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Encyclopedia > Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg

Allen Ginsberg (left) with his lifelong lover and friend, poet Peter Orlovsky
Born June 3, 1926(1926-06-03)
Newark, New Jersey
Died April 5, 1997 (aged 70)
Occupation poet, activist, essayist
Literary movement Beat, New American Poets, Postmodernism
Influences Neal Cassady,Jack Kerouac, Wavy Gravy, Gregory Corso, William S. Burroughs, William Blake, Walt Whitman, William Carlos Williams, Percy Shelley, John Keats, Ezra Pound, Christopher Smart, Arthur Rimbaud, Antonin Artaud, James Joyce, Jean Genet, Franz Kafka, Herman Melville, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Hart Crane, William Shakespeare
Influenced Bob Dylan, Wavy Gravy, LeRoi Jones, Robert Lowell, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Andrei Codrescu, Saul Williams, Christopher Wunderlee, Rage Against the Machine, Beau Sia, Jacob Ehrlich, Jim Morrison, Michael Savage, Bono

Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: /ˈgɪnzbɝg/) (June 3, 1926April 5, 1997) was an American poet. Ginsberg is best known for Howl (1956), a long poem about the self-destruction of his friends of the Beat Generation and what he saw as the destructive forces of materialism and conformity in the United States at the time. Image File history File linksMetadata Allen_Ginsberg_und_Peter_Orlowski_ArM.jpg‎ Bearbeitung von Image:Allen Ginsberg und Peter Orlowski. ... Peter Orlovsky (born July 8, 1933) is an American poet best known for being the lover of Beat Generation poet Allen Ginsberg. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about work. ... ... Beats redirects here. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Neal Cassady, left, with Jack Kerouac, photograph by Carolyn Cassady. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... Wavy Gravy (born Hugh Romney on May 15, 1936) is a life-long activist for peace and personal empowerment, best known for his hippie appearance, personality, and beliefs. ... Gregory Corso (illustration) Gregory Nunzio Corso (March 26, 1930 – January 17, 2001) was an American poet, the fourth member of the canon of Beat Generation writers (with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs). ... William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) - August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 - July 8, 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets. ... Keats grave in Rome (left). ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Smart Christopher Smart (April 11, 1722 – May 21, 1771) was an English poet. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Antonin Artaud Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (born September 4, 1896, in Marseille; died March 4, 1948 in Paris) was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Jean Genet (French IPA: ) (December 19, 1910) – April 15, 1986), was a prominent, controversial French writer and later political activist. ... Kafka redirects here. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Wavy Gravy (born Hugh Romney on May 15, 1936) is a life-long activist for peace and personal empowerment, best known for his hippie appearance, personality, and beliefs. ... Amiri Baraka Amiri Baraka (born October 7, 1934) is a U.S. writer. ... Robert Lowell (March 1, 1917–September 12, 1977), born Robert Traill Spence Lowell, IV, was a highly regarded mid-twentieth-century American poet. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist who first gained worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles. ... Andrei Codrescu (born December 20, 1946), born in Sibiu, Romania. ... Saul Stacey Williams (born February 29, 1972) is most known for his blend of spoken word poetry and hip-hop. ... Christopher Wunderlee is an American avant-garde poet and experimental writer. ... This article is about the American rock band. ... Beau Sia (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Born 1976, Philippines) is a Chinese Filipino-American slam poet. ... For other persons named James or Jim Morrison, see James Morrison. ... Michael Savage may refer to: Michael Savage (actor) (former star of General Hospital) professional name of Ron Jacobson [1] Michael Savage (commentator), professional name of Michael Weiner, a United States broadcaster from San Francisco, CA and a published natural health writer. ... For other uses, see Bono (disambiguation). ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Howl and Other Poems was published in the fall of 1956 as number four in the Pocket Poets Series from City Lights Books This article is about the poem by Allen Ginsberg. ... Beats redirects here. ...

Contents

Life

Early life and family

Ginsberg was born into a Jewish family in Newark, New Jersey. He grew up in nearby Paterson. His father Louis Ginsberg was a poet and a high school teacher. Ginsberg's mother, Naomi Livergant Ginsberg (who was affected by epileptic seizures and mental illnesses such as paranoia[1]) was an active member of the Communist Party and often took Ginsberg and his brother Eugene to party meetings. Ginsberg later said that his mother "Made up bedtime stories that all went something like: 'The good king rode forth from his castle, saw the suffering workers and healed them.'"[2] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ... “Paterson” redirects here. ... Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ...


As a young teenager, Ginsberg began to write letters to The New York Times about political issues such as World War II and workers' rights.[2] When he was in junior high school, he accompanied his mother by bus to her therapist. The trip disturbed Ginsberg - he mentioned it and other moments from his childhood in his long autobiographical poem "Kaddish for Naomi Ginsberg (1894-1956)."[1] While in high school, Ginsberg began reading Walt Whitman; he said he was inspired by his teacher's passion in reading. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kaddish is a poem by Beat writer Allen Ginsberg about the death of his mother Naomi in 1956. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ...


In 1943 Ginsberg graduated from Eastside High School and briefly attended Montclair State University before entering Columbia University on a scholarship from the Young Men's Hebrew Association of Paterson, (1949).[3] While at Columbia, Ginsberg contributed to the Columbia Review literary journal, the Jester humor magazine, won the Woodberry Poetry Prize and served as president of the Philolexian Society, the campus literary and debate group. Eastside High School (or EHS) is a four-year public high school in Paterson, New Jersey, United States, that serves the eastern section of Paterson. ... Montclair State University is a public university located in Montclair, Little Falls, and Clifton, New Jersey. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... A Jewish Community Center is a general recreational, social and fraternal organization serving the Jewish community in a number of cities. ... Jester of Columbia cover from April, 2006 The Jester of Columbia, or simply the Jester , is a humor magazine at Columbia University in New York City. ... The Philolexian Society of Columbia University is one of the oldest collegiate literary societies in the United States, and the oldest student group at Columbia. ...


New York Beats

In Ginsberg's freshman year at Columbia he met fellow undergraduate Lucien Carr, who introduced him to a number of future Beat writers including Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs, and John Clellon Holmes. They bonded because they saw in one another excitement about the potential of the youth of America, a potential which existed outside the strict conformist confines of post-WWII McCarthy-era America. Ginsberg and Carr talked excitedly about a "New Vision" (a phrase adapted from Arthur Rimbaud) for literature and America. Carr also introduced Ginsberg to Neal Cassady, for whom Ginsberg had a long infatuation.[4] Kerouac later described the meeting between Ginsberg and Cassady in the first chapter of his 1957 novel On the Road.[1] Kerouac saw them then as the dark (Ginsberg) and light (Cassady) side of their "New Vision." Kerouac's perception had to do partly with Ginsberg's association with Communism (though Ginsberg himself was never a Communist); Kerouac called Ginsberg "Carlo Marx" in On the Road. This was a source of strain in their relationship since Kerouac grew increasingly distrustful of Communism. Lucien Carr (March 1, 1925 – January 28, 2005) was a key figure in the Beat generation, and later an editor for UPI. Carr was a roommate of Allen Ginsberg at Columbia University in the 1940s and met Jack Kerouac through Jacks then-girlfriend Edie Parker. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) - August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... John Clellon Holmes (March 12th, 1926 - March 2nd, 1988) is best known for his 1952 book Go, which described characters such as Jack Kerouac, Neal Cassady, and Allen Ginsberg and is considered the first Beat novel. ... Neal Cassady, left, with Jack Kerouac, photograph by Carolyn Cassady. ... This article is about the novel On the Road. ...

Ginsberg (right) with life-long friend Gregory Corso

In 1948 in an apartment in Harlem, Ginsberg had an auditory hallucination of William Blake reading his poems "Ah, Sunflower," "The Sick Rose," and "Little Girl Lost" (later referred to as his "Blake vision"). Ginsberg was reading these poems at the time, and he said he was very familiar with them; at one point he claimed he heard them being read by what sounded like the voice of God but what he interpreted as the voice of Blake. He had at that moment pivotal revelations that defined his understanding of the universe. He believed that he witnessed then the interconnectedness of the universe. He looked at lattice work on the fire escape and realized some hand had crafted that; he then looked at the sky and intuited that some hand had crafted that also, or rather that the sky was the hand that crafted itself. He explained that this hallucination was not inspired by drug use, but said he sought to recapture that feeling later with various drugs.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 470 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1204 × 1536 pixel, file size: 668 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lifelong friends, Gregory Corso and Allen Ginsberg. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 470 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1204 × 1536 pixel, file size: 668 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lifelong friends, Gregory Corso and Allen Ginsberg. ... Gregory Corso (illustration) Gregory Nunzio Corso (March 26, 1930 – January 17, 2001) was an American poet, the fourth member of the canon of Beat Generation writers (with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs). ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Ah! Sunflower is a poem written by the English poet William Blake. ... The Sick Rose is a poem by William Blake, published in Songs of Experience in 1794. ...


Also in New York, Ginsberg met Gregory Corso in the Pony Stable Bar, one of New York's first openly lesbian bars. Corso, recently released from prison, was supported by the Pony Stable patrons and was writing poetry there the night of their meeting. Ginsberg claims he was immediately attracted to Corso, who was straight but understanding of homosexuality after three years in prison. Ginsberg was even more struck by reading Corso's poems, realizing Corso was "spiritually gifted." Ginsberg introduced Corso to the rest of his inner circle. In their first meeting at the Pony Stable, Corso showed Ginsberg a poem about a woman who lived across the street from him, and sunbathed naked in the window. Amazingly the woman just happened to be Ginsberg's girlfriend during one of his forays into heterosexuality. Ginsberg and Corso remained life-long friends and collaborators. Gregory Corso (illustration) Gregory Nunzio Corso (March 26, 1930 – January 17, 2001) was an American poet, the fourth member of the canon of Beat Generation writers (with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs). ...


It was also during this period that Ginsberg was romantically involved with Elise Cowen. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


San Francisco Renaissance

In 1954 in San Francisco, Ginsberg met Peter Orlovsky, (7 years his junior) with whom he fell in love and who remained his life-long lover, and with whom he eventually shared his interest in Tibetan Buddhism. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Peter Orlovsky (born July 8, 1933) is an American poet best known for being the lover of Beat Generation poet Allen Ginsberg. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ...


Also in San Francisco Ginsberg met members of the San Francisco Renaissance and other poets who would later be associated with the Beat Generation in a broader sense. Ginsberg's mentor William Carlos Williams wrote an introductory letter to San Francisco Renaissance figure head Kenneth Rexroth who then introduced Ginsberg into the San Francisco poetry scene. Ginsberg also met there three accomplished poets and Zen enthusiasts who were friends at Reed College: Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen, and Lew Welch. Kenneth Rexroth (December 22, 1905 – June 6, 1982) was an American poet, translator and critical essayist. ... For other uses, see Zen (disambiguation). ... Reed College is a private, independent liberal arts college located in Portland, Oregon. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... Philip Whalen (October 20, 1923 – June 26, 2002) was a poet and a key figure in the San Francisco Renaissance and the Beat generation. ... Lewis Barrett Welch, Jr. ...


Wally Hedrick – a painter and co-founder of the Six Gallery – approached Ginsberg in the summer of 1955 and asked him to organize a poetry reading at the Six Gallery…At first, Ginsberg refused…But once he’d written a rough draft of Howl, he changed his “fucking mind,” as he put it. [6] Ginsberg advertised the event as "Six Poets at the Six Gallery." One of the most important events in Beat mythos, known simply as "The Six Gallery reading" took place on October 7, 1955.[7] The event, in essence, brought together the East and West Coast factions of the Beat Generation. Of more personal significance to Ginsberg: that night was the first public reading of "Howl", a poem that brought world-wide fame to Ginsberg and many of the poets associated with him. An account can be found in Kerouac's novel "The Dharma Bums" of the night, describing collecting change from each audience member to buy jugs of wine, and Ginsberg reading passionately, drunken, with arms outstretched. Wally Hedrick at his home in Bodega, CA, c. ... The Six Gallery reading (also known as Gallery Six reading or Six Angels on the Same Performance) was a poetry jamming, which occured in the Six Gallery of San Francisco on October 13, 1955. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Jack Kerouac (March 12, 1922 - October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, artist, and one of the most prominent members of the Beat Generation. ... The Dharma Bums cover This is an article about the novel by Jack Kerouac. ...


Ginsberg's principal work, "Howl", is well-known to many for its opening line: "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness, starving hysterical naked." "Howl" was considered scandalous at the time of its publication due to the rawness of its language, which is frequently explicit. Shortly after its 1956 publication by San Francisco's City Lights Bookstore, it was banned for obscenity. The ban became a cause célèbre among defenders of the First Amendment, and was later lifted after Judge Clayton W. Horn declared the poem to possess redeeming social importance. City Lights Bookstore, 2007 Co-founded in 1953 by Beat poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, City Lights Bookstore and City Lights Publishers is a landmark independent bookstore and a small press publisher that specializes in world literature, the arts, and progressive politics. ... Look up cause célèbre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


Biographical references in "Howl"

Ginsberg claimed at one point that all of his work was an extended biography (like Kerouac's Duluoz Legend). Howl is not only a biography of Ginsberg's experiences before 1955, but a history of the Beat Generation. Ginsberg also later claimed that at the core of Howl was his unresolved emotions about his schizophrenic mother. Though Kaddish deals more explicitly with his mother (so explicitly that a similar line-by-line analysis would be both overly-exhaustive and relatively unrevealing), Howl in many ways is driven by that same emotion. Howl consisted of a rambling, nonsensical rant which most thought was the result of a drug hallucination. Though references in most of his poetry reveal much about his biography, his relationship to other members of the Beat Generation, and his own political views, Howl, his most famous poem, is still perhaps the best place to start. See Howl Howl and Other Poems was published in the fall of 1956 as number four in the Pocket Poets Series from City Lights Books This article is about the poem by Allen Ginsberg. ...


To Paris and the 'Beat Hotel'

In 1957, Ginsberg surprised the literary world by abandoning San Francisco and, after a spell in Morocco, he and Peter Orlovsky joined Gregory Corso in Paris. Corso introduced them to a shabby lodging house above a bar at 9 rue Gît-le-Coeur that was to become known as the Beat Hotel. They were soon joined by William Burroughs and others. It was a productive, creative time for all of them. There, Ginsberg finished his epic poem "Kaddish", Corso composed "Bomb" and "Marriage", and Burroughs (with Ginsberg and Corso's help) put together "Naked Lunch", from previous writings. This period was documented by the photographer Harold Chapman, who moved in at about the same time, and took pictures constantly of the residents of the 'hotel' until it closed in 1963. The Beat Hotel was a small, run-down hotel at 9 Rue Git-le-Coeur in the Latin Quarter of Paris. ... William S. Burroughs. ... Of his origins and early years, the photographer Harold Stephen Chapman reveals only that he was “born in Deal on a Saturday morning at 9. ...


Continuing literary activity

Though "Beat" is most accurately applied to Ginsberg and his closest friends (Corso, Orlovsky, Kerouac, Burroughs, etc.), the term "Beat Generation" has become associated with many of the other poets Ginsberg met and became friends with in the late 1950s and early 1960s. A key feature of this term seems to be a friendship with Ginsberg. (Friendship with Kerouac or Burroughs might also apply, but both writers later strove to disassociate themselves from the name "Beat Generation") Part of the dissatisfaction with the term "Beat Generation" came from the mistaken identification of Ginsberg as the leader. Ginsberg never claimed to be the leader. He did, however, claim many of the writers with whom he had become friends in this period shared many of the same intentions and themes. Some of these friends include: Bob Kaufman; LeRoi Jones before he became Amiri Baraka, who, after reading "Howl", wrote a letter to Ginsberg on a sheet of toilet paper; Diane DiPrima; poets associated with the Black Mountain College such as Robert Creeley and Denise Levertov; poets associated with the New York School such as Frank O'Hara and Kenneth Koch. the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Bob Kaufman (April 18, 1925 – January 12, 1986), born Robert Garnell Kaufman in New Orleans, Louisiana, was an American Beat poet and surrealist inspired by jazz music. ... Amiri Baraka was born Everett LeRoi Jones on October 7, 1934 in Newark, New Jersey. ... Diane di Prima (born August 6, 1934) is an American poet and one of the most active of women poets associated with the Beats. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Portrait taken in 1972 Robert Creeley (May 21, 1926 - March 30, 2005) was an American poet and author of more than sixty books. ... Denise Levertov Denise Levertov (October 24, 1923–December 20, 1997) was a British-born American poet. ... The New York School (synonymous with abstract expressionist painting) was an informal group of American poets, painters, dancers, and musicians active in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s in New York City. ... Francis Russell OHara (June 27, 1926 – July 25, 1966) was an American poet who, along with John Ashbery, James Schuyler and Kenneth Koch, was a key member of what was known as the New York School of poetry. ... Kenneth Koch (27 February 1925 - 6 July 2002) was an American poet, playwright, and professor, active from the 1950s until his death at age 77. ...

Portrait with Bob Dylan, taken in 1975

Later in his life, Ginsberg formed a bridge between the beat movement of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s, befriending, among others, Timothy Leary, Ken Kesey, Rod McKuen, and Bob Dylan. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ... Timothy Francis Leary, (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American writer, psychologist, modern pioneer and advocate of psychedelic drug research and use, and one of the first people whose remains have been sent into space. ... Kenneth Elton Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American author, best known for his novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and as a counter-cultural figure who, some consider, was a link between the beat generation of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s. ... Rod McKuen (born April 29, 1933) is a bestselling American poet, composer, and singer, instrumental in the revitalization of popular poetry that took place in the 1960s and early 1970s. ... This article is about the recording artist. ...


His Buddhism

Ginsberg's spiritual journey began early on with his spontaneous visions, and continued with an early trip to India and a chance encounter on a New York City street with Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche (they both tried to catch the same cab), a Tibetan Buddhist meditation master of the Vajrayana school, who became his friend and life-long teacher. Ginsberg helped Trungpa in founding the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at Naropa University in Boulder, Colorado. Ginsberg was also involved with Hinduism. He befriended A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the Hare Krishna movement in the Western world, a relationship that is documented by Satsvarupa Gosvami in his biographical account 'Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta'. Ginsberg donated money, materials, and his reputation to help the Swami establish the first temple, and toured with him to promote his cause. Ginsberg also claimed to be the first person on the North American continent to chant the Hare Krsna mantra. He was mourned by the Hare Krsnas upon his passing in 1997. Music and chanting were both important parts of Ginsberg's live delivery during poetry readings. He often accompanied himself on a harmonium, and was often accompanied by a guitarist. Attendance to his poetry readings was generally standing room only for most of his career, no matter where in the world he appeared. Chögyam Trungpa (February 1939 - April 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher, poet, artist, and a Trungpa tülku. ... Rinpoche (Pronunciation: rin-po-shay) is a Tibetan Buddhist religio-/theological title. ... Tibetan Buddhism, (formerly also called Lamaism after their religious gurus known as lamas), is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... A mandala used in Vajrayana Buddhist practices. ... Naropa University is a private, liberal arts university in Boulder, Colorado, which was founded in 1974 by Chögyam Trungpa. ... The City of Boulder ( , Mountain Time Zone) is a home rule municipality located in Boulder County, Colorado, United States. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (September 1, 1896–November 14, 1977) was born Abhay Charan De, in Kolkata, West Bengal. ... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas)[1]. It is believed by practitioners... A Harmonium is a free-standing musical keyboard instrument similar to a Reed Organ or Pipe Organ. ...


Death and fame

Ginsberg won the National Book Award for his book The Fall of America. In 1993, the French Minister of Culture awarded him the medal of Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres (the Order of Arts and Letters). Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and Literature) is an Order of France, established on May 2, 1957 by the Minister of Culture, and confirmed as part of lOrdre National du Mérite by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963. ...


Allen Ginsberg gave what is thought to be his last reading at The Booksmith in San Francisco on December 16, 1996. He died on April 5, 1997, surrounded by family and friends in his East Village loft in New York City. He succumbed to liver cancer via complications of hepatitis. He was 70 years old. Ginsberg continued to write through his final illness, with his last poem "Things I'll Not Do (Nostalgias)" written on March 30.[8] Booksmith in San Francisco Founded in 1976, The Booksmith is an independent bookstore located in the Haight Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ...


Ginsberg is buried in his family plot in Gomel Chesed Cemetery, one of a cluster of Jewish cemeteries at the corner of McClellan Street and Mt. Olivet Avenue near the city lines of Elizabeth and Newark, New Jersey. [9] The family plot, located toward the western edge of the cemetery at the far end of the walk from the third gate along Mt. Olivet Avenue, is marked by a large Ginsberg and Litzky stone, and Ginsberg himself and each family member have smaller markers. Though the grave itself and the cemetery are neither picturesque nor otherwise notable (Ginsberg's grave is located near the rear fence of the flat cemetery, which is in the midst of an industrial area), and it has not become a major place of pilgrimage, there is a steady trickle of visitors as indicated by a handful of stones always on his marker and the occasional book or other item left by other poets and admirers. Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ...


Controversial political activism

Ginsberg's willingness to talk about taboo subjects is what made him a controversial figure in the conservative 1950s and a significant figure in the 1960s. But Ginsberg continued to broach controversial subjects throughout the 1970s, '80s, and '90s. When explaining how he approached controversial topics, he often pointed to Herbert Huncke: he said that when he first got to know Huncke in the 1940s, Ginsberg saw that he was sick from his heroin addiction. But at the time heroin was a taboo subject, and Huncke had nowhere to go for help. Huncke on the cover of his anthology. ...


Likewise, he continuously attempted to force the world into a dialogue about controversial subjects because he thought that no change could be made in a polite silence.


Role in anti-Vietnam War protests

Ginsberg also played a key role in ensuring that a 1965 protest of the Vietnam war which took place at the Oakland-Berkeley city line and drew several thousand marchers, was not violently interrupted by the California chapter of the notorious motorcycle gang — the Hells Angels — and their leader, Sonny Barger. Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article is about the Hells Angels Motorcycle Club. ... Sonny Barger (born ?1939) is a founding member of the original Oakland, California chapter of Hells Angels, and perhaps the best-known member of the Hells Angels. ...


The day prior to the scheduled march, the Hell's Angels attacked the front line of a smaller scale protest where a confrontation between police and demonstrators was brewing. The Hell's Angels came in on motocycles and slashed banners while yelling "Go back to Russia, you fucking communists!" at the protesters. The Hell's Angels then vowed to disrupt the larger protest the next day.


Ginsberg traveled to Barger's home in Oakland to talk the situation through. It is rumored that he offered Barger and other members of the Hell's Angels LSD as a gesture of friendship and goodwill. In the end, Barger and the other Hell's Angels that were present came away deeply impressed by the courage of Ginsberg and his companion Ken Kesey. They vowed not to attack the next day's protest march and furthermore deemed Ginsberg a man who was worth helping out. “Oakland” redirects here. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ...


He was present the night of the massive Tompkins Square Park Police Riot in 1988 and provided an eyewitness account to The New York Times.[10] It was shortly after the Tompkins Square Park riots that he was involved in a fracas with the Mentofreeist group and was assaulted by its leader, Vargus Pike, who was arrested. He was later released when Ginsberg, sporting a black eye, refused to press charges. In August 1988, a riot erupted in Tompkins Square Park when police brutally attempted to enforce a newly-passed curfew for the park. ...


Relationship to Communism

He talked openly about his connections with Communism and his admiration for past heroes of Communism and the labor movement at a time in America when the Red Scare and McCarthyism were recent memories. Later he travelled to several Communist countries to promote free speech; he claimed Communist countries, China for example, welcomed him in because they thought he was an enemy of Capitalism but often turned against him when they saw him as a trouble maker. In his poem "America", written on the 17th of January, 1956 in Berkeley, a line reads 'America I used to be a communist when I was a kid I'm not sorry'. Followed directly by 'I smoke marijuana every chance I get'... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1965 Ginsberg was deported from Cuba for publicly protesting against Cuba's anti-marijuana stance and its penchant for throwing homosexuals in jail, but also for an alleged remark referring to revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara as "cute." Che Guevara Dr. Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna ( June 14, 1928¹ – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary and Cuban guerrilla leader. ...


The Cubans sent him to Czechoslovakia, where one week after being named the King of a May Day parade, Ginsberg was labeled an "immoral menace" by the Czech government because of his free expression of radical ideas and was then deported. Many important figures from Communist Bloc countries such as Vaclav Havel point to Ginsberg as an important inspiration to strive for freedom. Václav Havel [VAWTS-lav HA-vel] (born October 5, 1936) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ...


Gay rights and free speech

One contribution that is often considered his most significant and most controversial was his openness about homosexuality. Ginsberg was an early proponent of freedom for men who loved other men, having already in 1943 discovered within himself "mountains of homosexuality." He expressed this desire openly and graphically in his poetry. He also struck a note for gay marriage by listing Peter Orlovsky, his lifelong companion, as his spouse in his Who’s Who entry. Later homosexual writers saw his frank talk about homosexuality as an opening to speak more openly and honestly about something often before only hinted at or spoken of in metaphor. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Also, in writing about sexuality in graphic detail and in his frequent use of language seen as indecent he challenged — and ultimately changed — obscenity laws. He was a staunch supporter of others whose expression challenged obscenity laws (William S. Burroughs and Lenny Bruce, for example). Lenny Bruce (October 13, 1925 – August 3, 1966), born Leonard Alfred Schneider, was a controversial American stand-up comedian, writer, social critic and satirist of the 1950s and 1960s. ...


Association with NAMBLA

Ginsberg also spoke out in defense of the freedom of expression of NAMBLA.[11] Ginsberg stated "I joined NAMBLA in defense of free speech..." Ginsberg, in "Thoughts on NAMBLA," published in Deliberate Prose, elaborated on these thoughts, stating "NAMBLA's a forum for reform of those laws on youthful sexuality which members deem oppressive, (it is) a discussion society not a sex club." Ginsberg expressed the opinion that the appreciation of youthful bodies and "the human form divine" has been a common theme throughout the history of culture, "from Rome's Vatican to Florence's Uffizi galleries to New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art", and that laws regarding the issue needed to be more openly discussed. Ginsburg never addressed the data that shows that almost all homosexuals are involved in pedophilia. Ginsberg left the organization when he felt that his point on freedom of speech in America had been made. The North American Man/Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) is a U.S.-based group that calls for the elimination of age-based restrictions on sexual behavior. ...


Demystification of drugs

Ginsberg also talked often about drug use. Throughout the 1960s he took an active role in the demystification of LSD and with Timothy Leary worked to promote its common use. He was also for many decades an advocate of marijuana legalization, and at the same time warned his audiences against the hazards of tobacco in his Put Down Your Cigarette Rag (Don't Smoke): "Don't Smoke Don't Smoke Nicotine Nicotine No / No don't smoke the official Dope Smoke Dope Dope." Timothy Francis Leary, (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American writer, psychologist, modern pioneer and advocate of psychedelic drug research and use, and one of the first people whose remains have been sent into space. ...


Career

Though he had intentions to be a labor lawyer, Ginsberg wrote poetry for most of his life. Most of his very early poetry was written in formal rhyme and meter like his father or like his idol William Blake. His admiration for the writing of Jack Kerouac inspired him to take poetry more seriously. Though he took odd jobs to support himself, in 1955 upon the advice of a psychiatrist Ginsberg dropped out of the working world to devote his entire life to poetry. Soon after, he wrote "Howl," a poem which brought him and his friends much fame and allowed him to live as a professional poet for the rest of his life.


Inspiration from friends

Since Ginsberg's poetry is intensely personal, and since much of the vitality of those associated with the beat generation comes from mutual inspiration, much credit for style, inspiration, and content can be given to Ginsberg's friends. Beats redirects here. ...


Ginsberg claimed throughout his life that his biggest inspiration was Kerouac's concept of Spontaneous Prose. He believed literature should come from the soul without conscious restrictions. However, Ginsberg was much more prone to revise than Kerouac. For example, when Kerouac saw the first draft of "Howl" he disliked the fact that Ginsberg had made editorial changes in pencil (transposing "negro" and "angry" in the first line, for example). Kerouac only wrote out his concepts of Spontaneous Prose at Ginsberg's insistence because Ginsberg wanted to learn how to apply the technique to his poetry.


An important figure when considering inspiration for "Howl" is Carl Solomon. The full title is "Howl for Carl Solomon." Solomon was a Dada and Surrealism enthusiast (he introduced Ginsberg to Artaud) who suffered bouts of depression. Solomon wanted to commit suicide, but he thought a form of suicide appropriate to dadaism would be to go to a mental institution and demand a lobotomy. The institution refused, giving him many forms of therapy, including electroshock therapy. Much of the final section of the first part of "Howl" is a description of this. Carl Solomon was a friend of Allen Ginsberg, who met him in a mental institution. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Max Ernst. ... Antonin Artaud (September 4, 1896–March 4, 1948) was a playwright, actor, and director. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity for therapeutic effect. ...


Ginsberg used Solomon as an example of all those ground down by the machine of "Moloch." Moloch, to whom the second section is addressed, is a Levantine god to whom children were sacrificed. Ginsberg may have gotten the name from the Kenneth Rexroth poem "Thou Shalt Not Kill," a poem about the death of one of Ginsberg's heroes, Dylan Thomas. But Moloch is mentioned a few times in the Torah and references to Ginsberg's Jewish background are not infrequent in his work. Ginsberg said the image of Moloch was inspired by peyote visions he had of the Francis Drake Hotel in San Francisco which appeared to him as a skull; he took it as a symbol of the city (not specifically San Francisco, but all cities). Moloch has subsequently been interpreted as any system of control, including the conformist society of post-World War II America focused on material gain, which Ginsberg frequently blamed for the destruction of all those outside of societal norms. Molech Moloch, Molech or Molekh, representing Hebrew מלך mlk, (translated directly into king) is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Binomial name (Lem. ...


He also made sure to emphasize that Moloch is a part of all of us: the decision to defy socially created systems of control — and therefore go against Moloch — is a form of self-destruction. Many of the characters Ginsberg references in "Howl", such as Neal Cassady and Herbert Huncke, destroyed themselves through excessive substance abuse or a generally wild lifestyle. The personal aspects of "Howl" are perhaps as important as the political aspects. Carl Solomon, the prime example of a "best mind" destroyed by defying society, is associated with Ginsberg's schizophrenic mother: the line "with mother finally ******" comes after a long section about Carl Solomon, and in Part III, Ginsberg says "I'm with you in Rockland where you imitate the shade of my mother." Ginsberg later admitted that the drive to write "Howl" was fueled by sympathy for his ailing mother, an issue which he was not yet ready to deal with directly. He dealt with it directly with 1959's "Kaddish."


Inspiration from mentors and idols

Ginsberg's poetry was strongly influenced by Modernism (specifically Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, Hart Crane, and most importantly William Carlos Williams), Romanticism (specifically Percy Shelley and John Keats), the beat and cadence of jazz (specifically that of bop musicians such as Charlie Parker), and his Kagyu Buddhist practice and Jewish background. He considered himself to have inherited the visionary poetic mantle handed down from the English poet and artist William Blake, and the American poet Walt Whitman. The power of Ginsberg's verse, its searching, probing focus, its long and lilting lines, as well as its New World exuberance, all echo the continuity of inspiration which he claimed. This article is about the art form. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... BOP or bop may refer to: bleeding on probing (used by Captain Jack) balance of payments an organised party or club night at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford Bebop, an early modern jazz developed in the 1940s Blowout preventer used in oil and gas drilling acronym for bird of... Charles Bird Parker, Jr. ... The Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་; Wylie: Bka-brgyud) school, also known as the Oral Lineage and the Spotless Practice Lineage school, is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the other three being Nyingma (Rnying-ma), Sakya (Sa-skya), and Gelug (Dge-lugs). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


He studied poetry under William Carlos Williams, who was then in the middle of writing his epic poem Paterson about the industrial city near his home. Ginsberg, after attending a reading by Williams, sent the older poet several of his poems and wrote an introductory letter. Most of these early poems were rhymed and metered and included archaic pronouns like "Thee." Williams hated the poems. He told Ginsberg later, "In this mode perfection is basic, and these poems are not perfect." Paterson is a poem by influential modern American poet William Carlos Williams. ...


Though he hated the early poems, Williams loved the exuberance in Ginsberg's letter. He included the letter in a later part of Paterson. He taught Ginsberg not to emulate the old masters but to speak with his own voice and the voice of the common American. Williams taught him to focus on strong visual images, in line with Williams' own motto "No ideas but in things." His time studying under Williams led to a tremendous shift from the early formalist work to the brilliance of his later work. Early breakthrough poems include "Bricklayer's Lunch Hour" and "Dream Record."


Carl Solomon introduced him to Antonin Artaud ("To Have Done with the Judgement of God" and "Van Gogh: The Man Suicided by Society"), and Jean Genet (Our Lady of the Flowers). Philip Lamantia introduced him to other Surrealists and Surrealism continued to be an influence (for example, sections of Kaddish were inspired by Andre Breton's "Free Union"). Ginsberg claimed that the anaphoric repetition of "Howl" and other poems was inspired by Christopher Smart in such poems as Jubilate Agno. Ginsberg claims other more traditional influences, such as: Franz Kafka, Herman Melville, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Edgar Allan Poe, and even Emily Dickinson. Philip Lamantia (October 23, 1927-March 7, 2005) was a United States poet and lecturer. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... Andr Breton (February 18, 1896 - September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and Surrealist theoretician. ... Kafka redirects here. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, IPA: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Emily Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet. ...


Ginsberg also made an intense study of haiku and the paintings of Paul Cezanne from which he adapted a concept important to his work, which he called the "Eyeball Kick." He noticed in viewing Cezanne's paintings that when the eye moved from one color to a contrasting color, the eye would spasm, or "kick." Likewise, he discovered that the contrast of two seeming opposites was a common feature in haiku. Ginsberg used this technique in his poetry, putting together two starkly dissimilar images: something weak with something strong, an artifact of high culture with an artifact of low culture, something holy with something unholy. The example Ginsberg most often used was "hydrogen jukebox" (which later became the title of an opera he wrote with Philip Glass). Another example is Ginsberg's observation on Bob Dylan during his hectic and intense 1966 electric tour, fuelled by a cocktail of amphetamines, opiates, alcohol, and psychedelics, as a 'Dexedrine Clown'. The phrases "eyeball kick" and "hydrogen jukebox" both show up in "Howl" as well as a direct quote from Cezanne: "Pater Omnipitens Aeterna Deus." For the operating system, see Haiku (operating system). ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ... A saccade is a fast movement of an eye, head, or other part of an animals body or of a device. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Dextroamphetamine (also known as dextroamphetamine sulfate, dexamphetamine, dexedrine, Dexampex, Ferndex, Oxydess II, Robese, Spancap #1, and, informally, Dex), a stereoisomer of amphetamine, is an indirect-acting stimulant that releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, thus promoting nerve impulse transmission. ...


Style and technique

From the study of his idols and mentors and the inspiration of his friends — not to mention his own experiments — Ginsberg developed an individualistic style that's easily identified as Ginsbergian. This means he really couldn't do anything more than just spew out nonsense, which for some reason, left-wing intellectuals, pretending to be more knowledgeable than the masses, adored. Howl came out during a potentially hostile literary environment less welcoming to poetry outside of tradition; there was a renewed focus on form and structure among academic poets and critics partly inspired by New Criticism (see "Open Form vs. Closed Form" in the Beat Generation section). Consequently, Ginsberg often had to defend his choice to break away from traditional poetic structure, often citing Williams, Pound, and Whitman as precursors. Ginsberg's style may have seemed to critics chaotic or unpoetic, but to Ginsberg it was an open, ecstatic expression of thoughts and feelings that were naturally poetic. He believed strongly that traditional formalist considerations were archaic and didn't apply to reality. Though some, Diana Trilling for example, have pointed to Ginsberg's occasional use of meter (for example the anapest of "who came back to Denver and waited in vain"), Ginsberg denied any intention toward meter and claimed instead that meter follows the natural poetic voice, not the other way around; he said, as he learned from Williams, that natural speech is occasionally dactylic, so poetry that imitates natural speech will sometimes fall into a dactylic structure but only ever accidentally. Like Williams, Ginsberg's line breaks were often determined by breath: one line in Howl, for example, should be read in one breath. Ginsberg claimed he developed such a long line because he had long breaths (saying perhaps it was because he talked fast, or he did yoga, or he was Jewish). The long line could also be traced back to his study of Walt Whitman; Ginsberg claimed Whitman's long line was a dynamic technique few other poets had ventured to develop further. Whitman is often compared to Ginsberg because they both had sexual interests in men. They had very different politics, Whitman being a nationalist and Ginsberg demonstratively anti-nationalist. New Criticism was the dominant trend in English and American literary criticism of the early twentieth century, from the 1920s to the early 1960s. ...


Many of his early long line experiments contain some sort of anaphoric repetition or repetition of a "fixed base" (for example "who" in Howl, "America" in "America"), and this has become a recognizable feature of Ginsberg's style. However, he said later this was a crutch because he lacked confidence in his style; he didn't yet trust "free flight." In the 60s, after employing it in some sections of Kaddish ("caw" for example) he, for the most part, abandoned the anaphoric repetition. In rhetoric, anaphora (from the Greek ναφορά, carrying back) is the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of several consecutive sentences or verses to emphasize an image or a concept. ...


Several of his earlier experiments with methods for formatting poems as a whole become regular aspects of his style in later poems. In the original draft of Howl each line is in a "stepped triadic" format reminiscent of Williams (see "Ivy Leaves," for example). He abandoned the "stepped triadic" when he developed his long line, but the stepped lines showed up later, most significantly in the travelogues of The Fall of America. Howl and Kaddish, arguably his two most important poems, are both organized as an inverted pyramid, with larger sections leading to smaller sections. In "America" he experimented with a mix of longer and shorter lines.


Ginsberg called one of his favorite techniques the "eyeball kick" or the "ellipse"; it is a paratactical juxtaposition of two starkly dissimilar images. The line in Howl starting "who were burned alive in their innocent flannel suits on Madison Avenue" contains several examples of eyeball kicks, such as "mustard gas of sinister intelligent editors." The eyeball kick is not only a way to describe the juxtaposition of words, but the structure of poems as a whole and the flow of ideas within poems, the shift between each section of Howl for example. In the following selection "yellow shadow" is an example of an eyeball kick, and the last line of the selection is an example of the haiku-like paratactical shift common in Ginsberg's poetry.


"Lightning's blue glare fills Oklahoma plains, the train rolls east casting yellow shadow on grass Twenty years ago approaching Texas, I saw sheet lightning cover Heaven's corners... An old man catching fireflies on the porch at night watched the Herd Boy cross the Milky Way to meet the Weaving Girl... How can we war against that?" (From Iron Horse, 1972)


Ginsberg also commonly employed catachresis. For example, from Howl: "secret gas station solipsisms of johns" is perhaps designed to make solipsism (a noun used as a verb here) sound like a sexual act. Another example is "what peaches and what penumbra" from "Supermarket in California" is perhaps designed to make penumbra seem like a fruit or like something you can buy in a supermarket. Catachresis (from Greek ), which literally means the incorrect or improper use of a word -- such as using the word decimate (e. ... Solipsism (Latin: solus, alone + ipse, self) is the philosophical idea that My mind is the only thing that I know exists. Solipsism is an epistemological or metaphysical position that knowledge of anything outside the mind is unjustified. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Umbra. ...


Popular culture

  • Ginsberg was portrayed by David Cross in the 2007 Bob Dylan biopic I'm Not There.
  • July 17th, 2007 - The Life and Times of Allen Ginsberg is due to be released on DVD with the 84 minute feature and 6 hours of extra interviews and features.
  • Give Peace A Chance by John Lennon makes a reference to Allen Ginsberg
  • In 1981, Ginsberg recorded his poem "Birdbrain" with the Denver punk band, The Gluons.
  • In 1982, he was featured on "Ghetto Defendant", a song by The Clash, on their album "Combat Rock".
  • In a June 1981 concert by The Clash at Bond's Casino in New York City, Ginsberg sang his poem "Capital Air" set to music.
  • Rage Against the Machine performed "Hadda be Playin' on a Jukebox", a poem of Ginsberg's, at a live concert. The song is available on their "Live & Rare" album, released in 1998 and as a 'B side' on their Bulls on Parade CD single released in 1996.
  • Ginsberg recites "When the Light Appears Boy," on the 1997 Cornershop album "When I Was Born for the 7th Time".
  • Natalie Merchant's song "King of May" (from her 1998-album Ophelia) is a tribute to Allen Ginsberg.
  • In 1996, Ginsberg played a leading role as an actor in the John Moran opera, "Mathew in the School of Life", and went on to record a song on Moran's 2nd album, "Meet the Locusts"
  • Ginsberg himself appeared in the background in the short film made by Bob Dylan for his song Subterranean Homesick Blues.
  • He released an album entitled New York Blues: Rags Ballads and Harmonium Songs on which he sings and plays harmonium. He also released a single called Ballad of the Skeletons with music by Philip Glass and Paul McCartney playing guitar.
  • On the album Death of a Ladies' Man by Leonard Cohen, Ginsberg and Bob Dylan sing back-up on the song Don't Go Home with Your Hard-on.
  • The book Illuminated Poems is a collaboration between Ginsberg and painter, Eric Drooker.
  • He is mentioned in the track 'Hotel Beat' by the Lounge Band 'Gare du Nord' in connection with the Beat Hotel in Paris.
  • Folk-rock group The Mammals performed his poem "Lay Down Yr Mountain" on their CD titled Rock That Babe.
  • Irish pop-alternative band Oppenheimer wrote a song for their self-titled album entitled "Allen Died, April 5."
  • Appeared as an interviewee in No Direction Home, the 2005 documentary on Bob Dylan by Martin Scorsese.
  • Ginsberg thrilled hundreds of young Czechs and ex-pats during his reading and question period at the Cafe Nouveau in the Obecni dum in 1994 shortly after the break-up of Czechoslovakia

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... David Cross (born April 4, 1964) is an Emmy-winning American comedian, writer and actor. ... A biographical film or biopic is a film about a particular person or group of people, based on events that actually happened. ... Im Not There is a biographical film reflecting the life of musician Bob Dylan. ... Give Peace a Chance was a song written by John Lennon and originally credited to Lennon-McCartney (John Lennon and Paul McCartney). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combat Rock is a 1982 album released by The Clash. ... This article is about the American rock band. ... Hadda be Playin on a Jukebox is a poem written by Allen Ginsberg in 1975. ... For the KoRn album, see Live And Rare. ... In recorded music, the terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 7 inch vinyl records on which singles were released beginning in the 1950s. ... Bulls on Parade is a song released by Rage Against the Machine in 1996, and can be found on their second album Evil Empire. ... A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. ... Cornershop is a British indie band formed in Leicester in 1992 by Wolverhampton-born Tjinder Singh (singer, songwriter, and dholaki player), his brother Avtar Singh (bass guitar, vocals), David Chambers (drums) and Ben Ayres (guitar, keyboards, and tamboura), the first three having previously been members of Preston-based band General... When I Was Born for the 7th Time is a 1997 album by Cornershop. ... Natalie Anne OShea Merchant (born October 26, 1963 in Jamestown, New York, U.S.) is a professional musician. ... Ophelia is the title of a 1998 album, film, and song by Natalie Merchant. ... John Moran is an American composer, author and choreographer. ... Subterranean Homesick Blues is a song written by Bob Dylan originally released on the album Bringing It All Back Home in 1965. ... Death of a Ladies Man was the fifth and most controversial of Leonard Cohens albums. ... Leonard Norman Cohen, CC (born September 21, 1934 in Westmount, Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet and novelist. ... Eric Drooker (born 1958 in New York City) is an American painter and graphic novelist. ... The Mammals are a modern folk-rock band based in Hudson Valley, NY, USA. The current band members are Michael Merenda Jr. ... For other uses, see No direction home (disambiguation). ... Martin Marcantonio Luciano Scorsese (IPA: AmE: ; Ita: []) (born November 17, 1942) is an American film director, writer and producer and founder of the World Cinema Foundation. ...

See also

The Fugs second album (1966) The Fugs was a band formed in New York City in 1965 by Ed Sanders and Tuli Kupferberg, with Ken Weaver on drums. ... Subsequent to San Franciscos Human Be-In, and a prelude to the Summer of Love, thousands gathered in Central Parks Sheep Meadow on Easter Sunday, March 26, 1967. ... The Life and Times of Allen Ginsberg is a 1993 film by Jerry Aronson chronicling the poet Allen Ginsbergs life from his birth and early childhood to his thoughts about death at the age of 66. ... Allen Ginsberg Live in London Allen Ginsberg Live in London is a film by Steve Teers of Allen Ginsberg reading his poetry live on stage and singing and performing a Tibetan meditation in London on 19 October 1995. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c Charters, Ann. Allen Ginsberg's Life. Modern American Poetry website. Retrieved on 2005-10-20.
  2. ^ a b Jones, Bonesy. Biographical Notes on Allen Ginsberg. Biography Project. Retrieved on 2005-10-20.
  3. ^ Ginsberg obit. New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-04-01.
  4. ^ Barry Gifford, ed., As Ever: The Collected Correspondence of Allen Ginsberg & Neal Cassady.
  5. ^ Miles, Barry. Ginsberg: A Biography. London: Virgin Publishing Ltd. (2001), paperback, 628 pages, ISBN 0-7535-0486-3
  6. ^ Jonah Raskin, American Scream: Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl” and the Making of the Beat Generation.
  7. ^ Siegel, Robert. Birth of the Beat Generation: 50 Years of 'Howl'. Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
  8. ^ Allen Ginsberg, Collected Poems 1947-1997, p.1160-1
  9. ^ "Sometimes the Grave Is a Fine and Public Place", New York Times, March 28, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-08-21. “New Jersey is, indeed, a home of poets. Walt Whitman's tomb is nestled in a wooded grove in the Harleigh Cemetery in Camden. Joyce Kilmer is buried in Elmwood Cemetery in New Brunswick, not far from the New Jersey Turnpike rest stop named in his honor. Allen Ginsberg may not yet have a rest stop, but the Beat Generation author of Howl is resting at B'Nai Israel Cemetery in Newark.” 
  10. ^ "Melee in Tompkins Sq. Park: Violence and Its Provocation," by Todd Purdham, The New York Times, August 14, 1988, Section 1; Part 1, Page 1, Column 4; Metropolitan Desk
  11. ^ Jacobs, Andrea (2002). Allen Ginsberg's advocacy of pedophilia debated in community.. Intermountain Jewish News. Retrieved on 2007-09-17.

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Bibliography

  • Howl and Other Poems (1956)
  • Kaddish and Other Poems (1961)
  • Reality Sandwiches (1963)
  • The Yage Letters (1963) – with William S. Burroughs
  • Planet News (1968)
  • First Blues: Rags, Ballads & Harmonium Songs 1971 - 1974 (1975), ISBN 0-916190-05-6
  • The Gates of Wrath: Rhymed Poems 1948–1951 (1972)
  • The Fall of America: Poems of These States (1973)
  • Iron Horse (1972)
  • Mind Breaths (1978)
  • Plutonian Ode: Poems 1977–1980 (1982)
  • Collected Poems 1947–1980 (1984)
    Republished with later material added as Collected Poems 1947-1997, New York, Harper Collins, 2006
  • White Shroud Poems: 1980–1985 (1986)
  • Cosmopolitan Greetings Poems: 1986–1993 (1994)
  • Howl Annotated (1995)
  • Illuminated Poems (1996)
  • Selected Poems: 1947–1995 (1996)
  • Death and Fame: Poems 1993–1997 (1999)
  • Deliberate Prose 1952–1995 (2000)

Further Reading Image File history File links Ginsberg-sm-sm. ... Reality Sandwiches is a book of poetry by Allen Ginsberg published by City Lights Publishers. ... Mid-1990s City Lights Books edition. ... Planet News is a book of poetry written by Allen Ginsberg and published by City Lights. ... Iron horse can be: A locomotive A worldwide network of FLR-9 antennas used for SIGINT purposes during the Cold war A nickname for Lou Gehrig A 1966 U.S. television series. ... Mind Breaths is a book of poetry by Allen Ginsberg published by City Lights Publishers. ... White Shroud Poems: 1980–1985 is an Allen Ginsburg book of poetry written in 1986. ... Deliberate Prose - Essays 1952 to 1995 Deliberate Prose is a collection of essays penned by Allen Ginsberg between the years 1952 to 1995. ...

  • Bullough, Vern L. "Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context." Harrington Park Press, 2002. pp 304-311.
  • Charters, Ann (ed.). The Portable Beat Reader. Penguin Books. New York. 1992. ISBN 0-670-83885-3 (hc); ISBN 0140151028 (pbk)
  • Clark, Thomas. "Allen Ginsberg." Writers at Work — The Paris Review Interviews. 3.1 (1968) pp.279-320.
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Allen Ginsberg FBI File. 2007.
  • Gifford, Barry (ed.). As Ever: The Collected Letters of Allen Ginsberg & Neal Cassady. Berkeley: Creative Arts Books (1977).
  • Podhoretz, Norman. "At War with Allen Ginsberg," in Ex-Friends (Free Press, 1999), 22-56. ISBN0-684-85594-1.
  • Miles, Barry. Ginsberg: A Biography. London: Virgin Publishing Ltd. (2001), paperback, 628 pages, ISBN 0-7535-0486-3
  • Hrebeniak, Michael. Action Writing: Jack Kerouac's Wild Form, Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2006.
  • Raskin, Jonah. American Scream: Allen Ginsberg's Howl and the Making of the Beat Generation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. ISBN 0-520-24015-4
  • Schumacher, Michael (ed.). Family Business: Selected Letters Between a Father and Son. Bloomsbury (2002), paperback, 448 pages, ISBN 1-58234-216-4
  • Schumacher, Michael. Dharma Lion: A Biography of Allen Ginsberg. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
  • Trigilio, Tony. "Strange Prophecies Anew": Rereading Apocalypse in Blake, H.D., and Ginsberg. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2000. ISBN 0838638546.
  • Trigilio, Tony. Allen Ginsberg's Buddhist Poetics. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007. ISBN 0809327554
  • Tytell, John. Naked Angels: Kerouac, Ginsberg, Burroughs. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1976. ISBN 1-56663-683-3
  • Warner, Simon (ed.). Howl for Now: A 50th anniversary celebration of Allen Ginsberg's epic protest poem. West Yorkshire, UK: Route (2005), paperback, 144 pages, ISBN 1-901927-25-3

Jonah Raskin (born: January 3, 1942), an American writer who left an East Coast university teaching position to participate in the 1970’s radical counterculture as a free-lance journalist, returned to the academy in California in the 1980’s to write probing studies of Abbie Hoffman and Allen Ginsberg...

External links

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Persondata
NAME Ginsberg, Allen
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ginsberg, Irwin Allen
SHORT DESCRIPTION poet, activist, essayist
DATE OF BIRTH June 3, 1926
PLACE OF BIRTH Newark, New Jersey
DATE OF DEATH April 5, 1997
PLACE OF DEATH New York City

  Results from FactBites:
 
Allen Ginsberg (622 words)
Allen was born in 1926 and grew up in Patterson, New Jersey, right across the Hudson River from New York City.
His mother, Naomi, was diagnosed as a schizophrenic, and even though Ginsberg was only a child, it would often fall upon him to care for her.
Ginsberg got caught up in all the sex, drugs, and creativity that the beat generation seemed to espouse and surround itself with.
Allen Ginsberg - Poems, Biography, Quotes (104 words)
Ginsberg, Allen (3 June 1926-6 Apr. 1997), poet, was born in Newark, New Jersey, the younger son of Louis Ginsberg, a high school English teacher and poet, and Naomi Levy Ginsberg.
Ginsberg grew up with his older brother Eugene in a household shadowed by his mother's mental illness; she suffered from recurrent epileptic seizures and paranoia.
An active member of the Communist Party-USA, Naomi Ginsberg took her sons to meetings of the radical left dedicated to the cause of international Communism..
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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