirit of gravity" is Zarathustra's devil and archenemy). He is a "harvester" and a "celebrant" who endlessly affirms his existence, thereby becoming the transfigurer of his consciousness and life, aesthetically. He is initially a destructive force, excising and annihilating the insidious "truths" of the herd, and consequently reclaiming the chaos from which pure creativity is born. It is this creative force exemplified by the Übermensch that justifies suffering without displacing it in some "afterworld". Nihilism is a philosophical position which argues that the world, and especially human existence, is without objective meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. ...


See also

A sheet of music for Hymn to Friendship. ... Immaculate perception is a nickname for Platos theory of knowledge. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Nietzsche Music Project (NMP) is a non-profit interdisciplinary arts organization created in 1990, influenced by Friedrich Nietzsches ideas, and whose raison dêtre is to produce a wider understanding, by the general public, of Nietzsches work as constituted by his philosophical, poetical, and musical efforts. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ...

References

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Thus Spoke Zarathustra
Wikisource
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Also sprach Zarathustra
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None by Friedrich Nietzsche; translated and with a preface by Walter Kaufmann (New York, Modern Library, 1995, ISBN 067960175)
  • Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is by Friedrich Nietzsche; translated and with a preface by Walter Kaufmann
  • Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist by Walter Kaufmann, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1974, ISBN 0-691-01983-5

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 - September 4, 1980) was a 20th-century Jewish German philosopher, scholar, and poet. ... The Modern Library, a current division of Random House publishers, was founded in 1917 by Albert Boni and Horace Liveright. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Footnotes

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ The Will to Power, sect. 617; trans. Kaufmann
  3. ^ J.P. Stern

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