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Encyclopedia > Alps
Alps
Range
none Pennine Alps
Countries Austria, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Slovenia, Liechtenstein
Highest point Mont Blanc (Italian: Monte Bianco)
 - elevation 4,808 m (15,774 ft)
 - coordinates 45°50′01″N 06°51′54″E / 45.83361, 6.865
Digital relief of the Alps

The Alps (French: Alpes; German: Alpen; Italian: Alpi; Romansh: Alps; Slovene: Alpe) is the name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east, through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. The word "Alps" was taken via French from Latin Alpes (meaning "the Alps"), which may be influenced by the Latin words albus (white) or altus (high) or more likely a Latin rendering of a Celtic or Ligurian original. ALP may mean: a popular Turkish boy name (Alp) ALP (automobile) The Australian Labor Party, a political party Average Labor Productivity (see Exogenous growth model) Alien Loves Predator (aLp), a web comic written by Bernie Hou Alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from molecules, often measured in... Look up Alps in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Pennine Alps (also: Valais Alps) are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x937, 713 KB) Beschreibung Other Versions Alpenrelief 02 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Alps ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures. ...


The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc, at 4,808 metres (15,774 ft), on the Italian-French border. All the main peaks of the Alps can be found in the list of mountains of the Alps and list of Alpine peaks by prominence. This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... This is a list of mountains of the Alps, ordered by elevation. ... This is a list of the mountains of the Alps, ordered by their topographic prominence. ...

Contents

Geography

Main article: Geography of the Alps

The Alps from space The Alps cover a large area. ...

Subdivision

The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace.
The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace.
The Alps with international borders marked
The Alps with international borders marked
The Großglockner, south of Salzburg, Austria
The Großglockner, south of Salzburg, Austria

The Alps are generally divided into the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps. The division is along the line between Lake Constance and Lake Como, following the Rhine. The Western Alps are higher, but their central chain is shorter and curved; they are located in Italy, France and Switzerland. The Eastern Alps (main ridge system elongated and broad) belong to Austria, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Slovenia and Switzerland. The highest peaks of the Western Alps are Mont Blanc, 4,808 metres (15,774 ft), Mont Blanc de Courmayeur 4,748 metres (15,577 ft), the Dufourspitze 4,634 metres (15,203 ft) and the other summits of the Monte Rosa group, and the Dom, 4,545 metres (14,911 ft). The highest peak in the Eastern Alps is Piz Bernina, 4,049 metres (13,284 ft). The 1000 m high West face of the Petit Dru (3733 m) above the Mer de Glace in the Mont Blanc massif. ... The 1000 m high West face of the Petit Dru (3733 m) above the Mer de Glace in the Mont Blanc massif. ... The Aiguille du Dru (also the Dru or the Drus) is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps. ... Panorama of Chamonix valley Chamonix-Mont-Blanc or, more commonly, Chamonix is a town and commune in eastern France, in the Haute-Savoie département, at the foot of Mont Blanc. ... Mer de Glace The Mer de Glace (Sea of Ice) is a glacier located on the north face of the Mont Blanc, in the Alps. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x937, 578 KB) Beschreibung Other Versions Alpenrelief 01 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Alps Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x937, 578 KB) Beschreibung Other Versions Alpenrelief 01 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Alps Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1884x1413, 420 KB) Description: Großglockner seen from the southwest Source: Photo taken by myself, cropped, color balance slightly adjusted. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1884x1413, 420 KB) Description: Großglockner seen from the southwest Source: Photo taken by myself, cropped, color balance slightly adjusted. ... The Großglockner is, at 3798 m above sea level, Austrias highest mountain and the highest mountain in the Alps east of the Brenner Pass. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... Piz Bernina (centre-left) with the Biancograt to the left, Piz Scerscen (centre-right) and Piz Roseg (right), seen from Piz Corvatsch Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of the Splügen Pass in eastern Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Lake Constance, New Zealand. ... Lake Como (Lago di Como in Italian, also known as Lario; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the use of the term in geography and physical geology. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... Mont Blanc de Courmayeur (4,748 m) in the Mont Blanc massif in France and Italy is the second highest mountain in the Alps. ... Dufourspitze (in German), Pointe Dufour (in French) or Punta Dufour (in Italian), is located in the Pennine Alps, near the watershed between Italy and Switzerland, on the Italian side. ... For other uses, see Monte Rosa, São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Dom is a 4545 m high mountain in the Mischabelhörner group of the Pennine Alps. ... Piz Bernina is the highest mountain of the eastern Alps with an elevation of 4049 metres. ...


The Eastern Alps are commonly subdivided according to the different lithology (rock composition) of the more central parts of the Alps and the groups at its northern and southern fringes: Petrology is a field of geology which focuses on the study of rocks and the conditions by which they form. ...

The border between the Central Alps and the Southern Limestone Alps is the Periadriatic Seam. The Northern Limestone Alps are separated from the Central Eastern Alps by the Grauwacken Zone A flysch is a sandstone formation, the word comes from the Swiss German language. ... Wienerwald near Breitenfurt The Wienerwald (English: Vienna Woods) is a wooded promontory of the Alps in eastern Lower Austria, located at the border between the Mostviertel and the Industrieviertel, two of the four quarters of Lower Austria. ... Bregenzerwald is one of the main regions in the Province of Austria. ... Looking towards Lelex from near to Crêt de la Neige The Jura folds are located north of the main Alpine orogenic front and are being continually deformed, accommodating the northwards compression from Alpine folding. ... The Northern Limestone Alps are the ranges of the Eastern Alps north of the Central Eastern Alps. ... The Central Eastern Alps are the core ranges of the Eastern Alps with the highest peaks, located between the Northern Limestone Alps and the Southern Limestone Alps, from which they differ in geological composition. ... The Southern Limestone Alps are the ranges of the Eastern Alps south of the Central Eastern Alps. ... Relief of the Alps, and the Periadriatic Seam The Periadriatic Seam is a distinct geologic fault in Southern Europe, running S-shaped about 1000 km from the Tyrrhenian Sea through the whole Southern Alps as far as Hungary. ... This article is about the geology of the (European) Alps. ...


The Western Alps are commonly subdivided with respect to geography:

Series of lower mountain ranges run parallel to the main chain of the Alps, including the French Prealps. (See Alpine geography.) The Ligurian Alps are a mountain range in Italy. ... Maritime Alps The Maritime Alps are a mountain range in the south-western part of the Alps. ... The chief peaks of the Cottian Alps, from the Col de lArgentiere to the Mont Cenis and westwards to the Col du Galibier, are: The chief passes of the Cottian Alps, from the Col de lArgentiere to the Mont Cenis and westwards to the Col du Galibier, are... The Dauphiné Alps (French Alpes du Dauphiné) are a group of mountain ranges in southeastern France, west of the main chain of the Alps. ... The chief peaks of the Graian Alps, from the Mont Cenis to the Little St Bernard Pass, are usually divided into three groups, the Central (the watershed between the two passes named), the Western or French, and the Eastern or Italian; in the following lists the initials C, W, and... The Pennine Alps (also: Valais Alps) are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. ... The Bernese Alps (German: Berner Alpen) is a group of mountain ranges in the western part of the Alps, in Switzerland. ... The Lepontine Alps are a mountain range in the central part of the Alps. ... The chief peaks of the Tödi Range of the Swiss Alps, from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass, are: The chief passes of the Tödi Range, from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass, are: Note: road status as of 1911 This article incorporates text from the... The French Prealps (Préalpes) are a group of mountain ranges of medium elevation. ... The Alps from space The Alps cover a large area. ...


The geologic subdivision is different and makes no difference between the Western and Eastern Alps: Helveticum in the north, Penninicum and Austroalpine system in the centre and south of the Periadriatic seam the Southern Alpine system and parts of the Dinarides (see Alpine Geology). This article is about the geology of the (European) Alps. ... This article is about the geology of the (European) Alps. ... This article is about the geology of the (European) Alps. ... This article is about the geology of the (European) Alps. ... Dinaric Alps or Dinarides are a mountain chain in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. ... The Alps are a mountain range in Central Europe, this article describes the geology of the Alps. ...


Main chain

The European Alps from space in 2002.
The European Alps from space in 2002.

The "main chain of the Alps" follows the watershed from the Mediterranean Sea to the Wienerwald, passing over many of the highest and most famous peaks in the Alps. From the Colle di Cadibona to Col de Tende it runs westwards, before turning to the north-west and then, near the Colle della Maddalena, to the north. Upon reaching the Swiss border, the line of the main chain heads approximately east-north-east, a heading it follows until its end near Vienna. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 1816 KB) Screenshot from Worldwind; Image composed of NASA Blue Marble images, and is hence in the public domain: The Landsat Global Mosaic, Blue Marble, and the USGS raster maps and images are all Public Domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 1816 KB) Screenshot from Worldwind; Image composed of NASA Blue Marble images, and is hence in the public domain: The Landsat Global Mosaic, Blue Marble, and the USGS raster maps and images are all Public Domain. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Watershed has more than one meaning: Look up watershed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Wienerwald near Breitenfurt The Wienerwald (English: Vienna Woods) is a wooded promontory of the Alps in eastern Lower Austria, located at the border between the Mostviertel and the Industrieviertel, two of the four quarters of Lower Austria. ... The Col de Tende (Italian: Colle di Tenda) is a mountain pass in the Alps, on the border of France and Italy, at . ... Maddalena Pass (Italian: Colle della Maddalena French: Col de Larche) is a mountain pass between the Cottian Alps and the Maritime Alps, located between Italy and France. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


Principal passes

The Alps do not form an impassable barrier; they have been traversed for war and commerce, and later by pilgrims, students and tourists. Crossing places by road, train or foot are called passes. These are depressions in the mountains to which a valley leads from the plains and hilly pre-mountainous zones. This article lists the principal mountain passes and tunnels in the Alps, and gives a history of transport across the Alps. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of the Alps
Cloud formation on the Jungfraujoch, Bernese Alps
Cloud formation on the Jungfraujoch, Bernese Alps

The Alps are a classic example of what happens when a temperate area at lower altitude gives way to higher elevation terrain. Elevations around the world which have cold climates similar to those found in polar areas have been called alpine. A rise from sea level into the upper regions of the atmosphere causes the temperature to decrease. The effect of mountain chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain. The climate of the Alps is the climate, or average weather conditions over a long time, of the central Alpine region of Europe. ... Jungfraujoch Observatorium Jungfrau Jungfraujoch Observatorium Jungfrau Jungfraujoch Observatorium Jungfrau Jungfraujoch and Jungfrau The Jungfraujoch is a col or saddle between the Mönch and the Jungfrau in the Bernese Alps on the boundary between the cantons of Bern and Valais. ... Location of the polar regions Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The adiabatic lapse rate is the rate of temperature change that occurs in an atmosphere as a function of elevation, assuming that air behaves adiabatically. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... This article is about precipitation. ...


Geology

Main article: Geology of the Alps
The Aletsch Glacier, largest in the Alps
The Aletsch Glacier, largest in the Alps

The Alps arose as a result of the pressure exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin as its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. Most of this occurred during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. The pressure formed great recumbent folds, or nappes, that rose out of what had become the Tethys Sea and pushed northward, often breaking and sliding one over the other to form gigantic thrust faults. Crystalline rocks, which are exposed in the higher central regions, are the rocks forming Mont Blanc, the Matterhorn, and high peaks in the Pennine Alps and Hohe Tauern. The Alps are a mountain range in Central Europe, this article describes the geology of the Alps. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2441 KB) Summary For camera information and shooting conditions see the EXIF info fields, contained in the file. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2441 KB) Summary For camera information and shooting conditions see the EXIF info fields, contained in the file. ... Aletsch Glacier Aletsch Glacier Aletsch Glacier, the largest glacier in the Alps, covers more than 120 square kilometres (more than 45 square miles) in southern Switzerland. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Mammals are the dominant creatures of Cenozoic. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... In geology, the terms basement and crystalline basement are used to define the rocks below a sedimentary basin, or more generally any rock below sedimentary rocks or sedimentary basins that are metamorphic or igneous in origin. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... The Matterhorn (German) or Cervino (Italian), (French: Mont Cervin or Le Cervin) is perhaps the most familiar mountain in the European Alps. ...


The landscape seen today is mostly formed by glaciation during the past two million years. At least five ice ages have done much to change the region, scooping out the lakes and rounding off the limestone hills along the northern border. Glaciers have been retreating during the past 10,000 years, leaving large granite erratics scattered in the forests in the region. As the last ice age ended, it is believed that the climate changed so rapidly that the glaciers retreated back into the mountains in a span of about 200 to 300 years. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... A Glacial erratic is a piece of rock carried by glacial ice some distance from the rock outcrop from which it came. ...


Political and cultural history

Main article: History of the Alps

Little is known of the early dwellers in the Alps, save from the scanty accounts preserved by Roman and Greek historians and geographers. A few details have come down to us of the conquest of many of the Alpine tribes by Augustus. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


During the Second Punic War in 218 BC, The Carthaginian general Hannibal successfully crossed the alps along with an army numbering 38,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants.[1]. This was one of the most celebrated achievements of any military force in ancient warfare[citation needed]. Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ...


The successive emigration and occupation of the Alpine region by various Teutonic tribes from the 5th to the 6th centuries are known only in outline, because to them, as to the Frankish kings and emperors, the Alps offered a route to other places rather than a permanent residence. Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ...


It is not until the final breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 10th and 11th centuries that it becomes possible to trace out the local history of the Alps. Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Exploration

The higher regions of the Alps were long left to the exclusive attention of the people of the adjoining valleys, even when Alpine travellers (as distinguished from Alpine climbers) began to visit these valleys. The two men who first explored the regions of ice and snow were H.B. de Saussure (1740-1799) in the Pennine Alps, and the Benedictine monk of Disentis, Placidus a Spescha (1752-1833), most of whose ascents were made before 1806, in the valleys at the sources of the Rhine. The higher region of the Alps were long left to the exclusive attention of the men of the adjoining valleys, even when Alpine travellers (as distinguished from Alpine climbers) began to visit these valleys. ... The Pennine Alps (also: Valais Alps) are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. ... Disentis (German)) or Mustér (Romansh), with its official name Disentis/Mustér is a community of the district Surselva in the Northwest of Canton Grisons in Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


Travel and Tourism

Main article: Tourism in the Alps

The Alps are popular both in summer and in winter as a destination for sightseeing and sports. Winter sports (alpine and nordic skiing, tobogganing, snowshoeing, ski tours) can be practised in most regions from December to April, while in summer the Alps are popular with hikers, mountain bikers, paragliders, mountaneers, while many lakes attract swimmers, sailors and surfers. The lower regions and larger towns of the Alps are well accessed by motorways and main roads, but higher passes and by-roads can be treacherous even in summer. Many passes are closed in winter. A multitude of airports around the Alps (and some within), as well as long-distance rail links from all neighbouring countries, afford large numbers of travellers easy access from abroad. A winter sport is a sport commonly played during winter, usually a sport played on snow or ice. ... A motorway (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, and some Commonwealth nations) is both a type of road and a classification. ... A pass can refer to: a mountain pass, a low place in a mountain range allowing easier passage a strait or passage, usually used of one that is very narrow but still navigable permission to be away from ones unit for a short period in the U.S. military... Airport - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Flora

A natural vegetation limit with altitude is given by the presence of the chief deciduous treesoak, beech, ash and sycamore maple. These do not reach exactly to the same elevation, nor are they often found growing together; but their upper limit corresponds accurately enough to the change from a temperate to a colder climate that is further proved by a change in the wild herbaceous vegetation. This limit usually lies about 1,200 metres (3,940 ft) above the sea on the north side of the Alps, but on the southern slopes it often rises to 1,500 metres (4,920 ft), sometimes even to 1,700 metres (5,580 ft). For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ...


This region is not always marked by the presence of the characteristic trees. Human interference has nearly exterminated them in many areas, and, except for the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, forests of deciduous trees are rarely found. In many districts where such woods once existed, they have been replaced by the Scots pine and Norway spruce, which are less sensitive to the ravages of goats who are the worst enemies of such trees. Binomial name L. Distribution The Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine native to Europe and Asia, ranging from Great Britain and Spain east to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains, and as far north as Lapland. ... Binomial name Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. ...


Above the forestry, there is often a band of short pine trees (Pinus mugo), which is in turn superseded by dwarf shrubs, typically Rhododendron ferrugineum (on acid soils) or Rhododendron hirsutum (on basic soils). Above this is the alpine meadow, and even higher, the vegetation becomes more and more sparse. At these higher altitudes, the plants tend to form isolated cushions. In the Alps, several species of flowering plants have been recorded above 4,000 metres (13,120 ft), including Ranunculus glacialis, Androsace alpina and Saxifraga biflora.48+3 Binomial name Pinus mugo Mountain Pine or Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo) is a high altitude European pine, found in the Pyrenees, Alps, Erzgebirge, Carpathians, northern Appennines and Balkan Peninsula mountains from (mostly) 1,000m to 2,200m, occasionally as low as 200m in the north of the range in Germany... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Binomial name Rhododendron ferrugineum L. Rhododendron ferrugineum (sometimes called alpenrose, snow-rose, or rusty-leaved alpenrose) is an evergreen shrub that grows just above the treeline in the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and northern Apennines, on acid soils. ... An Alpine Meadow is a high-altitude grassland located in an alpine climate, above the treeline of a mountain. ... Binomial name Ranunculus glacialis Glacier Crowfoot (Ranunculus glacialis) is a plant of the family Ranunculaceae. ... Binomial name Androsace alpina (L.) Lam. ...

Fauna

Species common to the Alps. These are most numerous in the 15% of the Alps that are protected in parks and reserves.[citation needed] This is a list of national parks in the Alps. ...

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1222x807, 807 KB) en: Description: Parnassius pheobus de: Beschreibung: de:Alpenapollo (Parnassius pheobus) Source: picture taken by Geiserich77 in Leibnitztal/St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Salamandra_atra. ... Binomial name Salamandra atra Laurenti, 1768 The Alpine salamander (Salamandra atra) is a shiny black salamander. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Plochacz_3001xx. ... Binomial name Prunella collaris (Scopoli, 1769) The Alpine Accentor, Prunella collaris, is a small passerine bird found throughout the mountains of southern temperate Europe and Asia at heights above 2000m. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 628 KB) Pyrrhocorax graculus Photo by Pethan, Switzerland 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Alps Alpine Chough ... Binomial name Pyrrhocorax graculus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Alpine Chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus), also called Yellow-billed Chough (pronounced ) is a Eurasian member of the crow family, Corvidae. ... Image File history File links Auerhahn_mg-k. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the Wood Grouse or more specifically Western Capercaillie is the largest member of the grouse family, reaching over 100 cm in length and 4 kg in weight. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1102x1494, 92 KB) Skildring Copied from de. ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links larger version File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Lagopus mutus (Montin, 1781) The Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) is a small (31-35 cm) bird in the grouse family. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (512x768, 272 KB)Boreal Owl -- Amherst Island (Ontario, Canada) -- 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Aegolius funereus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Tengmalms Owl, Aegolius funereus, is a small owl. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 600 pixel, file size: 126 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Lou Tamposi, taken in the Vanoise National Park. ... Binomial name Capra ibex Linnaeus, 1758 The Alpine Ibex or Capra Ibex (is commonly called by its German name, steinbock) is the species of Ibex that lives in the European Alps. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x599, 143 KB) Marmota marmota fr: Marmotte alpine photographiée dans les Alpes françaises (Parc naturel régional du Queyras) en Août 2004 par. ... Binomial name Marmota marmota (Linnaeus, 1758) The Alpine Marmot (Marmota marmota) is a species of marmot found in mountainous areas of central and southern Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1281x1024, 216 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alps Chamois ... Binomial name Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a large, goat-like animal that lives in the European Alps and Carpathians. ... Download high resolution version (800x814, 96 KB)Arctic hare, public domain image from US Fish and Wildlife Service File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Lepus timidus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mountain Hare (Lepus timidus) is a hare, which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats. ...

The Alps in popular culture

Busch Gardens Europe is a theme park located in James City County, Virginia about 3 miles (5 km) southeast of Williamsburg. ... Alpengeist is the tallest and one of the fastest full circuit inverted roller coaster in the world. ...

See also

The Swiss Alps are the central portion of the Alps mountain range that lies within Switzerland. ...

External links

is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ash plumes on Kamchatka Peninsula, eastern Russia MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a payload scientific instrument launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) Satellite, and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite. ... Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth. ...

References

  1. ^ Lancel, Serge, Hannibal, p. 60

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (8192x4096, 10000 KB) Land surface, ocean color, sea ice and clouds. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ten Alps PLC :: Home (153 words)
Ten Alps is a factual media company, online, on TV and in print.
Ten Alps RMA, the Hampshire based advertising company have won a raft of new accounts including Ramblers Worldwide Holidays, Bunches – flowers by post, PGL family adventure holidays and Crystal Clear Home Loans & Remortgages.
Ten Alps has given its production company Blakeway a major boost - by bringing three of its other production companies under the same banner – and kicks off the Autumn with a slate of new commissions.
Alps - LoveToKnow 1911 (13116 words)
Dauphine Alps (from the Col du Galibier, westwards and southwards).
Bernina Alps (from the Maloja to the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio, south and east of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine and north of the Valtellina).
The Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg (north of the Arlberg Pass, Innsbruck, the Pinzgau, and the Enns valley).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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