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Encyclopedia > Alpine Warfare
History of warfare
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Ancient warfare
Medieval warfare
Early modern warfare
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A typically white color clothes of a soldier trained for mountain warfare. Here a US Marines skier is seen in one made out of cotton
A typically white color clothes of a soldier trained for mountain warfare. Here a US Marines skier is seen in one made out of cotton

Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. This type of warfare is also called Alpine warfare (from the Alps mountains) where this warfare was first noticed. This type of warfare is one of the most dangerous, as it involves fighting not only the enemy but also the extreme cold and inaccessible heights. The problems multiply due to avalanches of snow or rocks, either natural or induced by the enemy. The history of warfare is the history of war and its evolution and development over time. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, states and other such large social organizations. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the European Middle Ages. ... Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare is a complex affair, involving the widespread use of highly adavanced technology. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... For the Boston area punk band see Siege (band). ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of fortifications dug into the ground, facing each other. ... Distinguish from the type of ape called a gorilla. ... Aerial warfare is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... Armoured warfare in modern warfare is understood to be the use of armoured fighting vehicles as a central component of the methods of war. ... Maneuver warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... Urban warfare is warfare conducted in populated urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Nuclear war, or atomic war, is war in which nuclear weapons are used. ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... History -- Military history -- Lists of battles This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Image File history File links USMarineskier. ... Image File history File links USMarineskier. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... Skiing is the activity of gliding over snow using skis (originally wooden planks, now usually made from fiberglass or related composites) strapped to the feet with ski bindings. ... Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. ... Mount McKinley in Alaska has one of the largest visible base-to-summit elevation differences anywhere A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... This article refers to the natural event known as an avalanche. ... A fresh snowfall in Colorados (USA) high forests. ...


The long nights and great distances on huge, snow-covered peaks at sub-zero degree temperatures demands great endurance and patience. Winning the warfare essentially boils down to holding the high ground in the battle. Mountains, at any time of year, are dangerous -- lightning, high wind, rock fall, extreme cold, or falls into crevasses and cliffs all being able to cause death. In war, the dangers multiply exponentially. Movement, medical evacuation and resupply up steep slopes, often where even mules cannot go, involves enormous exertion of energy. Lightning over Pentagon City in Arlington County, Virginia Cloud to cloud lightning Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. ... Crevasse on the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Cliffs on the banks of the River Severn, near Bristol, England In geography, a cliff is a significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure. ... In its common modern meaning, a mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. ...


Probably the term mountain warfare came about in the medieval age, after the monarchies of Europe found it difficult to fight the Swiss armies in the Alps. This was because the Swiss were able to fight in smaller units and took vantage points against a huge unmanouverable army. Similar styles of attack and defence were later employed by guerillas, partisans and freedom fighters who hid in the mountains after an attack making it tough for the army to fight back. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... World map showing location of Europe When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Partisan may refer to: Look up Partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A member of a lightly-equipped irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation. ... ...


It came to the fore once again during the Great War when the nations involved in the war had some mountain divisions that had hitherto not been tested. The Austro-Hungarian defence repelled Italians as they took advantage of the mostly mountainous terrain where more people succumbed to frostbite and avalanches than to bullets. Another offensive was launched by Turkish supreme commander Enver Pasha with 100,000 troops against the Russians in the Caucasus in December of 1914. Insisting on a frontal attack against Russian positions in the mountains in the heart of winter, Enver lost 86% of his force. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Frostbite - or Congelatio in medical terminology - is the medical condition where damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Caucasus , a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...


The most dangerous and volatile of all mountains conflicts involves the ongoing one between India and Pakistan over Kashmir. Since partition in 1947 both countries have been perennially locked in skirmishes and wars mainly revolving around this mountainous region. The first hostilities between the two nations in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 showed that both were ill-equipped to fight in biting cold let alone on the highest mountain region in the world, Himalayas. Later wars were mainly fought on the valleys than in the mountains. This changed in the Kargil War when Indian forces were faced with the huge task of flushing out the infiltrators. This proxy warfare became the only modern war that was fought exclusively on the mountains. Since Pakistan backed forces held the high ground and battles took place in peaks as high as 5,025 metres it proved an arduous task before the Indian Army backed by airpower managed to regain the heights and win the war. On a related note, the Siachen Glacier is called the highest battleground in the world with both the countries holding their respective positions at nearly 7 km. above sea level. More than 4000 people have died in this inhospitable terrain mostly due to weather extremities. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Partition of India was the process by which British dependencies and treaty states in the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in the 1940s. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 sometimes known as the First Kashmir War was a war fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from 1947 to 1949. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan between April and June 1999 in Kashmir. ... The Indian Army (भारतीय सेना Hindi: Bhartiya Sena) is the land force of the Military of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting land-based warfare. ... The Siachen Glacier is located in the East Karakoram/Himalaya, at approximately 35. ...


Many of the major armies of today have a specialized alpine division. Russia and USA are among the many countries with such divisions.


External links

  • Mountain Combat WWII Militaria: Combat Lessons

References

  • Frederick Engels, (January 27, 1857) "Mountain Warfare in the Past and Present" New York Daily Tribune MECW Volume 15, p 164
  • Great War

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