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Encyclopedia > Almohad

The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e. "the monotheists" or "the Unitarians," the name being corrupted in Spanish), a Berber Muslim religious power which founded the fifth Moorish dynasty in the 12th century, and conquered all northern Africa as far as Egypt, together with Muslim Spain. The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The origins of the word religion have been debated for centuries. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... A dynasty is a family or extended family which retains political power across generations, or more generally, any organization which extends dominance in its field even as its particular members change. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


It originated with Ibn Tumart, a member of the Masmuda, a Berber tribe of the Atlas Mountains. Ibn Tumart was the son of a lamplighter in a mosque and had been noted for his piety from his youth; he was small, ugly, and misshapen and lived the life of a devotee-beggar. As a youth he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca (or "Makkah"), whence he was expelled on account of his severe strictures on the laxity of others, and thence wandered to Bagdad, where he attached himself to the school of the orthodox doctor al-Ash'ari. But he made a system of his own by combining the teaching of his master with parts of the doctrines of others, and with mysticism imbibed from the great teacher Ghazali. His main principle was a rigid unitarianism which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God, as being incompatible with his unity, and therefore a polytheistic idea. Ibn Tumart in fact represented a revolt against what he perceived as anthropomorphism in the Muslim orthodoxy, but he was a rigid predestinarian and a strict observer of the law. Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn Tumart (c. ... The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The Atlas Mountains are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2400 km (1500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... This article is about the holy city in Saudi Arabia. ... Abu al-Hasan bin Ismael al-Ashari (Arabic ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) (ca. ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Persia, modern day Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


After his return to Morocco at the age of twenty-eight, he began preaching and agitating, heading riotous attacks on wine-shops and on other manifestations of laxity. He even went so far as to assault the sister of the Almoravid (Murabit) amir `Ali III, in the streets of Fez, because she was going about unveiled after the manner of Berber women. `Ali, who was very deferential to any exhibition of piety, allowed him to escape unpunished. Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ...


Ibn Tumart, who had been driven from several other towns for exhibitions of reforming zeal, now took refuge among his own people, the Masmuda, in the Atlas. It is highly probable that his influence would not have outlived him, if he had not found a lieutenant in Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi, another Berber, from Algeria, who was undoubtedly a soldier and statesman of a high order. When Ibn Tumart died in 1128 at the monastery or ribat which he had founded in the Atlas at Tinmal, after suffering a severe defeat by the Almoravids, Abd al-Mu'min kept his death secret for two years, till his own influence was established. He then came forward as the lieutenant of the Mahdi Ibn Tumart. Between 1130 and his death in 1163, 'Abd-el-Mumin not only rooted out the Murabits, but extended his power over all northern Africa as far as Egypt, becoming amir of Morocco in 1149. Muslim Spain followed the fate of Africa, and in 1170 the Muwahhids transferred their capital to Seville, a step followed by the founding of the great mosque, now superseded by the cathedral, the tower of which they erected in 1184 to mark the accession of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur. From the time of Yusuf II, however, they governed their co-religionists in Spain and Central North Africa through lieutenants, their dominions outside Morocco being treated as provinces. When their amirs crossed the Straits it was to lead a jihad against the Christians and to return to their capital, Marrakesh. The Masmuda were one of the largest Berber tribal confederacies in the Maghreb, along with the Zanata and the Sanhaja. ... The Atlas Mountains are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2400 km (1500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... Abd al-Mumin (1094-1163) was the first Caliph of the Almohad Empire. ... Events Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar. ... For the Abbasid Caliph, see al-Mahdi The Mahdi (Arabic: مهدي, also transliterated as: Mehdi or Mihdi; translated as: guided one), in Islamic eschatology, is a prophecy about the redeemer of Islam, who will change the world into a perfect society before Yaum al-Qiyamah, literally meaning... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Events Owain Gwynedd is recognized as ruler of Wales. ... Events Castle of Carimate destroyed. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Events December 29: Assassination of Thomas Beckett, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral Eleanor of Aquitaine leaves the court of Henry II because of a string of infidelities. ... Seville (Spanish: Sevilla, see also different names) is the artistic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain, crossed by the river Guadalquivir (37° 22′ 38″ N, 5° 59′ 13″ W). ... Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (c. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... Marrakech (مراكش marrākish), known as the Pearl of the South, is a city in southwestern Morocco in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. ...


The Muwahhid princes had a longer and a more distinguished career than the Murabits (or Almoravids). Yusuf II or "Abu Ya'qub" (1163-1184), and Ya'qub I or "al-Mansur" (1184-1199), the successors of Abd al-Mumin, were both able men. They were fanatical, and their tyranny drove numbers of their Jewish and Christian subjects to take refuge in the growing Christian states of Portugal, Castile and Aragon. But in the end they became less fanatical than the Murabits, and Ya'qub al Mansur was a highly accomplished man, who wrote a good Arabic style and who protected the philosopher Averroes. His title of al-Mansur, "The Victorious," was earned by the defeat he inflicted on Alfonso VIII of Castile in battle of Alarcos (1195). But the Christian states in Spain were becoming too well organized to be overrun by the Muslims, and the Muwahhids made no permanent advance against them. In 1212 Muhammad III, "al-Nasir" (1199-1214), the successor of al-Mansur, was utterly defeated by the allied five Christian princes of Spain, Navarre and Portugal, at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the Sierra Morena. All the Moorish dominions in Spain were lost in the next few years, partly by the Christian conquest of Andalusia, and partly by the revolt of the Muslims of Granada, who put themselves under the protection of the Christian kings and became their vassals. Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Arabic language (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Averroes Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126 – December 10, 1198) was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Alfonso VIII (November 11, 1155 – October 5, 1214), king of Castile and grandson of Alfonso VII, is a great name in Spanish history, for he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohades at the battle of the Navas de Tolosa in... Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII; also referred as the Disaster of Alarcos due to the magnitude of the Castilian defeat. ... Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr), date of birth unknown. ... Navarre (Spanish Navarra, Basque Nafarroa) is an autonomous community and province of Spain. ... The July 16, 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa is considered a major turning point in the history of Medieval Iberia. ... The Sierra Morena is a mountain chain some 400 km long running East-West in southern Spain, forming the border of the central plateau (Meseta Central) of Iberia, and providing the watershed between the valleys of the Gaudiana to the north and the Guadalquivir to the south. ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87 268 km²  17,2% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 1st  7 478 432  17,9%  85,70... Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the community of Andalusia, Spain. ...


The fanaticism of the Muwahhids did not prevent them from encouraging the establishment of Christians even in Fez, and after the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa they occasionally entered into alliances with the kings of Castile. In Africa they were successful in expelling the garrisons placed in some of the coast towns by the Norman kings of Sicily. The history of their decline differs from that of the Murabits, whom they had displaced. They were not assailed by a great religious movement, but destroyed piecemeal by the revolt of tribes and districts. Their most effective enemies were the Beni Marin (Marinids) who founded the next Moroccan dynasty, the sixth. The last representative of the line, Idris II, "El Wathiq"' was reduced to the possession of Marrakesh, where he was murdered by a slave in 1269. This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ... The July 16, 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa is considered a major turning point in the history of Medieval Iberia. ... Flag or Pendón de Castilla A former kingdom of Spain, Castile comprises the two regions of Old Castile in north-western Spain, and New Castile in the centre of the country. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous Gauls of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Rollo (Gange Rolf). ... Sicilian disambiguates here; see also Sicilian language or Sicilian Defence. ... Marinid was the Dynasty that replaced the Almohad Dynasty in Morocco in 1196. ... Marrakech (مراكش marrākish), known as the Pearl of the South, is a city in southwestern Morocco in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. ...

Contents


Muwahhadi (Almohad) Caliphs, 1145-1269

Abd al-Mumin (1094-1163) was the first Caliph of the Almohad Empire. ... Abu Yaqub Yusuf or Yusuf I (died on July 29, 1184), was the second Almohad caliph. ... Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur (c. ... Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr), date of birth unknown. ... Yusuf II (also Yusuf al-Mustansir, 1197 - 1224) was Caliph of Morocco from 1213 until his death. ... Abdul-Wahid I was Caliph of Morocco for less than a year in 1224. ... Abdallah was selected as Caliph of Morocco following the 1223 strangulation of the previous Almohad caliph, Abdul-Wahid I. Abdallahs vizier was Abû Zayd Abî Muhammad ben Abî Hafs, who had previously served his father, Muhammad an-Nasir, and his brother,Yusuf II, as governor of Ifriqiya. ...

Publications

History of the Almonades, Dozy, (second edition, 1881)
Conquest of Spain by the Arab-Moors, Coppée, (Boston, 1881)
Le livre d'Ibn Tumart, Luciani, (1903)
Les Benou Ghanya, Bel, (1903)

See also

  • History of Algeria
  • History of Islam
  • History of Morocco
  • History of Spain

Islam and the Arabs, 642–1830 Unlike the invasions of previous religions and cultures, the coming of Islam, which was spread by Arabs, was to have pervasive and long-lasting effects on the Maghrib. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... The Capsian culture brought Morocco into the Neolithic about 8000 BC, in a time when the Maghreb was less arid than it is today. ... The history of Spain is part of the history of Europe and of the present-day nations and states. ...

External links

  • Almohads Dynasty Berber dynasty


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Almohads (432 words)
The central core of the Almohad movement – it could be called a rebellion against the Almoravids, actually – was the opposition to the position of the leaders of Almoravids as jurists.
All through their 122 years of forming an empire, the Almohads were based upon a ruling elite, coming from the Masmuda tribe.
Now, the Almohads suddenly find themselves in control of northwestern Maghreb, but Spain is still outside their control.
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The Almohads came on the field with 1 ballista, 1 catapult, 2 arbalesters, 4 murabitin infantry, 4 Almohad urban militia, 3 Ghulam cavalry, and 1 Saharan cavalry.
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