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Encyclopedia > Allison Engine

The Allison Engine Company was a U.S. aircraft engine manufacturer which was acquired by Rolls-Royce plc in 1995 to become a subsidiary, Rolls-Royce Corporation. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rolls-Royce plc (LSE: RR.) (also known as Rolls-Royce Aero Engines) is the second-largest aircraft engine maker in the world, behind General Electrics GE Aircraft Engines division. ... Rolls-Royce Corporation is a major part of Rolls-Royce North America and was formerly the Allison Engine Company. ...


It is best known for the Allison V-1710 V-12 engine, which was the only high-powered U.S. liquid-cooled inline engine design to see use during World War II. In the post-war era, Allison carved out niches in early jet engines and later in turboshafts for helicopter use. Allison V-1710 The Allison V-1710 aircraft engine was the only indigenous US-developed V-12 liquid-cooled engine to see service during WWII. A sturdy and trustworthy design, it was at first overlooked for a number of applications due to supercharger problems. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a military conflict that took place between 1939 and 1945. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Turboshaft engines are a type of jet engine, differing from the similar turboprop largely in name and use -- turboshaft engines are used in helicopters, the name referring to the way the torque of the engine drives the power shaft at 90 degrees to the engine mounting. ... The Bell 206 of Canadian Helicopters Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors (propellers). ...


History

Allison started as an engine and car "hot rodding" company servicing the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Indianapolis. Its only regular production line item was steel-backed lead brushings, used as bearings in various aircraft engines. It also built various drive shafts, extensions and gear chains for high power engines, on demand. Another, smaller, business was the conversion of older Liberty engines to more powerful models, both for aircraft and marine use. Indianapolis Motor Speedway Wing and Wheel Indianapolis Motor Speedway, located in Speedway, Indiana (a separate city completely surrounded by Indianapolis) in the United States, is the second-oldest surviving automobile racing track in the world (after the Milwaukee Mile), having existed since 1909. ... The Indianapolis skyline Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana. ... General characteristics Layout V-12 Cooling water Cylinders 12 Valve type Displacement 27 litres Rotation rate 1700 rpm Power 400 hp Power (300 kW Weight 383kg The Liberty L-12 was 27 litre water-cooled 45 degree V-12 aircraft engine of 400 horsepower (300 kW). ...


In the late 1920s the U.S. Army funded the development of a series of high-power inline engines, as part of its hyper engine series, which it intended to produce on Continental Motors' production lines. Allison's manager, N.H. Gilman, decided to experiment with its own high-power cylinder design. The result was presented to the Army in 1928, which turned down the development proposal. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The hyper engine was a hypothetical aircraft engine design, an engine that would be able to deliver 1 horsepower per cubic inch (about 46 kW/L) of engine displacement. ... Continental Motors is a corporation in Mobile, Alabama, USA, that produces aircraft engines. ...


In 1929, shortly after the death of James Allison, the company was purchased by the Fisher Brothers, who instructed it to use the cylinder design for a six cylinder engine for a "family aircraft". Before work on this design had progressed very far, Fisher sold the company to General Motors, which ended development due to financial pressures of the Great Depression. Nevertheless Gilman pressed ahead with the cylinder design, building a "paper project" V-12 engine. The Army was once again uninterested, but instead suggested Allison try selling it to the US Navy. The Navy agreed to fund development of A and B models to a very limited degree for its airships, until the crash of the USS Macon in 1935, when the Navy's need for a 1,000 hp engine disappeared. Fisher Body is an automobile coachbuilder now part of General Motors. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is a United States-based automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Dorothea Langes Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age thirty-two, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, 2 November 1931 An airship is a buoyant aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... USS Macon (ZRS-5) was a rigid frame airship built and operated by the United States Navy for scouting. ...


By this point the Army had become more interested in the design, and asked Allison to continue with a new "C" model. They had few funds of their own to invest, and Allison supported much of the development out of their own pocket. The V-1710-C first flew on 14 December, 1936 in the Consolidated A-11A testbed. The V-1710-C6 successfully completed the Army 150 hour Type Test on 23 April, 1937, at 1,000 hp (750 kW), the first engine of any type to do so. By this point all of the other Army engine projects had been cancelled or withdrawn, leaving the V-1710 as the only modern inline available. It was soon found as the primary powerplant of the new generation of USAAC fighters, the P-38 Lightning, P-39 Airacobra and P-40 Warhawk. The A-11 was an attack version of the Consolidated Y1P-25. ... 1. ... The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was one of the most important American fighters of the Second World War. ... The Bell P-39 Airacobra was one of the principal fighter aircraft in service with American forces at the start of World War II. (The P-39 was at first for a short time designated XP-45. ... The Curtiss P-40 was an American fighter aircraft which first flew in 1938 and played a vital role in the crucial middle stages of World War II. Developed from the pre-war radial-engined P-36 Hawk, the P-40 became known as the Tomahawk, the Kittyhawk, and finally...


The Army had been leaning heavily towards exhaust-driven turbochargers instead of the more common mechanically-driven superchargers, feeling that their added performance more than made up for the added complexity. Thus little effort was invested in equipping the V-1710 with a reasonable supercharger, and when placed in aircraft designs like the P-39 or P-40 which lacked the room for a turbo the engine suffered tremendously at higher altitudes. It was this reason in particular that the V-1710 was later removed from the P-51 Mustang and replaced with the Rolls-Royce Merlin instead. This article describes the internal combustion engine component often known as a turbo. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower, or a centrifugal pump) is a gas compressor used to compress air into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. ... The North American P-51 Mustang was a successful long range fighter aircraft which entered service with Allied air forces in the middle years of World War II. The P-51 was used mostly as a bomber escort, in raids over Germany; it was a key factor in the defeat... The Merlin was a 12 cylinder, 60° V, 27 litre, liquid cooled piston aircraft engine built during World War II by Rolls-Royce. ...


With the need for the V-1710 winding down at the end of the war, Allison found itself with a massive production infrastructure that was no longer needed. For this reason in 1947 the Army decided to take General Electric's versions of Frank Whittle's jet engines and give them to Allison to produce instead. The main production model was GE's 4,000 lbf I-40, produced as the Allison J33. By the time production ended in 1955, Allison had produced over 7,000 J33's. The General Electric Company, or GE (NYSE: GE) is a multinational technology and services company. ... Frank Whittle speaking to employees of NASA Glenn Research Center, USA, in 1946 Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE (1 June 1907–9 August 1996) was a Royal Air Force officer who invented the jet engine. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Allison J33-A-35, photo USAF Museum The J33 was a US-produced development of Frank Whittles early Rolls-Royce Derwent, enlarged to produce dramatically more thrust, starting at 4,000 lbf and ending at 4,600 lbf with an additional low-altitude boost to 5,400 lbf with...


Allison also took over GE's axial flow engine design, the Allison J35. The J35 was the primary powerplant for the F-84 Thunderjet and F-89 Scorpion, as well as appearing on numerous prototype designs. The J35 also finished production in 1955, by which point over 14,000 had been delivered. An axial compressor is the name used in the aircraft industry to refer to a particular type of compressor used in jet engines. ... The Allison J35 was originally developed by the General Electric Company in parallel with the Whittle_based J33, and was the Air Forces first axial-flow (straight-through airflow) compressor engine. ... F-84G Thunderjet F-84F Thundersteak flown by USAF Thunderbirds The F-84 Thunderjet was an American built fighter-bomber aircraft made by the Republic Aviation Company. ... The Northrop F-89 Scorpion was an early American jet-powered all-weather interceptor. ...


Allison also started the development of a series of turboprop engines for the U.S. Navy, starting with the T38 and a "twinned" version as the T40. Eventually the Navy became interested only in the T40, but the complexities of the driveshaft arrangement doomed the engine and the project was eventually cancelled. Allison tried again with the Allison T56, basically an enlarged T38 with the power of the T40, and was eventually rewarded when this engine was selected to power the C-130 Hercules. Much larger engines were later delivered as the T406/Allison AE1107 for the V-22 Osprey and Allison AE2100, used on newer models of the C-130. A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The T56 is a military turboprop engine produced by Rolls-Royce. ... Lockheed C-130H Hercules The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop aircraft that serves as the main tactical airlifter for military forces worldwide. ... U.S. Marines jump from an Osprey. ... Developed by Allison Engine Company, now part of Rolls-Royce North America, the AE 2100 is a turboprop derivative of the T406 (AE 1007) turboshaft engine. ...


With the acquisition of Allison Rolls-Royce expanded its product line to the point where it can now offer engines in virtually all market segments, from helicopters (e.g AE 1107C-Liberty), to the largest widebody aircraft (e.g. Rolls-Royce Trent). The Rolls-Royce AE 1107C-Liberty (also known as Allison T406) is a turboshaft engine which powers the Boeing V-22 Osprey. ... Rolls-Royce Trent 900 on A380 prototype Rolls Royce Trent is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce. ...


Further reading

  • Daniel Whitney, Vee's for Victory!: The Story of the Allison V-1710 Aircraft Engine 1929-1948 ISBN 0764305611

External link

  • Annals of the Flying Tigers


Lists of Aircraft | Aircraft manufacturers | Aircraft engines | Aircraft engine manufacturers This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Piston engines Allison V-1710 Alvis Leonides Armstrong-Siddeley Puma Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah Armstrong-Siddeley Nimbus Bentley BR1 Rotary BMW 801 Bristol Aquila Bristol Centaurus Bristol Hercules Bristol Jupiter Bristol Pegasus Bristol Perseus Bristol Phoenix Bristol Taurus Bristol Titan Bristol Hydra Bristol Mercury Clerget rotary Continental... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ...


Airports | Airlines | Air forces | Aircraft weapons | Missiles | Timeline of aviation This is a list of airlines in operation. ... This is a list of Air Forces, sorted alphabetically by country. ... This is a list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ...


 
 

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