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Encyclopedia > Almanac
Calendarium cracoviense, an almanac for the year 1474.
Calendarium cracoviense, an almanac for the year 1474.

An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. Astronomical data and various statistics are also found in almanacs, such as the times of the rising and setting of the sun and moon, eclipses, hours of full tide, stated festivals of churches, terms of courts, lists of all types, timelines, and more. The last surviving copy of the Almanach The Almanach Cracoviense ad annum 1474 (Cracovian Almanac for the year 1474) is a single-sheet astronomical calendar for the year 1474 and the oldest known Polish print. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article is about astronomical eclipses. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ...

Contents

Etymology

The word "almanac" was borrowed into English from the al-manakh[1]. The ultimate origin of the word is unknown[2], but both Arabic manah[3], "to reckon", and Egyptian almenichiata[4], "the supernatural rulers of the celestial bodies", have been suggested. Arabic redirects here. ...


Early almanacs

A page from the Almanac for the Hindu year 1871-72.
A page from the Almanac for the Hindu year 1871-72.

The origins of the almanac can be traced back to ancient Babylonian astronomy, when tables of planetary periods were produced in order to predict lunar and planetary phenomena.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 221 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 1731 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 221 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 1731 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Babylonian astronomy refers to the astronomy that developed in Mesopotamia, the land between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, where the ancient kingdoms of Sumer, Assyria, Babylonia and Chaldea were located. ...


The precursor to the almanac was the Hellenistic astronomical and meteorological calendar, the parapegma, an inscribed stone, the days of the month indicated by movable pegs inserted into bored holes. According to Diogenes Laertius, Parapegma was the title of a book by Democritus. Ptolemy, the Alexandrian astronomer (2nd century) wrote a treatise, Phaseis—"phases of fixed stars and collection of weather-changes" is the translation of its full title—the core of which is a parapegma, a list of dates of seasonally regular weather changes, first appearances and last appearances of stars or constellations at sunrise or sunset, and solar events such as solstices, all organized according to the solar year. With the astronomical computations were expected weather phenomena, composed as a digest of observations made by various authorities of the past. Parapegmata had been composed for centuries. Similar treatises called Zij were later composed in medieval Islamic astronomy. The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about the astronomical object. ... This article is about the star grouping. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... ZÄ«j is the generic name applied to books in Arabic, Persian, and some other languages that tabulate parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ...


Ptolemy believed that the astronomical phenomena caused the changes in seasonal weather; his explanation of why there was not an exact correlation of these events was that the physical influences of other heavenly bodies also came into play. Hence for him, weather prediction was a special division of astrology.[5] Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...


The modern almanac differs from earlier Babylonian, Ptolemaic and Zij tables in the sense that "the entries found in the almanacs give directly the positions of the celestial bodies and need no further computation", in contrast to the more common "auxillary astronomical tables" based on Ptolemy's Almagest. The earliest known almanac in this modern sense is the Almanac of Azarqueil written in 1088 by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Latinized as Azarqueil) in Toledo, al-Andalus. The work provided the true daily positions of the sun, moon and planets for four years from 1088 to 1092, as well as many other related tables. A Latin translation and adaptation of the work appeared as the Tables of Toledo in the 12th century and the Alfonsine tables in the 13th century.[6] ZÄ«j is the generic name applied to books in Arabic, Persian, and some other languages that tabulate parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. ... “Arzachel” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Gerard of Cremona edited for Latin readers the Tables of Toledo, the most accurate compilation of astronomical data ever seen in Europe at the time. ... The Alfonsine tables were astronomical tables drawn up at Toledo by order of Alfonso X in 1252 to correct the anomalies in the Ptolemaic tables; they divided the year into 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, 16 seconds. ...


After almanacs were devised, people still saw little difference between predicting the movements of the stars and tides, and predicting the future in the divination sense. Early almanacs therefore contained general horoscopes, as well as the more concrete information. In 1150 Solomon Jarchus created such an almanac considered to be among the first modern almanacs. Copies of 12th century almanacs are found in the British Museum, and in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In 1300 Petrus de Dacia created an almanac (Savilian Library, Oxford). This was the same year Roger Bacon, OFM, produced his as well. In 1327 Walter de Elvendene created an almanac and later on John Somers of Oxford, in 1380. In 1386 Nicholas de Lynne, Oxford produced an almanac. In 1457 the first printed almanac was published at Mainz, by Gutenberg. Regio-Montanus produced an almanac in 1472 (Nuremberg, 1472), which was continued in print for several centuries in many editions. In 1497 the Sheapheard’s Kalendar, translated from French (Richard Pynson) is the first English printed almanac. Richard Allestree's almanac is one of the first modern English almanacs (London ; William Stansby, 1633). In British America William Pierce of Harvard College published the first American almanac entitled, An Almanac for New England for the year 1639 Cambridge, Massachusetts. Harvard became the first center for the annual publication of almanacs with various editors including Samuel Danforth, Oakes, Cheever, Chauncey, Dudley, Foster, et alia. An almanac maker going under the pseudonym of Poor Richard, Knight of the Burnt Island began to publish [Poor Robin's Almanack] one of the first comic almanacs that parodied these horoscopes in its 1664 issue, saying "This month we may expect to hear of the Death of some Man, Woman, or Child, either in Kent or Christendom." Other noteworthy comic almanacs include those published from 1687-1702 by John Tully of Saybrook, Connecticut. The most important early American almanacs were made from 1726-1775 by Nathaniel Ames of Dedham, Massachusetts. A few years later James Franklin began publishing the Rhode-Island Almanack beginning in 1728. Five years later his brother Benjamin Franklin began publishing, Poor Richard’s Almanack from 1733-1758. The best source for American almanacs is Milton Drake, Almanacs of the United States, 2 volumes. For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... A horoscope calculated for January 1, 2000 at 12:01:00 A.M. Eastern Standard Time in New York City, New York, USA (Longitude: 074W0023 - Latitude: 40N4251). In astrology, a horoscope is a chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, the astrological aspects, and... Events March 12 - New Jersey becomes a colony of England. ...


Contemporary almanacs

Currently published almanacs such as Whitaker's Almanack have expanded their scope and contents beyond that of their historical counterparts. Modern almanacs include a comprehensive presentation of statististical and descriptive data covering the entire world. Contents also include discussions of topical developments and a summary of recent historical events. Other currently published almanacs (ca. 2006) include TIME Almanac with Information Please, World Almanac and Book of Facts, and The Old Farmer's Almanac. The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... The World Almanac and Book of Facts is a book considered to be a top reference work. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Farmers Almanac. ...


Major topics covered by almanacs (reflected by their tables of contents) include: geography, government, demographics, agriculture, economics and business, health and medicine, religion, mass media, transportation, science and technology, sport, and awards/prizes. Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... For the movement of people or objects, see transport. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Look up Award in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A prize is an award given to a person or a group of people to recognise and reward actions or achievements. ...


Modern or contemporary use of the word almanac has come to mean a chronology or time-table of events such as The Almanac of American Politics published by the National Journal, or The Almanac of American Literature, etc.. The Almanac of American Politics is a reference work published biennially by the National Journal Group. ... National Journal is a weekly magazine that provides Insight for Insiders through nonpartisan reporting on the current political environment as well as emerging political and policy trends. ...


Almanacs by Country of Publication

France

Germany Quid is a French encyclopedia, established in 1963. ...

  • Fischer Weltalmanach

United Kingdom

United States of America The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ...

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Farmers Almanac. ... The World Almanac and Book of Facts is a book considered to be a top reference work. ...

See also

For other uses, see Yearbook (disambiguation). ... This article gives a list of various almanacs. ... A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary, an important reference for information about places and place-names (see: toponomy), used in conjunction with an atlas. ... The original page 13 of the Codex Borbonicus, showing the 13th trecena of the Aztec sacred calendar. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... Pancanga (pronounced Panchanga) is the Hindu almanac, which follows traditional Vedic cosmology, and presents important astronomical data in tabulated form. ... The panjika (Bengali: ponjika) is the Hindu astrological almanac,[1] published in Assamese, Bengali and Oriya. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Bangla redirects here. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cyclopedia redirects here. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b (Glick, Livesey & Wallis 2005, p. 29)
  2. ^ Chabás, José (2000). Astronomy in the Iberian Peninsula. 
  3. ^ Dionysius Lardner (1855). The Museum of Science and Art. Walton and Maberly, 2. 
  4. ^ George W. H. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexicon (Oxford, 1961) : 78
  5. ^ Ptolemy's Astronomical Works (other than the Almagest). Retrieved on 2007-04-16.
  6. ^ (Glick, Livesey & Wallis 2005, p. 30)

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Glick, Thomas F.; Steven John Livesey & Faith Wallis (2005), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, ISBN 0415969301

Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ...

External links

  • American Almanac Collection - Ball State University Archives and Special Collections Research Center

  Results from FactBites:
 
Baseball Almanac - The Official Baseball History Site (581 words)
Baseball Almanac has dedicated itself to preserving the history of our national pastime and has rapidly grown into an interactive baseball encyclopedia filled with more than three-hundred thousand pages of in-depth baseball facts, original baseball research and baseball statistics not found anywhere on the Internet.
"Definitive, vast in its reach and scope, Baseball Almanac is a mother lode of facts, figures, anecdotes, quotations and essays focused on the national pastime.
Baseball Almanac has MORE than 300,000 pages of baseball history, MORE than 900,000 fast facts, original research from recognized experts AND material not found or seen on any other web site in the world.
ALMANAC - LoveToKnow Article on ALMANAC (568 words)
The word almanac was used by Roger Bacon (Opus Majus, 1267) for tables of the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies.
Manuscript almanacs of considerable antiquity are preserved in the British Museum and in the libraries of Oxford and Cambridge.
The first printed almanac known was compiled by Purbach, and appeared between the years 1450 and 1461; the first of importance is that of Regiomontanus, which appears to have been printed at Nuremberg in 1472.
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