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Encyclopedia > Almohad dynasty
الموَحدون (ar)
Almohad Empire
Full names

1121 – 1269
Capital Marrakech , Seville
Language(s) Classical Arabic (predominant), Berber languages , Mozarabic language, Medieval Hebrew, African Romance
Religion Sunni Islam (predominant), Roman Catholic, Judaism, Ibadi, Sufism
Government Monarchy
Caliph
 - 1121-1130 Ibn Tumart
 - 1266–1269 Idris II
History
 - Established 1121
 - Disestablished 1269
Area 1,621,393.5 km² (626,024 sq mi)
Currency Dinar, Dobla Zaena, Dobla almohad)


The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e. "the monotheists" or "the Unitarians"), was a Berber, Muslim dynasty that was founded in the 12th century, and conquered all northern Africa as far as Libya, together with Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia). They became from the actual RASD and conquer the territories that nowadays are Morocco and South of Spain. Between 1130 and his death in 1163, Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi, a Berber from the Masmuda tribe, defeated the ruling Almoravids and extended his power over all northern Africa as far as Libya, becoming Emir of Marrakech in 1149. Al-Andalus, Moorish Iberia, followed the fate of Africa, and in 1170 the Almohads transferred their capital to Seville. However, by 1212 Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" (1199–1214) was defeated by an alliance of the four Christian princes of Castile, Aragón, Kingdom of Navarre and Portugal, at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena. The battle destroyed Almohad dominance. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon after, with the great Moorish cities of Córdoba and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively. The Almohads continued to rule in Africa until the piecemeal loss of territory through the revolt of tribes and districts enabled their most effective enemies, the Marinids in 1215. The last representative of the line, Idris II, "El Wathiq"' was reduced to the possession of Marrakech, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ... Medieval Hebrew has many features that distinguish it from older forms. ... African Romance is an extinct Romance language that was once spoken in North Africa (Algeria and Morocco). ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart (also Ibnu Tuwmart) (Berber:amghār / Arabic: أبو عبدالله محمد ابن تومرت) (c. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Al-MuwahhidÅ«n (Arabic الموحدون) is an Arabic word meaning monotheists or those who believe in the unity of God (tawhid) (or literally unitarians), and has been applied to various groups of Muslims at various times. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This is about a protein. ... Abd al-Mumin (1094-1163) was the first Caliph of the Almohad Empire. ... The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr), date of birth unknown. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... The Sierra Morena is a mountain chain some 400 km long running East-West in southern Spain, forming the border of the central plateau (Meseta Central) of Iberia, and providing the watershed between the valleys of the Gaudiana to the north and the Guadalquivir to the south. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Marinid was the Dynasty that replaced the Almohad Dynasty in Morocco in 1196. ...

Contents

Origins

Near East in 1200 AD, showing the Almohade Empire and its neighbors.
Near East in 1200 AD, showing the Almohade Empire and its neighbors.

The dynasty originated with Ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribe of the Atlas Mountains. Ibn Tumart was the son of a lamplighter in a mosque and had been noted for his piety from his youth; he was small, and misshapen and lived the life of a devotee-beggar. As a youth he performed the hajj to Mecca (or "Makkah"), whence he was expelled on account of his strictures on the laxity of others, and thence wandered to Baghdad, where he attached himself to the school of the orthodox doctor al-Ash'ari. But he made a system of his own by combining the teaching of his master with parts of the doctrines of others, and with mysticism imbibed from the great teacher Ghazali. His main principle was a strict Unitarianism which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God, as being incompatible with his unity, and therefore a polytheistic idea. Ibn Tumart in fact represented a revolt against what he perceived as anthropomorphism in the Muslim orthodoxy. Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart (also Ibnu Tuwmart) (Berber:amghār / Arabic: أبو عبدالله محمد ابن تومرت) (c. ... The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Abu al-Hasan bin Ismael al-Ashari (Arabic ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) (ca. ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ...


The Dynasty

After his return to Magreb at the age of twenty-eight, Ibn Tumart began preaching and heading attacks on wine-shops and on other manifestations of laxity. He even went so far as to assault the sister of the Almoravid (Murabit) amir `Ali III, in the streets of Fez, because she was going about unveiled after the manner of Berber women. Ali III allowed him to escape unpunished. Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ...


Ibn Tumart, who had been driven from several other towns for exhibitions of reforming zeal, now took refuge among his own people, the Masmuda, in the Atlas. It is highly probable that his influence would not have outlived him, if he had not found a lieutenant in Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi, another Berber, from Algeria, who was undoubtedly a soldier and statesman of a high order. When Ibn Tumart died in 1128 at the monastery or ribat which he had founded in the Atlas at Tinmel, after suffering a severe defeat by the Almoravids, Abd al-Mu'min kept his death secret for two years, till his own influence was established. He then came forward as the lieutenant of the Mahdi Ibn Tumart. Between 1130 and his death in 1163, 'Abd-el-Mumin not only rooted out the Murabits, but extended his power over all northern Africa as far as Egypt, becoming amir of Marrakech in 1149. Al-Andalus followed the fate of Africa, and in 1170 the Almohads transferred their capital to Seville, a step followed by the founding of the great mosque (now superseded by the cathedral), the tower of which, the Giralda, they erected in 1184 to mark the accession of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur. From the time of Yusuf II, however, they governed their co-religionists in Iberia and Central North Africa through lieutenants, their dominions outside Morocco being treated as provinces. When their amirs crossed the Straits it was to lead a jihad against the Christians and to return to their capital, Marrakech. The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... Abd al-Mumin (1094-1163) was the first Caliph of the Almohad Empire. ... The Ribat at Monastir Tunisia. ... Tinmel (also Tin Mal) is a small moutainious village High Atlas in Nffis valley at 100 km of Marrakech. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... For the food company, see Alimentos La Giralda. ... Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (c. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ...

The Alhomad ‎minaret in Safi
The Alhomad ‎minaret in Safi

The Almohad princes had a longer and a more distinguished career than the Murabits (or Almoravids). Yusuf II or Abu Yaqub Yusuf (1163–1184), and Ya'qub I or Yaqub al-Mansur (1184-1199), the successors of Abd al-Mumin, were both able men. Initially their government drove many Jewish and Christian subjects to take refuge in the growing Christian states of Portugal, Castile and Aragon. But in the end they became less fanatical than the Almoravids, and Ya'qub al Mansur was a highly accomplished man, who wrote a good Arabic style and who protected the philosopher Averroes. His title of al-Mansur, "The Victorious," was earned by the defeat he inflicted on Alfonso VIII of Castile in the Battle of Alarcos (1195). Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Abu Yaqub Yusuf or Yusuf I (died on July 29, 1184), was the second Almohad caliph. ... Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (Arabic: ابو يوسف يعقوب المنصور) (c. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Alfonso VIII, centre, and Queen Eleanor, left. ... Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII; also referred as the Disaster of Alarcos due to the magnitude of the Castilian defeat. ...


Decline and loss of Iberia

History of al-Andalus
711 - 1492

711 - 732 Invasions Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


756 - 1039 Omayyads of Córdoba The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... Combatants Visigoths Ummayads Commanders Roderic Tariq ibn Ziyad Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Guadalete took place July 19, 711, at the Guadalete River (or La Janda lake) in the southern extreme of the Iberian peninsula. ... Combatants Aquitanians Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Odo of Aquitaine Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani The Battle of Toulouse (721) was a victory of a Frankish army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad army besieging the city of Toulouse, and led by the governor of Al-Andalus, Al... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... // The name of the Spanish city Córdoba had been spread all over the world: homonymous places etc. ...

  • Caliphate of Córdoba
  • Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir

1039 - 1085 Taifas ... Abu Aamir Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Aamir, Al-Hajib Al-Mansur أبو عامر محمد بن عبد الله بن أبي عامر الحاجب المنصور (c. ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of...


1085-1145 Almoravids Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ...

  • Almoravid conquest
  • Battle of Sagrajas

1147 - 1238 Almohads Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Combatants Castile Almoravids Commanders Alfonso VI Yusuf ibn Tashfin Strength About 15,000 or less, Muslim Sources = 60,000 About 30,000 Casualties About 7,000 dead, Muslim Sources = 59,500 dead Unknown but high The Battle of Sagrajas (October 23, 1086), (Arabic: ), was a battle between the Almoravid Yusuf...


1238 - 1492 Kingdom of Granada Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ...


connected articles

However, the Christian states in Iberia were becoming too well organized to be overrun by the Muslims, and the Almohads made no permanent advance against them. The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, founded by Mohammed ben Nasar. ... Combatants Christian Spain (Aragon and Castile) Granada Commanders Ferdinand IV Sultan Boabdil Strength 100 000 300 000 Casualties 3000 150 000 The Battle of Granada was fought on January 2, 1492 between the forces of Aragon and Castile and the armies of Muslim controlled Granada. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...


In 1212 Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" (1199–1214), the successor of al-Mansur, after an initially successful advance north, was defeated by an alliance of the four Christian princes of Castile, Aragón, Kingdom of Navarre and Portugal, at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena. The battle destroyed Almohad dominance. Nearly all of the Moorish dominions in Iberia were lost soon after, with the great Moorish cities of Córdoba and Seville falling to the Christians in 1236 and 1248 respectively. Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr), date of birth unknown. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... The Sierra Morena is a mountain chain some 400 km long running East-West in southern Spain, forming the border of the central plateau (Meseta Central) of Iberia, and providing the watershed between the valleys of the Gaudiana to the north and the Guadalquivir to the south. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ...


All that remained, thereafter, was the Moorish state of Granada, which after an internal Muslim revolt, survived as a tributary state of the Christian kingdoms on Iberia's southern periphery. The Nasrid dynasty or Banu Nazari (Arabic: بنو نصر‎) rose to power there after the defeat of the Almohads dynasty in 1212. Twenty different Muslim kings ruled Granada from the founding of the dynasty in 1232 by Muhammed I ibn Nasr until January 2, 1492, when Sultan Boabdil surrendered to the Christian Spanish kingdom. Today, the most visible evidence of the Nasrids is the Alhambra palace complex built under their rule. For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, founded by Mohammed ben Nasar. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Is this ibn Ahmar of the 1236 battle for Cordoba that Ferdinand III had waged war against the Almohads? ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Sword of Boabdil Boabdil (a corruption of the name Abu Abdullah, or, in full, Abu abd Allah Muhammad XII, Arabic: ‎) (1460?–1527) was the last Moorish king of Granada (of the Nasrid dynasty). ... The Alhambra (Arabic: الحمراء = Al-Ħamrā; literally the red fortress) is a palace and fortress complex of the Moorish monarchs of Granada in southern Spain (known as Al-Andalus when the fortress was constructed), occupying a hilly terrace on the southeastern border of the city of Granada. ...

Map showing the area of Almohad control in Spain and the paths of counter-attacks from Castile (C) and Aragón (A). ((L) Leon, (P) Portugal, (N) Navarre)
Map showing the area of Almohad control in Spain and the paths of counter-attacks from Castile (C) and Aragón (A). ((L) Leon, (P) Portugal, (N) Navarre)

In their African holdings, the Almohads encouraged the establishment of Christians even in Fez, and after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa they occasionally entered into alliances with the kings of Castile. They were successful in expelling the garrisons placed in some of the coast towns by the Norman kings of Sicily. The history of their decline differs from that of the Almoravids, whom they had displaced. They were not assailed by a great religious movement, but lost territories, piecemeal, by the revolt of tribes and districts. Their most effective enemies were the Beni Marin (Marinids) who founded the next dynasty. The last representative of the line, Idris II, "El Wathiq"' was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269. Image File history File links Mapa_reconquista_almohades-en. ... Image File history File links Mapa_reconquista_almohades-en. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ... Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Marinid was the Dynasty that replaced the Almohad Dynasty in Morocco in 1196. ... Marrakech (مراكش marrākish), known as the Pearl of the South, is a city in southwestern Morocco in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. ...


Religion

The Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids' Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147,[1] far surpassed the Almoravides in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the dhimmis harshly.[2] Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, most Jews and Christians emigrated.[3][4] Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,[3] while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.[5][6] The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ...

Morocco
This article is part of the series:
History of Morocco
Barghawata (744-1058)
Idrisid dynasty (780-974)
Fatimid dynasty (922-937)
Idrisid dynasty (937-974)
Caliphate of Córdoba (974-1039)
Maghrawa emirate (987-1070)
Hammudid dynasty (1039-1055)
Almoravid dynasty (1073-1147)
Almohad dynasty (1130-1269)
Marinid dynasty (1215-1420)
Kingdom of Fez (1420-1554)
Saadi dynasty (1509-1659)
Republic of Bou Regreg (1627-1666)
Alaouite dynasty (1666-present)
Beiruk (1767-1916)
Treaty of Fez (1912)
1970s (1970s)
1980s (1980s)
1990s (1990s)
2000s (2000s)

The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC, at a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. ... The Berghouata were a medieval Berber tribe of the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda group of tribes. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... ... The Magrawa were a Berber tribe in Morocco and central and western Algeria. ... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Marinid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent, this map its wrong! The Anglicised name used for this article derives from the Arabic Banu Marin (also Benī Merīn, which is the source of the Spanish name). ... The Kingdom of Fez was a powerful kindgom in what is today know as Algeria and Morocco. ... The Saadi Dynasty of Saadi Empire began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed I in 1554, and ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad II. The Saadi family claimed descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima... The Republic of Bou Regreg was a 17th century governmental unit[1] in present day western Morocco. ... The Alaouite Dynasty is the name of the current Moroccan royal family. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... By the Treaty of fez, signed March 30, 1912, sultan Abdelhafid gave up the sovereignty of Morocco to the French, making the country a protectorate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ...

Muwahhadi (Almohad) Caliphs,1121–1269

The Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي, also transliterated as: Mehdi or Mihdi; translated as: guided one), in Islamic eschatology, is a prophecy about the redeemer of Islam, who will change the world into a perfect society before Yaum al-Qiyamah, literally meaning the Day of Resurrection (the end times). ... Abd al-Mumin (1094-1163) was the first Caliph of the Almohad Empire. ... Abu Yaqub Yusuf or Yusuf I (died on July 29, 1184), was the second Almohad caliph. ... Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (c. ... Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr), date of birth unknown. ... Yusuf II (also Yusuf al-Mustansir, 1197 - 1224) was Caliph of Morocco from 1213 until his death. ... Abdul-Wahid I was Caliph of Morocco for less than a year in 1224. ... Abu Mohammed Abdallah al-Adil (Arabic: ) was selected as caliph of Almohad following the 1223 strangulation of Abdul-Wahid I. Abdullahs vizier was Abû Zayd Abî Muhammad ben Abî Hafs, who had previously served his father, Muhammad an-Nasir, and his brother,Yusuf II, as governor of Ifriqiya. ...

Culture

Sufi writers.

  • Sidi Abu Madyan Choaïb ben al-Houssein al-Ansari (1126-1198)
  • Ibn Hirzihim (m.1164)
  • Abi Mohammed Salih (1153-1234)
  • Ibn Harazim (m.1235)
  • Ahmad ibn Idris (1163-1253)
  • Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili (1197-1258)
  • Abdelwahid al-Marrakushi (b. 1185) historian and writer
  • Salih ben Sharif al-Rundi (1204-1285)

Sidi Abu Madyan Choaïb ben al-Houssein al-Ansari ((1126-1198) was a Sufi teacher, scholar and writer and poet. ... The Shaykh Ahmad ibn Idris was a Muslim saint and founder of the Ahmadiyyah Idrisiyyah Sufi order. ... Shaykh Abu’l-Hassan ash-Shadhili was born in the north of Morocco in 1175 into a family of peasant labourers. ...

Bibliography

  • History of the Almonades, Reinhart Dozy, (second edition, 1881)
  • Conquest of Spain by the Arab-Moors, Coppée, (Boston, 1881)
  • Le livre d'Ibn Tumart, I. Goldziher, (1903)
  • Les Benou Ghanya, Bel, (1903)
  • Mica Enciclopedie de Istorie Universala, Marcel D. Popa, Horia C. Matei, (Bucharest, Editura Politica 1988)

Reinhart Pieter Anne Dozy (February, 1820 - May, 1883), Dutch Arabic scholar of French (Huguenot) origin, was born at Leiden. ...

References

  1. ^ Islamic world. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 2, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  2. ^ The Almohads
  3. ^ a b Frank and Leaman, 2003, p. 137-138.
  4. ^ The Forgotten Refugees
  5. ^ Sephardim
  6. ^ Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16-17.

See also

  • History of Algeria
  • History of Gibraltar
  • History of Islam
  • History of Morocco
  • History of Portugal
  • History of Spain
  • Nasrid dynasty
  • Reconquista
  • Paderne Castle

Islam and the Arabs, 642–1830 Unlike the invasions of previous religions and cultures, the coming of Islam, which was spread by Arabs, was to have pervasive and long-lasting effects on the Maghrib. ... This article details the history of Gibraltar. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC, at a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. ... Portugal is a European nation whose origins go back to the Early Middle Ages. ... The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ... The Nasrid dynasty was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, founded by Mohammed ben Nasar. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Almohads Dynasty Berber dynasty

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Ibn Rushd [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (7398 words)
Ibn Rushd's father, Abdul-Qasim Ahmad, although not as venerated as his grandfather, held the same position until the Almoravids were ousted by the Almohad dynasty in 1146.
Ibn Rushd's relationship with the Almohad was not merely opportunistic, (considering the support his father and grandfather had given to the Almoravids) for it influenced his work significantly; notably his ability to unite philosophy and religion.
Ibn Rushd, who served a political dynasty that had come into power under a banner of orthodox reform while privately encouraging the study of philosophy, was likely sensitive to the increasing tensions that eventually led to his banishment.
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