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Encyclopedia > Allied Command Operations
SHAPE Emblem

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the central command of NATO military forces. It is located at Casteau north of the Belgian city of Mons. Used with the permission of SHAPE HS. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Used with the permission of SHAPE HS. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The flag of NATO NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4, 1949. ... The central square and town hall of Mons This article is about the city in Belgium. ...


Initially SHAPE was headquarters of operational forces in the European theatre (Allied Command Europe, ACE), but from 2003 SHAPE is the headquarters of Allied Command Operations (ACO) controlling all allied operations worldwide. The former Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia was simultaneously converted into headquarters for the new Allied Command Transformation (ACT) responsible for transformation and training of NATO forces. SHAPE retained its traditional name with reference to Europe although the geographical scope of its activities were extended in 2003. The commanding officer of Allied Command Operations has also retained the title "Supreme Allied Commander Europe" (SACEUR), and continues to be a U.S. four star general with the dual-hatted role of Commander, U.S. European Command. Norfolk, Virginia, viewed from Portsmouth, across the Elizabeth River Norfolk is a city in the U.S. state of Virginia in the United States of America. ... The Commander, United States European Command (or CDRUSEUCOM) is the senior United States military officer in the U.S. European Command. ...


The main (political) headquarters of NATO is located in the Evere area of the Brussels-Capital Region about 80 km (50 miles) from SHAPE. Evere within the Brussels-Capital Region Evere is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. ... The Brussels-Capital Region (French: R gion de Bruxelles-Capitale, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, German: Region Br ssel-Hauptstadt) or Brussels Region (French: R gion Bruxelloise, Dutch: Brusselse Gewest) is one of the three regions of Belgium. ...

Contents

Structure

Allied Command Operations (ACO) is one of the two supreme commands of NATO (the other being Allied Command Transformation, ACT).


There are three main headquarters under Allied Command Operations:

  • Joint Force Command HQ Brunssum, in Brunssum, the Netherlands
  • Joint Force Command HQ Naples, in Naples, Italy
  • Joint Headquarters Lisbon, in Lisbon, Portugal

Allied Command Operations is also responsible for six "Rapidly Deployable Corps Headquarters": Brunssum is a municipality and a Netherlands. ... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... Lisbon (in Portuguese, Lisboa) is the capital and largest city of Portugal. ...

  • Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC) HQ, in Rheindalen, Germany
  • Eurocorps HQ, in Strasbourg, France
  • Rapid Deployable Italian Corps, in Milan, Italy
  • Rapid Deployable Turkish Corps HQ, in Istanbul, Turkey
  • Rapid Deployable German-Netherlands Corps HQ, in Münster, Germany
  • Rapid Deployable Spanish Corps HQ, in Valencia, Spain

In addition to this Allied Command Operations has at its disposal standing forces such as: The Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, (HQ ARRC or ARRC) was created in 1992 based on the former British I Corps. ... Eurocorps is a force which consists of up to 60,000 soldiers drawn from the armies of France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and Spain. ... City motto: – City proper (commune) Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Mayor Fabienne Keller (UMP) (since 2001) Area 78. ... Location within Italy Piazza della Scala Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese dialect: Milán) is the main city in northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed of Italian regions. ... This article is about the city. ... Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències by Santiago Calatrava, Valencia, Spain. ...

Map of Germany showing Heidelberg Castle of Heidelberg pictured from the Old Bridge Heidelberg (halfway between Stuttgart and Frankfurt) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Standing NATO Response Force Maritime Group 1 (SNMG1) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) standing maritime Immediate Reaction Forces. ... Standing NATO Response Force Maritime Group 2 (SNMG2) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standing maritime Immediate Reaction Forces. ... Standing NRF Mine Countermeasures Group 1 (SNMCMG1) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standing mine countermeasures Immediate Reaction Forces. ... Standing NRF Mine Countermeasures Group 2 (SNMCMG2) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) standing mine countermeasures Immediate Reaction Forces. ...

Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR)

The position as head of Allied Command Europe, since 2003 head of Allied Command Operations has been held by the following:

  1. General Dwight D. Eisenhower (U.S. Army): April 2, 1951, to May 30, 1952
  2. General Matthew Ridgway (U.S. Army): May 30, 1952, to July 11, 1953
  3. General Alfred Gruenther (U.S. Army): July 1, 1953, to November 20, 1956
  4. General Lauris Norstad (U.S. Air Force): November 20, 1956, to January 1, 1963
  5. General Lyman Lemnitzer (U.S. Army): January 1, 1963, to July 1, 1969
  6. General Andrew Goodpaster (U.S. Army): July 1, 1969, to December 15, 1974
  7. General Alexander Haig (U.S. Army): December 15, 1974, to July 1, 1979
  8. General Bernard Rogers (U.S. Army): July 1, 1979, to June 26, 1987
  9. General John Galvin (U.S. Army): June 26, 1987, to June 23, 1992
  10. General John Shalikashvili (U.S. Army): June 23, 1992, to October 22, 1993
  11. General George Joulwan (U.S. Army): October 22, 1993, to July 11, 1997
  12. General Wesley Clark (U.S. Army): July 11, 1997, to May 3, 2000
  13. General Joseph Ralston (U.S. Air Force): May 3, 2000, to January 17, 2003
  14. General James L. Jones (U.S. Marine Corps): January 17, 2003, to present

Note: Starting with Ridgway, all SACEUR have also simultaneously been CINCEUR. Order: 34th President Vice President: Richard Nixon Term of office: January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961 Preceded by: Harry S. Truman Succeeded by: John F. Kennedy Date of birth: October 14, 1890 Place of birth: Denison, Texas Date of death: March 28, 1969 Place of death: Washington, D.C. First... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgeway (March 3, 1895 - July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Alfred Gruenther (1899-1983), born in Platte Center, Nebraska. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lauris Norstad (1907 - 1988) GENERAL LAURIS NORSTAD Retired Dec. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Lyman Lemnitzer Lyman L. Lemnitzer (August 29, 1899 - November 12, 1988) was an American general. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Malchase David Shalikashvili (born 27 June 1936) is a retired American general who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1993 to 1997. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... George Joulwan (born 19XX) was a U.S. general. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wesley Clark Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general in the U.S. Army. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Ralston was a general of the United States Air Force. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General James L. Jones is the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR) and the Commander of the United States European Command (COMUSEUCOM). ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commander, United States European Command (or CDRUSEUCOM) is the senior United States military officer in the U.S. European Command. ...


History

SHAPE Emblem's Center

From 1951-1967 it was situated in France, at Rocquencourt, west of Paris. Following the withdrawal of France from NATO's military command, it was relocated to Mons in Belgium. Download high resolution version (1213x1600, 324 KB)SHAPE emblem This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Download high resolution version (1213x1600, 324 KB)SHAPE emblem This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the commune in the Oise département, see Rocquencourt, Oise. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... The central square and town hall of Mons This article is about the city in Belgium. ...


One of the most significant events in the history of Allied Command Europe (ACE) was France’s withdrawal from NATO’s integrated military structure. This move forced SHAPE and several other ACE headquarters to leave French territory.


In an eerie reflection of 21st century politics, the divisiveness between France and NATO’s military structure had been brewing for a number of years, as successive French governments had become increasingly incensed with what they perceived to be Anglo-American domination of the command structure and insufficient French influence throughout the command. ...


In December 1965, French President Charles de Gaulle had just been elected for the second time and France had acquired its own nuclear capability. De Gaulle's efforts to establish a Franco-British–American Security Directorate and gain some French influence over US nuclear weapons based in France had failed, and he hoped to gain a more independent role for France in order to maximise its future global influence and status. 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (November 22, 1890 – November 9, 1970), in France commonly referred to as général de Gaulle, was a French military leader and statesman. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


President de Gaulle also disagreed with the United States’ intention to replace the strategy of the so-called Massive Retaliation with Flexible Response because he believed that this meant a weakening of the US commitment to defend Europe with nuclear weapons.


As he became increasingly critical of the developments in NATO, de Gaulle described the military integration practised at SHAPE and its subordinate headquarters as obsolete and said that it was designed to ensure French subordination to US policy.


In February 1966 President de Gaulle stated that the changed world order had "stripped NATO of its justification" for military integration and that France was therefore justified in re-asserting her sovereignty over French territory. 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...


Consequently, all allied forces within France’s borders would have to come under French control by April 1969. Soon afterward, France stated that it was withdrawing from the headquarters of Allied Command Europe and that SHAPE and its subordinate headquarters Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) must leave French territory by April 1967. 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...


The allies were unsuccessful in their efforts to persuade the French government to reconsider, and France then withdrew the vast majority of its military personnel from NATO military headquarters in July 1966.


The other Allies moved quickly to find new hosts for the headquarters that would have to leave France, and they decided to move NATO’s political headquarters from French territory as well.


The Netherlands was selected to host AFCENT, and Belgium became the host nation for both NATO and SHAPE. SACEUR Lemnitzer had hoped that SHAPE could be located near to NATO Headquarters, as had been the case in Paris, but the Belgian authorities decided that SHAPE should be located at least 50 kilometres from Brussels, NATO’s new location, because SHAPE was a major wartime military target. Lyman Lemnitzer Lyman L. Lemnitzer (August 29, 1899 - November 12, 1988) was an American general. ... Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, French: Bruxelles, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium and is considered by many to be the de facto capital of the European Union, as two of its three main institutions have their headquarters...


They also said that SHAPE had to be placed on land already owned by the government in order to limit costs and construction time. The Belgian government then offered Camp Casteau, a 2 km&sup2 Belgian Army summer training camp near Mons, which was an area in serious need of additional economic investment.


To overcome SHAPE’s objections about the distance from Brussels, the Belgian government agreed to build a high-speed motorway connecting Mons and Brussels. In September 1966 NATO agreed that Belgium should host SHAPE at Casteau. 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...


Six and a half months remained before the French deadline for SHAPE to leave France would expire. A massive seven-day-a-week building programme began, co-ordinated between the Belgian central and local authorities, the building consortium and SHAPE. Highest priority was given to building command and control facilities.


SHAPE closed its facility at Rocquencourt near Paris on 30 March 1967, and the next day held a ceremony to mark the opening of the new headquarters at Casteau. SACEUR Lemnitzer called the construction effort "a miracle of achievement" and praised the Belgian authorities and workmen for their efforts to ensure that SHAPE had a new headquarters in a remarkably short time. For the commune in the Oise département, see Rocquencourt, Oise. ...


The headquarters' new home in Mons, Belgium, was the center of international attention from time to time as new Supreme Allied Commanders came and went, with one of the more notable being General Alexander M. Haig, Jr. Haig, who had retired from military service in order to serve as White House Chief of Staff for President Richard M. Nixon during the depths of the Watergate crisis, was abruptly installed as SACEUR after Watergate's denouement. General Andrew Goodpaster, the current SACEUR, was furious as he was compelled to retire early. Haig's successor, General Bernard Rogers, became somewhat of an institution in Europe as the former U.S. Army chief of staff occupied the office for nearly eight years; a brief outcry arose from the other NATO capitals when Rogers was slated for retirement by the U.S. administration in 1987. An early retirement would once again disrupt the Mons headquarters in 2000 as General Wesley Clark was shunted aside in favor of Air Force general Joseph Ralston. Although the move was publicly characterized as a purely administrative move necessitated by Clark's approaching retirement and the lack of an open four-star slot for the highly respected Ralston [a reality which would have compelled him to either accept a temporary demotion to two-star rank or retire from the service], Clark's relief--leaked to the press before he was personally informed--was plainly intended as a slap at the general on the part of a Pentagon leadership that had been very much at odds with the SACEUR during the Kosovo war the previous spring. Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... Wesley Clark Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general in the U.S. Army. ... Joseph Ralston was a general of the United States Air Force. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


See also

NATO military is divided into two commands, Atlantic and Europe. ...

External links

  • NATO main website (http://www.nato.int/)
  • SHAPE website (http://www.nato.int/shape/)
  • original SHAPE relocation article (http://www.nato.int/shape/news/2003/history/h030722.htm)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1354 words)
The former Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia was simultaneously converted into headquarters for the new Allied Command Transformation (ACT) responsible for transformation and training of NATO forces.
The commanding officer of Allied Command Operations has also retained the title "Supreme Allied Commander Europe" (SACEUR), and continues to be a U.S. four star general with the dual-hatted role of Commander, U.S. European Command.
The allies were unsuccessful in their efforts to persuade the French government to reconsider, and France then withdrew the vast majority of its military personnel from NATO military headquarters in July 1966.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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