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Encyclopedia > Almighty

The term God (capitalized in English language as a proper noun) is often used to refer to a Supreme Being. However, there are many other definitions of the term, a common trait of which is a reference to absoluteness or superlative qualities. For example: A noun, or noun substantive, is a word or phrase that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality. ... In some varieties of philosophy, The Absolute describes an ultimate being; the Absolute is the whole of things, all that is. ...

  • God may be Supreme but is not necessarily a Being.
    • Some concepts of God may include anthropomorphic attributes, gender, particular names, and ethnic exclusivity (see Chosen people), while others are purely transcendent or philosophic concepts.
    • The concept of God is often embedded in definitions of truth, where the sum of all truth is equated to God. In this sense science may be seen as a quest for God.
    • There are variations on defining God either as a person, or not as a person but as an ambiguous impersonal force (see Absolute Infinite). Also at stake are questions concerning the possibilities of human/God relations. There are countless variations in traditions of worship and/or appeasement of God.
    • Some concepts of God centre on a view of God as ultimate, immanent, transcendent, eternal Reality beyond the shifting and constantly mutable multiplicities of the sensible world.
  • In much religious and philosophic thought, God is considered to be the creator of the omniverse.
  • Some traditions hold that the creator of the omniverse is also the sustainer of the omniverse (as in theism), while others argue that their God is no longer involved in the world after creation (as in deism).
  • The common definition of God assumes omnipotence, omniscience and benevolence. However, not all systems hold that God is necessarily morally good (see summum bonum). Some hold that God is the very definition of moral goodness. Others maintain that God is beyond morality. Not all combinations of attributes 'work'; some can entail a falsum. For example, if God is The Creator, Omnipotent, Omniscient, and the Ultimate Judge, then he created all people, including atheists and pagans, knowing exactly what he was doing and then sends them to hell. This God cannot also be Good.
  • Negative theology argues that no true statements about attributes of God can be made at all, while agnostic positions argue that limited human understanding does not allow for any conclusive opinions on God whatsoever. Some mystical traditions ascribe limits to God's powers, arguing that God's supreme nature leaves no room for spontaneity.
  • The concept of a singular God is characteristic of monotheism, but there is no universal definition of monotheism. The differences between monotheism and polytheism vary among traditions (see also trinity, dualism, and henotheism).
  • Some espouse an exclusionist view, holding to one sole definition of God. Others hold an inclusionist view, accepting the possibility of more than one definition of God to be true at the same time.
  • There are also atheistic explanations for the concept of God that can include psychological and/or sociological factors.

See also theology below. Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... This entry contains a discussion of how monotheistic religions deal with God and gender, and how modern feminism has influenced the theology of many religions. ... Monotheistic faiths believe that there is a supreme being, who is necessarily unique, and the different names given to that being in different languages could in principle be translated as English God. ... Throughout history, various groups have considered themselves chosen by God for some purpose. ... // What is science? There are different theories of what science is. ... The Absolute Infinite is Georg Cantors concept of an infinity that transcended the transfinite numbers. ... The Creator God is the divine being that created the omniverse, according to various traditions and faiths. ... Omniverse is a term used to differentiate a limited number of universes from all existent universes. ... Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... Historical and modern Deism are defined by the view that reason, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... Benevolence is a faculty from the discipline of Phrenology. ... Morality in the strictest sense of the word, deals with that which is universally regarded as right or wrong. ... Summum bonum (greatest or supreme good) is a neoplatonic concept attributed to the Christian God by Saint Augustine in de natura boni (399), in direct opposition to his earlier Manichaean convictions. ... Negative theology, also known as the Via Negativa (Lat. ... Agnosticism is the philosophical and theological view that the existence of God, gods or deities is either unknown or inherently unknowable. ... Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens Human beings define themselves in biological, social, and spiritual terms. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... The term dualism is the state of being dual, or having a two fold division. ... In religion and philosophy, henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, meaning devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of other gods. ... . Atheism is the state either of being without theistic beliefs, or of actively believing in the non-existence of deities. ... The term God (capitalized in English language as a proper noun) is often used to refer to a Supreme Being. ...

Contents


Etymology

Earliest attestation of the Germanic word in the 6th century Codex Argenteus (Mt 5:9)
Earliest attestation of the Germanic word in the 6th century Codex Argenteus (Mt 5:9)

The word God continues Old English/Germanic god (guþ, gudis in Gothic, Gott in modern German). The original meaning and etymology of the Germanic word god has been hotly disputed, though most agree to a reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form *ǵhutóm, which is a passive perfect participle from the root *ǵhu-, which likely meant "libation", "sacrifice". Compare:- detail of Codex Argenteus, Mt 5:9 scan of the 1927 facsimile edition This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... detail of Codex Argenteus, Mt 5:9 scan of the 1927 facsimile edition This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... first page of the Codex Argenteus The Codex Argenteus (or Silver Bible) is a 6th century manuscript, originally containing bishop Ulfilass 4th century translation of the bible into the Gothic language. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally: according to Matthew, Grk: kata Maththaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Gothic language (*gutiska razda, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺) is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths and specifically by the Visigoths. ... In historical linguistics, etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... A libation is a ritual pouring of a drink as an offering to a god. ... Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ...

The connection between these meanings is likely via the meaning "pour a libation". Another possible meaning of *ǵhutóm is "invocation", related to Sanskrit hūta. The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... An ingot is a mass of metal or semiconducting material, heated past the melting point, and then recast, typically into the form of a bar or block. ... A libation is a ritual pouring of a drink as an offering to a god. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ...


The word God was used to represent Greek theos, Latin deus in Bible translations, first in the Gothic translation of the New Testament by Ulfilas. Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Parts of this article contradict each other. ... The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ...


Philologically, Gk. theos is said to be akin to Zeus, the chief god in Greek mythology, who has Dios in a genitive form. L. Diespiter means Jupiter, chief god in L. mythology, dies + pater, day + father. In Skr. deva is a god, as derived from the root div, heaven, and diu denoting day, shine and brightness (L. niter). See Sky Father, and Dyeus. The sky father is a recurring theme in pagan and neopagan mythology. ... Ancient anthropomorphic stone stela (Ukraine), possibly depicting an early variant of a god related to Dyeus *Dyēus is the reconstructed chief god of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon. ...


Capitalisation

KJV of 1611 (Psalms 23:1,2): Occurrence of "Lord" (and "God" in the heading)
KJV of 1611 (Psalms 23:1,2): Occurrence of "Lord" (and "God" in the heading)

The development of English orthography was dominated by Christian texts. Capitalised "God" was first used to refer to the Judeo-Christian concept, and may now signify any monotheistic conception of God, including the translations of the Arabic Allah and the African Masai Engai. KJV of 1611 sample This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... KJV of 1611 sample This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic: allāh) is the Arabic word for God. It is ultimately derived (according to most etymologists) from Proto-Semitic ʾil-, as is Hebrew El). ... Masai can refer to Maasai, also known as Masai, the name of an African tribe from Kenya and Tanzania. ... Ngai (Enkai, En-kai, Engai, Eng-ai, Mweai) is the supreme God in the monotheistic religions of the Kamba, Kikuyu, and Maasai tribes of Africa. ...


In early English bibles, the Tetragrammaton was rendered in capitals: "IEHOUAH" in William Tyndale's version of 1525. The King James Version of 1611 renders The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to AD 300), Aramaic (10th century BC to 1 BC) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tindale) (ca. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ...

  • YHWH as "The Lord"
  • Elohim as "God"
  • Adonay YHWH and Adonay Elohim as "Lord God"
  • kurios ho theos as "Lord God" (in the New Testament)

The use of capitalisation, as for a proper noun, has persisted to disambiguate the concept of a singular God from pagan deities for which lowercase god has continued to be applied, mirroring the use of Latin deus. Pronouns referring to God are also often capitalised and are traditionally in the masculine gender, i.e. "He", "His" etc. The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Elohim (אלהים) is a Hebrew word related to deity, but whose exact significance is often disputed. ... The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ...


Names of God

Main article: Names of God

The generic term God is the proper English name used for the deity of monotheistic faiths. Different names for God exist within different religious traditions. Monotheistic faiths believe that there is a supreme being, who is necessarily unique, and the different names given to that being in different languages could in principle be translated as English God. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ...

An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic: allāh) is the Arabic word for God. It is ultimately derived (according to most etymologists) from Proto-Semitic ʾil-, as is Hebrew El). ... Islam   listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The 99 Names of God, according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God that God, or Allah, has revealed to man. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Elohim (אלהים) is a Hebrew word related to deity, but whose exact significance is often disputed. ... Parts of this article contradict each other. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... Jesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Christ, is the English representation of the Greek word Χριστός (transliterated as Khristós), which means anointed. ... The Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, in Trinitarian Christian belief, is God, the third Person of the Holy Trinity; the word Spirit commonly translates the Greek New Testament word pneuma. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... A Hindu is an adherent of Hinduism, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural system of Bharat (India). ... Saguna Brahma, in Hindu philosophy, is God or Supreme Consciousness with gunas (qualities or attributes). ... In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) are three aspects of God in His forms as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Lord Åšiva. ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ... Gayatri (gāyatrī) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... Vishnu The Vishnu sahasranāma (literally: thousand names of Vishnu) is a list of 1,000 names for Vishnu, one of the main forms of God in Hinduism and the only Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavites (followers of Vishnu). ... A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism, a religious faith originating in the Punjab. ... The word Waheguru means The Wonderful Lord in the Gurmukhi language. ... Jah (pronounced with a hard J as in Jehovah) is the name commonly used for God in the religious Rastafari movement. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement of Jah people, is a religious movement that reveres Haile Selassie I, the former emperor of Ethiopia, as King of Kings, Lord of Lords and the Lion of Judah. ... Tewahedo Church may refer to any of the following: The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... St. ... Religious Science, also known as Science of Mind, was founded in 1926 by Ernest Holmes (1887-1960) and is a religious movement within the New Thought Movement. ... Oneness is a religious term referring to the experience of the absence of egoic identity boundaries, and, according to some traditions, the realization of the awareness of the absolute interconnectedness of all matter and thought in space-time, or ones ultimate identity with God (see Tat Tvam Asi). ... A Maasai tribesman The Maasai or Masai, an indigenous African tribe of semi-nomadic people located primarily in Kenya and northern Tanzania, are probably one of the most familiar tribes of East Africa. ... Ngai (Enkai, En-kai, Engai, Eng-ai, Mweai) is the supreme God in the monotheistic religions of the Kamba, Kikuyu, and Maasai tribes of Africa. ... A volcano is a geological landform (usually a mountain) where magma (rock of the Earths interior made molten or liquid by high temperature along with a reduction in pressure and/or the introduction of water or other volatiles) erupts through the surface of the planet. ... Ol Doinyo Lengai is a volcano located in Tanzania. ...

History of monotheism

See also monotheism. Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ...


The religions widely thought of as monotheistic today are of relatively recent origin historically, although Eastern religions (notably religions of China and India) that have concepts of panentheism are difficult to classify along Western notions of monotheism vs. polytheism, and sometimes have claims of being very ancient, if not eternal. Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... The term Western world can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...


In the Ancient Orient, many cities had their own local god, but this henotheistic worship of a single god did not imply denial of the existence of other gods. The Hebrew Ark of the Covenant adapted this practice to a nomadic lifestyle, paving their way for a singular God. The cult of the solar god Aten is often cited as the earliest known example of monotheism, but even if Akhetaten's hymn to Aten praises this god as omnipotent creator, worship of other gods beside him never ceased. Early examples of monotheism also include two late rigvedic hymns (10.129,130) to a Panentheistic creator god, Shri Rudram, a Vedic hymn to Rudra, an earlier aspect of Shiva, which expressed monistic theism, and is still chanted today, the Zoroastrian Ahuramazda and Chinese Shang Ti. The worship of polytheistic gods, on the other hand, is seen by many to predate monotheism, reaching back as far as the paleolithic. Today, monotheistic religions are dominant, but other systems of belief still exist. Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Egypt, the Fertile Crescent, Anatolia), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... In religion and philosophy, henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, meaning belief in, and possible worship of, multiple gods, one of which is supreme. ... Hebrews (syns. ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels The Ark of the Covenant (in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container built at the command... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Aten is a sun god in ancient Egyptian mythology, and represented by the suns disk. ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... The Great Hymn to the Aten was found in the tomb of Ay, in the rock tombs at Akhetaten. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... The Creator God is the divine being that created the omniverse, according to various traditions and faiths. ... The Shri Rudram Chamakam (TS 4. ... The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Lord Åšiva. ... Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Ahura Mazda (Persian هرمز (Hormoz) also transcripted as Ormazad, Ormuzd, Hormuz, Ormus, Ohrmizd) - The Wise Lord - is the god of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. ... Shangdi or Shang Ti (Wade-Giles) (上帝, pinyin Shàngdì), literally translated, Lord Above or Sovreign Above, in Chinese culture, is the name used both in traditional Chinese religion as well as Christianity for a supreme deity. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ...


The existence of God

Main article: Existence of God

While belief in God can be considered solely a matter of faith (Fideism), there are also many intellectual arguments for as well as arguments against the existence of God. Many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed over time. ... In Christian theology, fideism is any of a number of positions. ... Many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed over time. ... Many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed over time. ...


Theology

Theology is the study of religious beliefs. Theologians attempt to explicate (and in some cases systematize) beliefs; some express their own experience of the divine. Theologians ask questions such as: What is the nature of God? What does it mean for God to be singular? If people believe in God as a duality or trinity, what do these terms signify? Is God transcendent, immanent, or some mix of the two? What is the relationship between God and the universe, and God and mankind? Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Transcendental in philosophical contexts In philosophy, transcendental experiences are experiences of an exclusively human nature that are other-worldly or beyond the human realm of understanding. ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ...

  • Theism holds that God is both transcendent and immanent; thus, God is simultaneously infinite and in some way present in the affairs of the world. Catholic theology holds that God is infinitely simple and is outside of time. Most theists hold that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and benevolent, although this belief raises questions about God's responsibility for evil and suffering in the world. Some theists ascribe to God a self-conscious or purposeful limiting of omnipotence, omniscience, or benevolence. Open Theism, by contrast, asserts that God has limits. "Theism" is sometimes used to refer in general to any belief in a god or gods, i.e., monotheism or polytheism.
  • Deism holds that God is wholly transcendent: God exists, but does not intervene in the world beyond what was necessary for God to create it. In this view, God is not anthropomorphic, and does not literally answer prayers or cause miracles to occur.
  • Monotheism holds that there is only one God, and/or that the one true God is worshipped in different religions under different names. It is important to note, however, that monotheists of one religion can, and often do, consider the monotheistic god of a different religion to be a false god. For instance, many Christian fundamentalists consider the God of Islam (Allah) to be a false god or demon. However, theologians and linguists argue that "Allah" is merely the Arabic word for "God," and not the literal name of a specifically Muslim god (to Muslims, the bible is a holy scripture and Jesus is a prophet, so Christianity might be seen as a subset of Islam). Many Jews consider the messiah of Christianity (Jesus) to be a false god and some monotheists (notably fundamentalist Christians) hold that there is one triune God, and that all gods of other religions are actually demons in disguise (as in 2nd Corinthians 11 verse 14). Eastern religious believers and Liberal Christians are more likely to assume those of other faiths worship the same God as they.
  • Pantheism holds that God is the universe and the universe is God. Panentheism holds that God contains, but is not identical to, the Universe. The distinctions between the two are subtle, and some consider them unhelpful. Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism, paints a pantheistic/panentheistic view of God, which has wide acceptance in Hasidic Judaism, particularly from their founder The Baal Shem Tov. It is also the view of the Liberal Catholic Church, Theosophy, Hinduism, some divisions of Buddhism, and Taoism, along with many varying denominations and individuals within denominations.
  • Dystheism is a form of theism which holds that God is malevolent as a consequence of the problem of evil. Dystheistic speculation is common in theology, but there is no known church of practicing dystheists. See also Satanism.

Most believers allow for the existence of other, less powerful spiritual beings, and give them names such as angels, saints, Djinn, demons, and devas. Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... Transcendental in philosophical contexts In philosophy, transcendental experiences are experiences of an exclusively human nature that are other-worldly or beyond the human realm of understanding. ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ... In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... Open theism, also known as Free will theism, is a theological movement that has arisen within Evangelical Protestant Christianity. ... Historical and modern Deism are defined by the view that reason, rather than revelation or tradition, should be the basis of belief in God. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ... According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the operations of the ordinary course of Nature are overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic: allāh) is the Arabic word for God. It is ultimately derived (according to most etymologists) from Proto-Semitic ʾil-, as is Hebrew El). ... In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon or demoness is a supernatural being that is generally described as a malevolent spirit, but is also depicted as a force that may be conjured and insecurely controlled. ... In Judaism, the Meslolsiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Māšîªḥ) initially meant any person who was annointed by God to do a job. ... Jesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ... The Christian Left encompasses those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing or socialist ideals. ... Pantheism (Greek: pan = all and Theos = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... The tree of life. ... Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1698 Okopy Świętej Trójcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or the... The Liberal Catholic Church is a form of Christianity open to theosophical ideas. ... Seal of the Theosophical Society Theosophy is a body of belief which holds that all religions are attempts by man to ascertain the Divine, and as such each religion has a portion of the truth. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Eutheism and dystheism are dialectic opposites within the spectrum of theistic religious beliefs. ... In the philosophy of religion and theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of evil or suffering in the world with the existence of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent god. ... Satanism is a religious, semi-religious and/or philosophical movement whose adherents recognize Satan, either as an archetype, literal being, pre-cosmic force, or anything in between. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Genie is the anglicized word for the Arabic jinni. In Semitic mythology and Islamic religion, a jinni (also djinni or djini) is a member of the jinn (or djinn), a race of spirits. ... In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon or demoness is a supernatural being that is generally described as a malevolent spirit, but is also depicted as a force that may be conjured and insecurely controlled. ... A Deva, in Hinduism, is a deity, controlling forces of nature such as fire, air, etc. ...


Conceptions of God

Jewish, Christian and Muslim conceptions

Judaism, Christianity and Islam see God as a being who created the world and rules over the universe. God is usually held to have the properties of holiness (separate from sin and incorruptible), justness (fair, right, and true in all His judgements), sovereignty (unthwartable in His will), omnipotence (all-powerful), omniscience (all-knowing), omnibenevolence (all-loving), and omnipresence (everywhere-present). Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ... Islam   listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Holiness means the state of being holy, that is, set apart for the worship or service of God or gods. ... Justice is a concept involving the fair, moral, and impartial treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region, group of people, or oneself. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... Omnibenevolence is the property of being perfectly good, attributed by some religions to God. ... Omnipresence is defined, in a general sense, as the ability to be present in every place at the same time; unbounded or universal presence. ...


Jews, Christians and Muslims often conceive of God as a personal God, with a will and personality. However, many medieval rationalist philosophers of these religions felt that one should not view God as personal, and that such personal descriptions of God are only meant as metaphors. Some within these three faiths still accept these views as valid, although many of the laity today do not have a wide awareness of them. The phrase personal God is religious term used far more often by laypeople than by theologians due to its numerous connotations. ... This article is not about continental rationalism. ... In language, a metaphor is a rhetorical trope where a comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... In religious organizations , the laity comprises all lay persons, i. ...


In Eastern Christianity, it remains essential that God be personal; hence it speaks of the three persons of the Trinity. It also emphasizes that God has a will, and that God the Son has two wills, divine and human, though these are never in conflict. The personhood of God and of all human people is essential to the concept of theosis or deification. Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions which developed in Greece, the Near East and Eastern Europe. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis, meaning deification or divinization or, becoming gods, or even becoming God, is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ...


Biblical definition of God

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16th century Christian view of Genesis: God creates Adam (Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel)

The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) characterizes God by these attributes: "The LORD, the LORD God, merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness, keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children and the children's children, to the third and the fourth generation." (Exodus 34:6–7) God creates Adam by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. ... God creates Adam by Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This article is about the biblical Adam and Eve. ... This page is about the artist. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Palace of the Vatican, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures (also called the Hebrew Bible) constitutes the first major part of the Bible according to Christianity. ...


The Hebrew Bible contains no systematic theology: No attempt is made to give a philosophical or rigorous definition of God, nor of how God acts in the world. It does not explicitly describe God's nature, exemplified by God's assertion in Exodus that "you cannot see my face; for man shall not see me and live". Nowhere in the Hebrew Bible are the words omnipotent, omniscient, or omnibenevolent used to define God in a systematic sense. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible refers to the common portions of the Jewish and Christian canons. ... The term philosophy derives from a combination of the Greek words philos meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom. ... For other uses of the name, see Exodus (disambiguation) Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and Christian Old Testament. ... Omnipotence (literally, all power) is power with no limits or inexhaustible, in other words, unlimited power. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... Omnibenevolence is the property of being perfectly good, attributed by some religions to God. ...


Although Scripture does not describe God systematically, however, it does provide a poetic depiction of God and His relationship with people. According to the biblical historian Yehezkal Kaufmann, the essential innovation of Biblical theology was to posit a God that cares about people, and that cares about whether people care about Him. Most people believe that the Bible should be viewed as humanity's view of God, but theologian Abraham Joshua Heschel described the Biblical God as "anthropopathic", which means that one should read the Bible as God's view of humanity, and not as humanity's view of God. Abraham Joshua Heschel Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907, Warsaw, Poland - December 23, 1972) was considered by many to be one of the most significant Jewish theologians of the 20th century. ...


Similarly, the New Testament contains no systematic theology: no attempt is made to give a philosophical or rigorous definition of God, nor of how God acts in the world. The New Testament does, however, provide an implicit theology as it teaches that God interacted directly with people, in the person of Jesus, and that he subsequently sent the Holy Spirit. In this view, God becomes someone that can be seen and touched, and may speak and act in a manner easily perceived by humans, while also remaining transcendent and invisible. This appears to be a radical departure from the concepts of God found in Hebrew Bible. The New Testament's statements regarding the nature of God were eventually developed into the doctrine of the Trinity. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Jesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, in Trinitarian Christian belief, is God, the third Person of the Holy Trinity; the word Spirit commonly translates the Greek New Testament word pneuma. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ...


Kabbalistic definition of God

Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism) teaches that God is neither matter nor spirit. Rather God is the creator of both, but is himself neither. But if God is so different from his creation, how can there be any interaction between the Creator and the created? This question prompted Kabbalists to envision two aspects of God, (a) God himself, who in the end is unknowable, and (b) the revealed aspect of God who created the universe, preserves the universe, and interacts with mankind in a personal way. Kabbalists believe that these two aspects are not contradictory but complement one another. The tree of life. ... Judaism is the religious culture of the Jewish people. ... Mysticism, from the Greek μυω (mueo, to conceal), is the pursuit or practice of the direct experience of union with divinity, esoteric truth, or Ultimate Reality; the belief in the existence of realities beyond perceptual or intellectual apprehension that are central to being and directly accessible by subjective experience; or the... Matter is commonly referred to as the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... In religion and spirituality, the term spirit has two core meanings: The nature and essential substance of human souls, through which each is connected to all others, and by the experience of such connection is a primary basis for spiritual belief. ...


Quranic definitions of God, i.e. Allah

Main article: Allah An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic: allāh) is the Arabic word for God. It is ultimately derived (according to most etymologists) from Proto-Semitic ʾil-, as is Hebrew El). ...


Allah (Arabic allāhu الله) is traditionally used by Muslims as the Arabic word for "God" (not "God's personal name", but the equivalent of the Hebrew word El as opposed to YHWH). The word Allah is not specific to Islam; Arab Christians and Arab Jews also use it to refer to the monotheist deity. Arabic translations of the Bible also employ it, as do the Catholics of Malta who pronounce it as "Alla" in Maltese, a language derived from and most closely related to Arabic, as well as Christians in Indonesia, who pronounce it "Allah Bapa" (Allah the Father). Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... A name is a label for a thing, person, place, product (as in a brand name) and even an idea or concept, normally used to distinguish one from another. ... EL or El may mean: Electroluminescence, an optical and electrical phenomenon where a material such as a natural blue diamond emits light when an electric current is passed through it. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to 300 CE), Aramaic (10th Century BC to 0) and modern Hebrew scripts. ... Islam   listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Christianity has existed in the Arab world since the first century. ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... A deity or a god, is a postulated preternatural being, usually, but not always, of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings. ... Parts of this article contradict each other. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Many linguists believe that the term Allāh is derived from a contraction of the Arabic words al (the) + ilah (male deity). In addition, one of the main pagan goddesses of pre-Islamic Arabia, Allāt (al + ilāh + at, or 'the female deity'), is cited as being etymologically (though not synchronically) the feminine linguistic counterpart to the grammatically masculine Allah. If so, the word Allāh is an abbreviated title, meaning 'the deity', rather than a name. For this reason, both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars often translate Allāh directly into English as 'God' especially the Quran Alone Muslims; however, some Muslim scholars feel that "Allāh" should not be translated, because it expresses the uniqueness of God more accurately than "God", which can take a plural "Gods", whereas "Allāh" has no plural. This is a significant issue in translation of the Qur'an. This also explains why Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians freely refer to God as Allāh. Broadly conceived, linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Mentioned in the Quran, (Sura 53:19), Allat (also al-Lat) was the Arab tribal god of the Thaqif who lived in the city of Taif. ... In historical linguistics, etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... Quran Alone Muslims are those Muslims who reject hadith, or recorded Islamic traditions, and claim to follow the Quran, Islams sacred text, without any further human additions. ... Translations of the Qurán are versions of the most holy book of Islam in languages other than Arabic. ...


Most of the 99 names of God found in the Qur'an are not actually names, but attributes. One, however, Al Haq, meaning The Truth, seems to equate to absolute truth as that which cannot be negated. Al Haq is more than a reflection of faith in the existence of The God, and links the concept of God to all creation forever. Thus Allah transcends the prophetic origins of Islam and is thus universal in all time and applies to all existence -- past, present, and future. The 99 Names of God, according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God revealed to man in the Quran. ...


Negative theology

Main article: Negative theology. Negative theology, also known as the Via Negativa (Lat. ...


Some Jewish, Christian and Muslim medieval philosophers developed what is termed as negative theology, the idea of approaching a knowledge of God through negative attributes. For example, we should not say that God exists in the usual sense of the term; all we can safely say is that God is not nonexistent. We should not say that God is wise, but we can say that God is not ignorant. We should not say that God is One, but we can state that there is no multiplicity in God's being. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Negative theology, also known as the Via Negativa (Lat. ... In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts. ...


God as Unity or Trinity

Jews, Muslims, and a small fraction of Christians are unitarian monotheists. The vast majority of Christians have been and still are Trinitarian monotheists. Islam   listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament writings of his early followers. ...

  • Unitarian monotheists hold that there is only one "person" (so to speak), or one basic substance, in God. Some adherents of this position consider Trinitarianism to be a form of polytheism.
  • Trinitarian monotheists believe in one God that exists as three distinct persons who share the same substance/essence; the Christian version of this is called the Trinity, the Hindu version Trimurti, differs from Christianity in holding that God has three aspects rather than being three distinct persons. Trinitarians hold that the three persons have the same purpose, holiness, and sovereignty, and therefore each can be worshipped as God, without violating the idea that there is only one God to which worship belongs. The Smarta denomination of Hinduism and Ayyavazhi, a sect considered by some to be an offshoot of Hinduism, also hold that belief and believe that worship of any aspect of God is equivalent. Although not a perfect analogy, the other denominations of Hinduism, Shaivism and Vaishnavism would be considered be unitarian monotheistic faiths.
  • Mormons believe that there are three separate divine personages. One of these personages is a spirit without a body referred to as the Holy Ghost. The other two personages are spirits with perfected or glorified (often called celestial) bodies referred to as Heavenly Father (or less commonly "Elohim") and his son, Jesus Christ. Mormons hold that God is a Holy Man who advanced to his divine status through a repeatable process of progression. They believe that by following their religion's teachings, humans can literally become gods (sometimes phrased as "become like Heavenly Father") at some point after death and resurrection; this is also called Exaltation.
  • Rastafarians believe that Haile Selassie is both God the Father and God the Son, made manifest in human flesh as the reincarnation of Jesus, while the Holy Spirit is seen to dwell within all believers (of Rastafari), and within all people (believed by some).
  • Hasidic Jews hold that there are ten Sefirot (emanations) of God. Each of these are more distinct than a characteristic, but less distinct than a separate personage.
  • Monism is the metaphysical position that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy, that being a pantheist, or panentheist, immanent God. Monism can be inclusive of other interpretations of God.
  • Dualism is the idea of two, nearly equal divine entities, one being the good God, and the other being an evil god, or Satan. All beings are under the influence of one side, or the other, if they know it or not. Zoroastrianism is an example of dualism.

Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... A Hindu is an adherent of Hinduism, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural system of Bharat (India). ... In Hinduism, the Trimurti (also called the Hindu trinity) are three aspects of God in His forms as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. ... Smarta is a Hindu follower of Smartism. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars is worshipped as the supreme God and is a monotheistic faith. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name referring to Latter Day Saints, derived in the 1830s from the Book of Mormon, one of their scriptures, whose compiler was named Mormon. ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Elohim (אלהים) is a Hebrew word related to deity, but whose exact significance is often disputed. ... This article is about the religious meaning of the word Resurrection. For other meanings see Resurrection (disambiguation). ... Exaltation is the theological term for trance; although it is practiced by certain religious groups nowadays, it was seen as an alliance with the devil earlier in history. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement of Jah people, is a religious movement that reveres Haile Selassie I, the former emperor of Ethiopia, as King of Kings, Lord of Lords and the Lion of Judah. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Sephirah, also Sefirah (Hebrew language סְפִירָה Enumeration); plural Sephiroth or Sefiroth סְפִירוֹת. ... Monism is the metaphysical view that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... // Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... In philosophy, essence is the attribute (or set of attributes) that make an object or substance what it fundamentally is. ... Matter is commonly referred to as the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... Immanence is a religious and philosophical concept. ... The term dualism is the state of being dual, or having a two fold division. ... Gustave Dores depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan (שָׂטָן Standard Hebrew Satan, Latin Sátanas, Tiberian Hebrew Śāṭān; Aramaic שִׂטְנָא Åšiá¹­nâ: both words mean Adversary; accuser) is an angel, demon, or minor god in many religions. ... Faravahar, The depiction of the human soul before birth and after death. ...

Hindu Conceptions of God

  • In the two largest branches of Hinduism, Shaivism and Vaishnavism, it is believed that God, whether in the form of Shiva or Vishnu has six attributes. However, the actual number of auspicious qualities of God, are countless, with the following six qualities being the most important.
  • The number six is invariably given, but the individual attributes listed vary.
  • One set of attributes (and their common interpretations) are
    • Jnana (Omniscience), defined as the power to know about all beings simultaneously;
    • Aishvarya (Sovereignty), which consists in unchallenged rule over all;
    • Shakti (Energy), or power, which is the capacity to make the impossible possible;
    • Bala (Strength), which is the capacity to support everything by will and without any fatigue;
    • Virya (Vigour), or valour which indicates the power to retain immateriality as the supreme being in spite of being the material cause of mutable creations; and
    • Tejas (Splendour), which expresses his self-sufficiency and the capacity to overpower everything by his spiritual effulgence.; cited from Bhakti Schools of Vedanta, by Swami Tapasyananda.
  • A second set of six characteristics are
  • Other important qualities attributed to God are Gambhirya (grandeur), Audarya (generosity), and Karunya (compassion).
  • Chanted prayers, or mantras, are central to Hindu worship. Among the most chanted mantras in Hinduism are the Vishnu sahasranama (a prayer to Vishnu that dates from the time of the Mahabharata and describes him as the Universal Brahman), Shri Rudram (a Vedic hymn to Rudra, an earlier aspect of Shiva that also describes Him as Brahman) and the Gayatri mantra, (another Vedic hymn that initially was meant as a prayer to the Sun, an aspect of Brahman but has other interpretations. It is now interpreted as a prayer to the impersonal absolute Brahman). Another famous hymn, Lalitha Sahasranama, describes the 1000 names of Devi, worshipped as God the Divine Mother, or God's Shakti or Power personified by Hindus.
  • It is important to add that in Hinduism (Sanatana Dharama) God is considered the Supreme Being, and many views of God range from panentheism to dualism to monism. His appearance, in its entirety, cannot be comprehended by the common man. His appearance with form is only a manifestation of certain characteristics.
  • A major branch of Hinduism, Advaita Vedanta, served as the fertile grounds from which one of the first monistic philosophies of God was developed. Within this philosophy, God is viewed as the sum total of all that is, yet what is normally perceived via the five senses is viewed as illusory, seemingly divided and separated, and therefore not in reality a part of God. The Advaita Vedanta philisophy continues with the view that once one becomes aware of the unity of being of God, he will then be able to see beyond the illusions of division and separation from God, and recognize his or her own inherent unity with God.And Ayyavazhi propogates almost a similar theory. However, Kashmir Shaivism, one notable Saivite branch disagrees and focuses on panentheism. Furthermore, it rejects the maya illusion theory by stating that if God is real, then His creation must be real and not illusory.

In Hinduism there are two methods of worship: Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars is worshipped as the supreme God and is a monotheistic faith. ... Lord Åšiva. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... The adjective sovereign is used to refer to a state of sovereignty. ... Strength can mean: Physical strength of organisms means (especially the muscles of most metazoa) of locomotion and movement Strength of materials in physics, engineering and materials science Strength is a rap compilation presented by Asiatic Warriors The word strengths is one of the longest English words with one syllable. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything, or at least everything that can be known. ... Detachment is a state in where a person becomes separated from his or her environment and its influence. ... Look up Fame in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Fame may refer to a number of different topics, including: Fame is the condition of being known to the general public. ... The adjective sovereign is used to refer to a state of sovereignty. ... Glory can refer to: Glory (religion) Glory (optical phenomenon) Glory (film) Glory (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Righteousness is an important concept in the theology of Judaism and Christianity. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Vishnu The Vishnu sahasranāma (literally: thousand names of Vishnu) is a list of 1,000 names for Vishnu, one of the main forms of God in Hinduism and the only Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavites (followers of Vishnu). ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ... Here the underlined vowels carry the Vedic Sanskrit udātta pitch accent. ... The Shri Rudram Chamakam (TS 4. ... Gayatri (gāyatrī) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... Lalitha sahasranama is a hymn that describes the 1000 names of Devi or Lalitha and praises God as the Divine Mother or Gods Shakti or Power. ... In Hinduism, Devi (goddess) is the personification of the supreme God as the Divine Mother of Hinduism. ... In most South Asian languages, Shakti translates literally as power. ... Monism is the metaphysical view that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... Monism is the metaphysical view that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Kashmir Shaivism is the philosophical school of consciousness that arose in Kashmir about 1200 years ago. ... Saivite: of Saivism; belonging to Saivism, the Hindu denomination that worships God Siva as the Supreme God. ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... The word Maya or maya can refer to: The Maya – a Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America the modern Maya people the pre-Columbian Maya civilization the Maya language Maya – a concept in Hindu/Vedic philosophy a state of misperception of reality the inherent force of...

  1. To worship God through meditation on an icon (murti).
  2. To worship God without icon worship.(eg. Ayyavazhi)

Murtis are statues or images used by Hindus and also by some Mahayana Buddhists during worship as points of devotional and meditational focus. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ...

Christian Monism

Within the body of Christian belief, the only known well developed system of monism is found within the recently developed (1975) teachings of the book known as A Course In Miracles (or ACIM). The philosophical system of ACIM presents what appears to be a unique synthesis of Hindu monistic Advaita Vedanta teachings, blended with the early Christian teaching of the universal-fatherhood-of-God belief. In this philosophy God retains the traditional Christian role of the All loving, all forgiving Father, as portrayed in the Christian allegory of the Prodigal Son, yet God is also attributed with the qualities of complete oneness with all of mankind. The apparent contrast between the existence of this oneness with God, and the common belief in human separation from God, is explained by the belief that man's apparent separation from God is a mere illusion, an illusion that can be overcome by gaining a full understanding of, and by adopting an unfailing practice of, the dynamics of Christian forgiveness. Monism is the metaphysical view that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... Second hardbound edition of A Course In Miracles, as published by Foundation for Inner Peace. ... Monism is the metaphysical view that all is of one essential essence, substance or energy. ... Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... The Return of the Prodigal Son (1773) by Pompeo Batoni The Prodigal Son is one of the best known parables of Jesus. ...


The Ultimate

Arguably, Eastern conceptions of The Ultimate (this, too, has many different names), except for Shaivism and Vaishnavism, which do focus on a personal God, are not conceptions of a personal divinity, though certain Western conceptions of what is at least called "God" (e.g., Spinoza's pantheistic conception and various kinds of mysticism) resemble Eastern conceptions of The Ultimate. The Ultimate is a general term embracing the concept of an ultimate supernatural reality which transcends material reality and from which, according to a broad spectrum of Eastern philosophies and religions, material reality derives. ... Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... Vaishnavism is the branch of Hinduism in which Vishnu or one of his avatars is worshipped as the supreme God and is a monotheistic faith. ... Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677), was named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in his native Amsterdam. ... Mysticism, from the Greek μυω (mueo, to conceal), is the pursuit or practice of the direct experience of union with divinity, esoteric truth, or Ultimate Reality; the belief in the existence of realities beyond perceptual or intellectual apprehension that are central to being and directly accessible by subjective experience; or the...


Aristotelian definition of God

Main article: Aristotelian view of God. This article is on Aristotelian and Neo-Aristotelian definitions of God. ...


In his Metaphysics, Aristotle discusses the meaning of "being as being". Aristotle holds that "being" primarily refers to the Unmoved Movers, and assigned one of these to each movement in the heavens. Each Unmoved Mover continuously contemplates its own contemplation, and everything that fits the second meaning of "being" by having its source of motion in itself, moves because the knowledge of its Mover causes it to emulate this Mover (or should). // Metaphysics (Greek words meta = after/beyond and physics = nature) is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles and being (ontology). ... Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs; 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ...


Modern views

Process philosophy and Open Theism definition of God

In both views, God is not omnipotent in the classical sense of a coercive being. Reality is not made up of material substances that endure through time, but serially-ordered events, which are experiential in nature. The universe is characterized by process and change carried out by the agents of free will. Self-determination characterizes everything in the universe, not just human beings. God and creatures co-create. God cannot force anything to happen, but rather only influence the exercise of this universal free will by offering possibilities. See the entries on Process theology, Panentheism, and Open theism. Process theology (also known as Neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861 - 1947). ... Process philosophy is a philosophical and metaphysical system developed by Alfred North Whitehead, described in his book Whitehead was a philosopher with a neoclassical theistic point of view, and was also a logician/mathematician with a scientific point of view. ... Alfred North Whitehead Alfred North Whitehead (February 15, 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, UK – December 30, 1947, Cambridge, MA) was a British-American philosopher, physicist and mathematician who worked in logic, mathematics, philosophy of science and metaphysics. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Open theism, also known as Free will theism, is a theological movement that has arisen within Evangelical Protestant Christianity. ... Process theology (also known as Neoclassical theology) is a school of thought influenced by the metaphysical process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861 - 1947). ... Panentheism (Greek words: pan=all, en=in and Theos=God) is the view that God is immanent within all Creation and that the universe is part of God or that God is the animating force behind the universe. ... Open theism, also known as Free will theism, is a theological movement that has arisen within Evangelical Protestant Christianity. ...


Posthuman God

Similar to this theory is the belief or aspiration that humans will create a God entity, emerging from an artificial intelligence. Arthur C. Clarke, a science fiction writer, said in an interview that: It may be that our role on this planet is not to worship God, but to create him. Another SF writer, the late Issac Asimov, postulated in his story The Last Question a merger between humanity and machine intelligence that ultimately produces a deity capable of reversing entropy and subsequently initiates a new Creation trillions of years from the present era when the Universe is in the last stage of heat death. Artificial intelligence (also known as machine intelligence and often abbreviated as AI) is intelligence exhibited by any manufactured (i. ... Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (born December 16, 1917) is a British author and inventor, probably most famous for his science-fiction novel 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Isaac Asimov Isaac Asimov (c. ... The Last Question is a short story by science fiction author Isaac Asimov. ... The thermodynamic entropy S, often simply called the entropy in the context of thermodynamics, is a measure of the amount of energy in a physical system that cannot be used to do work. ... Look up Creation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Creation is the act or result of bringing something into existence. ... The heat death is a possible final state of the universe, in which it has reached maximum entropy. ...


Another variant on this hypothesis is that humanity or a segment of humanity will create or evolve into a posthuman God by itself; for some examples, see cosmotheism, transhumanism, technological singularity. Charles Darwin, father of the theory of evolution by natural selection. ... Posthuman is a term that refers to a hypothetical future being whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer human by our current standards. ... Cosmotheism can refer to: Pantheism The religious philosophy of William Luther Pierce This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Transhumanism is an emergent philosophy analysing or favouring the use of science and technology, especially neurotechnology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, to overcome human limitations and improve the human condition. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of key events in human history show an exponential trend. ...


Extraterrestrials

Some comparatively new belief systems and books portray God as Extraterrestrial life. Many of these theories hold that intelligent beings from another world have been visiting Earth for many thousands of years, and have influenced the development of our religions. Some of these books posit that prophets or messiahs were sent to the human race in order to teach morality and encourage the development of civilization. (See e.g. Rael). The existence of extraterrestrial life remains hypothetical though human beings continue to search Extraterrestrial life is life that may exist and originate outside our planet Earth. ... In Judaism, the Meslolsiah (מָשִׁיחַ Anointed one, Standard Hebrew Mašíaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew Māšîªḥ) initially meant any person who was annointed by God to do a job. ... Morality in the strictest sense of the word, deals with that which is universally regarded as right or wrong. ... A civilization or civilisation has a variety of meanings related to human society. ... Raels first published book, the basis of the Raelian movement Raëlism is the belief system promoted by the Raëlian Movement, a religious organization which believes that scientifically advanced extraterrestrials known as the Elohim (derived from a Hebrew word appearing in the Torah) created life on Earth through genetic engineering...


Phenomenological definition

The philosopher Michel Henry defines God in a phenomenological point of view. He says : « God is Life, he is the essence of Life, or, if we prefer, the essence of Life is God. Saying this we already know what is God, we know it not by the effect of a learning or of some knowledge, we don’t know it by the thought, on the background of the truth of the world ; we know it and we can know it only in and by the Life itself. We can know it only in God. » (I Am the Truth. Toward a Philosophy of Christianity). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The life is traditionally understood on an exterior point of view as an ensemble of objective properties which define the life in the biological sense of the term, that of the material body. ... Much of this article is about philosophical ideas regarding what sorts of things are called true, and the meaning of the word truth. ...


For Michel Henry, God is in himself revelation, he is the primordial Revelation that extracts every thing to nothingness, a revelation which is the pathetic self-revelation and the absolute self-enjoyment of Life. As John says, God is love, because Life loves itself in an infinite and eternal love.


Michel Henry opposes to the notion of creation, which is the creation of the world, the notion of generation of Life. The creation of the world consists in the opening of this exteriority horizon where every thing becomes visible. Whereas Life never stops to generate itself and to generate all the livings in its radical immanence, in its absolute phenomenological interiority that is without gap nor distance.


As we are generated continually by Life, as it never stops to give us life, as we never stop to be born in life by the acting power of this absolute Life, God is our Father and we are its Sons, the Sons of the living God.


Quotes

  • "I worship God as Truth only. I have not yet found Him, but I am seeking after Him" - Mahatma Gandhi
  • "The foolish reject what they see and not what they think; the wise reject what they think and not what they see." - Huang Po
  • "God does not play dice." - Albert Einstein

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Albert Einstein, by Yousuf Karsh Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist of Swiss and American citizenship, who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. ...

References

  • Karen Armstrong, A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Ballantine Books, 1994
  • Jack Miles, God : A Biography, Knopf, 1995. [1]
  • Cliff Pickover, The Paradox of God and the Science of Omniscience, Palgrave/St Martin's Press, 2001.

Headline text BITCH ... Jack Miles work has appeared in numerous national publications, including The Atlantic Monthly, The New York Times, The Boston Globe, The Washington Post, and The Los Angeles Times. ... Clifford A. Pickover is a writer in the fields of science, mathematics, and science fiction. ...

See also

. Atheism is the state either of being without theistic beliefs, or of actively believing in the non-existence of deities. ... // Agnosticism is the philosophical view that the truth values of certain claims, particularly theological claims regarding the existence of God, gods or deities, are either unknown or inherently unknowable. ... This article is in the process of being merged with Arguments against the existence of God. ... Many arguments about the existence of God have been proposed over time. ... This entry contains a discussion of how monotheistic religions deal with God and gender, and how modern feminism has influenced the theology of many religions. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Buddhism is generally regarded as a non-theistic religion. ... In traditional Buddhist cosmology, the six lower realms are six of the ten spiritual realms; these six realms compose samsara. ... The following is a list of chronological appearances of God in fiction, where appearance is defined as a physical or mental manifestation either clearly identified as God (that is, not merely a miraculous or supernatural phenomenon) or for which independent claims have been made that God is depicted (excluding metaphor). ... Natural theology (or natural religion) is theology based on reason and ordinary experience. ... Higgs boson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Transtheism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:
  • Draye, Hani (2004). Concept of God in Islam. Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  • Aish HaTorah (2003). Jewish Literacy. Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  • Preston, Gregory (2005). Seeking Divine Guidance & Concepts of God.
  • Nicholls, David (2004). DOES GOD EXIST?. Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  • shaivam.org (2004). Hindu Concept of God. Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  • Shlect, Joel (2004). The God Particle. Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2004). Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2005). God and Other Necessary Beings. Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  • Students of Shari'ah (2005). Proof Of Creator. Retrieved June 26, 2005.
  • The Freethought Zone (2000). Arguments for Atheism. Retrieved June 26, 2005.

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