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Encyclopedia > Almoravid dynasty
Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent

The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. مرابط Murabit), were a Berber [1] dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during the 11th century. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixelsFull resolution (821 × 440 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png)This map have a few error, Denia and noth of Senegal was part of this Empire! See this [1] File historyClick on a date/time to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixelsFull resolution (821 × 440 pixel, file size: 36 KB, MIME type: image/png)This map have a few error, Denia and noth of Senegal was part of this Empire! See this [1] File historyClick on a date/time to... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Under this dynasty the Moorish empire was extended over present-day Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gibraltar, Tlemcen (in Algeria) and a great part of what is now Senegal and Mali in the south, and Spain and Portugal to the north in Europe. For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The exact meaning of "Murabit" is a matter of controversy. The name may be derived from the Arabic ribat (meaning tie or fortress (a term with which it shares the root r-b-t). This was the common opinion some time ago, however most historians now believe that it refers to ribat, meaning "tied to Horses" (ie ready for battle--Ribat also mentioned in Quran as referring to Jihad)

Contents

Beginnings

The most powerful of the tribes of the Sahara, south of the Draa River to the Sénégal River was the Lamtuna, whose region of origin was 'Wadi Noun' (Nul Lemta), South Morocco. They later spread as far as the upper Niger River region, where they founded the city of Aoudaghost. They had been converted to Islam in the 7th century. The Draa (Arabic: درأ) (also spelled Dra or Draâ, in older sources mostly Darha or Dara) is Moroccos longest river (1100 km). ... Satellite image of Sénégal River The Sénégal River is a 1790 km long river in West Africa, that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania. ... The Lamtuna are a Berber nomadic tribe of the western Sahara. ... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... Aoudaghost, also known as Tegdaoust was a major city in ancient and mediaeval West Africa, lying in what is now south east Mauritania. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

Map showing the extent of the Almoravid empire

Image File history File links Almoravid-empire-en. ... Image File history File links Almoravid-empire-en. ...

Influence of orthodox Islam

About the year 1040 (or a little earlier) one of their chiefs, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, made the pilgrimage to Makkah. On his way home, he attended the teachers of the mosque at Kairouan, in Tunisia, who soon learnt from him that his people knew little of the religion they were supposed to profess, and that though his will was good, his own ignorance was great. By the good offices of the theologians of Kairawan, one of whom was from Fez, Yahya was provided with a missionary, Abdallah ibn Yasin, a zealous partisan of the Malikis, one of the four Madhhab, Sunni schools of Islam. Events March War of Independence of Western Xia occurred. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ... Abdallah Ibn Yasin (d. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ...


His preaching was before-long rejected by the Lamtunas; so on the advice of Yahya, who accompanied him, he retired to Saharan regions from which his influence spread. There was no element of heresy in his creed, which was mainly distinguished by a strict obedience to the Qur'an, and the orthodox tradition or Sunnah. Satellite image The Sahara (Arabic: , aá¹£-á¹£aḥrā´ al-kabÄ«r, The Great Desert, ( )) is the worlds largest hot desert, and second largest desert after Antarctica. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus...


Ascendence of militarism

Abd-Allah ibn Yasin imposed a penitential scourging on all converts as a purification, and enforced a regular system of discipline for every breach of the law; even on the chiefs. Under such directions, the Almoravids were brought into excellent order. Their first military leader, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, gave them a good military organization. Their main force was infantry, armed with javelins in the front ranks and pikes behind, which formed into a phalanx; and was supported by camelmen and horsemen on the flanks. For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... “Flanking” redirects here. ...


Military successes

From the year 1053, the Almoravids began to spread their religious way on the Berber areas of the desert, and on the Africans in the regions south of the Sahara. They converted Takrur (a small state in modern Senegal) to Islam, and after winning over the Sanhaja Berber tribe, they quickly took control of the entire desert trade route, seizing Sijilmasa at the northern end in 1054, and Aoudaghost at the southern end in 1055. Yahya ibn Ibrahim was killed in a battle in 1056, but Abd-Allah ibn Yasin, whose influence as a religious teacher was paramount; named his brother Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar as chief. Under him, the Almoravids soon began to spread their power beyond the desert, and subjected the tribes of the Atlas Mountains. They then came in contact with the Berghouata, a branch of the Zenata of central Morocco, who followed a "heresy" founded by Salih ibn Tarif, three centuries earlier. The Berghouata made a fierce resistance, and it was in battle with them that Abdullah ibn Yasin was killed. They were, however, completely conquered by Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar, who took the defeated chief's widow, Zainab, as a wife. Events June 18 - Battle of Civitate - 3000 horsemen of Norman Count Humphrey rout the troops of Pope Leo IX Good harvests in Europe Malcolm Canmore invades Scotland. ... Takrur was one of the minor Iron Age states of West Africa, which flourished roughly parallel to the Kingdom of Ghana. ... The Sanhaja were one of the largest Berber tribal confederations of the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and Masmuda History The tribes of the Sanhaja settled at first in the northern Sahara. ... Sijilmasa (or Sijilmassa) was a mediaeval trade centre in the western Maghreb. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... Aoudaghost, also known as Tegdaoust was a major city in ancient and mediaeval West Africa, lying in what is now south east Mauritania. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Creation of the Crab Nebula observed by a Chinese astronomer Anselm of Canterbury leaves Italy. ... Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar (died in 1087) (Arabic: أبو بكر بن عمر) was a Almoravid ruler. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ... The Zenata are one of the main divisions of the medieval Berbers, along with Senhaja and Masmuda. ... Sâlih ibn Tarîf (Arabic صالح بن طريف) was the second king of the Berghouata, and proclaimed himself a prophet of a new religion. ... Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar (died in 1087) (Arabic: أبو بكر بن عمر) was a Almoravid ruler. ... // Introduction Zainab was the 3rd child of Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima Zahra. ...


In 1061, Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar made a division of the power he had established, handing over the more-settled parts to his cousin Yusuf ibn Tashfin, as viceroy; resigning to him also his favourite wife Zainab. For himself, he reserved the task of suppressing the revolts which had broken out in the desert, but when he returned to resume control, he found his cousin too powerful to be superseded; so he had to go back to the Sahara, where, in 1087, having been wounded with a poisoned arrow, he died. Events Normans conquer Messina in Sicily Pope Alexander II elected The building of the Speyer Cathedral in Speyer, Germany, had begun to be built. ... Abu-Bakr Ibn-Umar (died in 1087) (Arabic: أبو بكر بن عمر) was a Almoravid ruler. ... Yusuf ibn Tashfin or Tashafin (reigned c. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ...


Yusuf ibn Tashfin had in the meantime brought what is now known as Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauretania into complete subjection; and in 1062, had founded the city of Marrakech. In 1080, he conquered the kingdom of Tlemcen (in modern-day Algeria) and founded the present city of that name, his rule extending as far east as Oran. In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ... Events Founding of Marrakech The Almoravids overrun Morocco and establish a kingdom from Spain to Senegal. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... Events William I of England, in a letter, reminds the Bishop of Rome that the King of England owes him no allegiance. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... View of Oran Oran (Arabic: , pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ...


Ghana Empire

In 1075, the Almoravids conquered Ghana Empire. According to Arab tradition, the ensuing war pushed Ghana over the edge, ending the kingdom's position as a commercial and military power by 1100, as it collapsed into tribal groups and chieftaincies, some of which later assimilated into the Almoravides while others founded the Mali Empire. Other interpretations are that the Almoravid influence was gradual and did not involve any form of military takeover, as Almoravids increased in power by marrying among the nation's nobility. Events Revolt of the Earls. ... The Ghana Empire in Africa The Empire of Ghana (existed c. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... {{Infobox Former // Christine rules Country |native_name = Manden Kurufa |conventional_long_name = Mali Empire |common_name = Mali Empire | |continent = Africa |region = North-West Africa |country = Mali |status = Empire |government_type = Constitutional monarchy | |year_start = 1235 |year_end = 1645 | |event_start = |date_start = |event_end = |date_end = | |event1 = |date_event1 = |event2 = |date_event2 = |event3 = |date_event3 = |event4 = |date_event4 = | |event_pre = |date_pre = |event_post = |date_post = | | |p1 = Ghana Empire...


Iberian Peninsula

Map of Iberia at the time of the Almoravid arrival

In 1086 Yusuf ibn Tashfin was invited by the Muslim princes in the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) to defend them against Alfonso VI, King of Castile and León. In that year, Yusuf ibn Tashfin crossed the straits to Algeciras, inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the az-Zallaqah. He was prevented from following up his victory by trouble in Africa, which he had to settle in person. Image File history File links Almoravid_map_reconquest_loc. ... Image File history File links Almoravid_map_reconquest_loc. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Yusuf ibn Tashfin or Tashafin (reigned c. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... Yusuf ibn Tashfin or Tashafin (reigned c. ... Algeciras is a port city in the south of Spain, near the British colony/Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, slightly to the north from Tarifa, which is the southernmost town of the peninsular Spain and Europe (, ). Both cities are situated on the Strait of Gibraltar; Algeciras also faces the Mediterranean. ... Combatants Castile Almoravides Commanders Alfonso VI Yusuf ibn Tashfin Strength About 60,000 About 30,000 Casualties 59,500 dead Unknown The battle of az-Zallaqah الزلاقة (October 23, 1086) was a battle between the Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin and Castilian King Alfonso VI. Yusuf ibn Tashfin replied to the call... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


When he returned to Iberia in 1090, it was avowedly for the purpose of deposing the Muslim princes, and annexing their states. He had in his favour the mass of the inhabitants, whom had been worn out by the oppressive taxation imposed by their spend-thrift rulers. Their religious teachers, as well as others in the east, (most notably, al-Ghazali in Persia and al-Tartushi in Egypt, who was himself an Iberian by birth, from Tortosa), detested the native Muslim princes for their religious indifference, and gave Yusuf a fatwa -- or legal opinion -- to the effect that he had good moral and religious right, to dethrone the heterodox rulers, who did not scruple to seek help from the Christians, whose habits they had adopted. By 1094, he had removed them all, except for the one at Zaragoza; and though he regained little from the Christians except Valencia, he re-united the Muslim power, and gave a check to the reconquest of the country by the Christians. Events Granada captured by Yusuf Ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravides Beginnings of troubadours in Provence Bejaia becomes the capital of the Algeria Births William of Malmsbury Saint Bernard of Clairvaux Saint Famianus Eliezer ben Nathan of Mainz Deaths Saint Malcoldia of Asti Saint Adalbero Categories: 1090 ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Walid al-Tartushi () (born 451 AH - 520 AH) was a famous Muslim jurist from Tortosa, Muslim Spain. ... A view of Tortosa Tortosa (Latin Dertusa, Arabic طرطوشة Ṭurá¹­Å«Å¡ah) is the capital of the comarca of Baix Ebre, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain, located at 12 metres above the sea, by the Ebre river. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Valencian) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ...


The Commander of the Muslims

After friendly correspondence with the caliph at Baghdad, whom he acknowledged as Amir al-Mu'minin (Commander of the Faithful), Yusuf ibn Tashfin in 1097 assumed the title of Amir al Muslimin (Commander of the Muslims). He died in 1106, when he was reputed to have reached the age of 100. Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ...


The Almoravid power was at its height at Yusuf's death, and the Moorish empire then included all North-West Africa as far as Algiers, and all of Iberia south of the Tagus, with the east coast as far as the mouth of the Ebro, and included the Balearic Islands. “Alger” redirects here. ... View over Tejo River from Almourol Castle in Portugal (May 2005). ... The Ebro (Greek: Έβρος, Latin: Iberus, Spanish: Ebro, Catalan: Ebre) is Spains most voluminous and second longest river. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


Decline

Three years afterwards, under Yusef's son and successor, Ali ibn Yusuf, Sintra and Santarém were added, and Iberia was again invaded in 1119 and 1121, but the tide had turned; the French having assisted the Aragonese to recover Zaragoza. In 1138, Ali ibn Yusuf was defeated by Alfonso VII of Castile and León, and in the Battle of Ourique (1139), by Afonso I of Portugal, who thereby won his crown; and Lisbon was recovered by the Portuguese in 1147. Ali ibn Yusuf (died in 1142) was a Berber ruler in North Africa and Muslim Spain, reigned 1106–1142, also a member of Almoravids dynasty. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Greater Lisbon  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Fernando Seara  - Party PSD-CDS-PPM-MPT Area 319. ... There are a number of places called Santarém: Santarém, Brazil Santarém, Portugal Santarém is also a Portuguese cheese. ... Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... Events Concordat of Worms condemns Pierre Abélards writings on the Holy Trinity. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Events Robert Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Alfonso VII of Castile (March 1, 1104/5 - August 21, 1157), nicknamed the Emperor, was the king of Castile and Leon since 1126, son of Urraca of Castile and Count Raymond of Burgundy. ... The Battle of Ourique took place in July 26, 1139, in the countryside outside the town of Ourique, present-day Alentejo (southern Portugal). ... July 26, Independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León and Castile declared after the Battle of Ourique against the Almoravids lead by Ali ibn Yusuf: Prince Afonso Henriques becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal, after assembling the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where... Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ...


Ali ibn Yusuf was a pious non-entity, who fasted and prayed while his empire fell to pieces under the combined action of his Christian foes in Iberia and the agitation of Almohads (the Muwahhids) in Morocco. After Ali ibn Yusuf's death in 1142, his son Tashfin ibn Ali lost ground rapidly before the Almohads, and in 1146 he was killed by a fall from a precipice, while endeavouring to escape after a defeat near Oran. The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... View of Oran Oran (Arabic: , pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ...


His two successors Ibrahim ibn Tashfin and Is'haq ibn Ali are mere names. The conquest of the city of Marrakech by the Almohads in 1147 marked the fall of the dynasty, though fragments of the Almoravids (the Banu Ghanya), continued to struggle in the Balearic Islands, and finally in Tunisia. For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ...


Interestingly, family names such as Morabito, Murabito and Mirabito are common in western Sicily, the Aeolian Islands and southern Calabria in Italy. These names may have appeared in this region as early as the 11th century, when Robert Guiscard and the Normans defeated the Saracens (Muslims) in Sicily. In addition to southern Italy, there are also sizable populations of Mourabit (also spelled Morabit or Murabit) in modern-day Morocco, Tunisia and Mauritania. Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Aeolian Islands. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Norman conquests in red. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Map showing the extent of the Almoravid empire Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Map showing the extent of the Almoravid empire Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ...


Rulers

Yusuf ibn Tashfin or Tashafin (reigned c. ... Events Normans conquer Messina in Sicily Pope Alexander II elected The building of the Speyer Cathedral in Speyer, Germany, had begun to be built. ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ... Ali ibn Yusuf (died in 1142) was a Berber ruler in North Africa and Muslim Spain, reigned 1106–1142, also a member of Almoravids dynasty. ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... Events Saint Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vezelay, Burgundy First written mention of Bryansk. ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ...

See also

  • History of Morocco
  • History of Islam
  • History of Spain
  • History of Portugal
  • The modern Murabitun movement of Western converts
  • Maravedís were coins of Almoravid origin, kept in Spain for centuries.

The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC, at a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Portugal is a European nation whose origins go back to the Early Middle Ages. ... This article is about the modern movement - the medieval al-Murabitun dynasty in Morocco and Spain is found at Almoravides. ... The maravedí was a coin used in Spain for several centuries. ...

External links

  • Almoravids Dynasty Berber dynasty

References

  1. ^ Glick, Thomas F. Islamic And Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. (2005) Brill Academic Publishers page 37
  • General History of Africa, Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century, Ed. M. Elfasi, Ch. 13 I.Hrbek and J.Devisse, The Almoravids (pp. 336-366), Unesco, 1988
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Timeline in Morocco
Idrisid dynasty (780-974)
Maghrawa dynasty (987-1070)
Almoravid dynasty (1073-1147)
Almohad dynasty (1125-1269)
Marinid dynasty (1215-1420)
Wattasid dynasty (1420-1547)
Saadi dynasty (1509-1659)
Alaouite dynasty (1631- current)



Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... The Magrawa were a Berber tribe in central and western Algeria. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Marinid was the Dynasty that replaced the Almohad Dynasty in Morocco in 1196. ... The Wattasids were a dynasty in Morocco. ... The Saadi Dynasty of Saadi Empire began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed I in 1554, and ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad II. The Saadi family claimed descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima... The Alaouite Dynasty is the name of the current Moroccan royal family. ...

Pre-Spanish Rulers of Zaragoza
Banu Tujibi
Al-Mundhir I ibn Yahya al-Tujibi - Yahya ibn al-Mundhir - Al-Mundhir II ibn Yahya ibn al-Mundhir - Abd Allah ibn al-Hakam al-Tjibi
Banu Hud
Al-Mustain I, Sulayman ibn Hud al-Judhami - Ahmad ibn Sulayman al-Muqtadir - Yusuf ibn Ahmad al-Mutamin - Al-Mustain II, Ahmad ibn Yusuf
Murabitun
Aragonese

  Results from FactBites:
 
Almoravids - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1502 words)
From the year 1053, the Almoravids began to impose their orthodox and puritanical religion on the Berber tribes of the desert, and on the pagan fl Africans.
The Almoravid power was at its height at Yusuf's death, and the Moorish empire then included all North-West Africa as far as Algiers, and all of Iberia south of the Tagus, with the east coast as far as the mouth of the Ebro, and included the Balearic Islands.
The conquest of the city of Marrakesh by the Almohades in 1147 marked the fall of the dynasty, though fragments of the Almoravids (the Banu Ghanya), continued to struggle in the Balearic Islands, and finally in Tunisia.
Almoravides (1134 words)
Almoravides (properly Murabtis, the name being corrupted through the Spanish), a Berber horde from the Sahara which, in the 11th century, founded the fourth dynasty in Morocco.
By this dynasty the Moorish empire[?] was extended over Tlemcen[?] (in modern Algeria) and a great part of Spain and Portugal.
The conquest of the city of Marrakesh by the Muwahhadis in 1147 marked the fall of the dynasty, though fragments of the Murabtis continued to struggle in the Balearic Islands, and finally in Tunisia.
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