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Encyclopedia > Allan Pinkerton
Portrait of Allan Pinkerton from Harper's Weekly, 1884
Portrait of Allan Pinkerton from Harper's Weekly, 1884

Allan Pinkerton (August 25, 1819July 1, 1884) was a U.S. detective and spy, best known for creating the Pinkerton Agency, the first detective agency of the United States. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (769x973, 171 KB) Summary Source image:http://memory. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (769x973, 171 KB) Summary Source image:http://memory. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Gumshoe redirects here. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The Pinkerton National Detective Agency was a security guard agency established in the United States in 1850 by Allan Pinkerton. ...

Contents

Early life and career

Pinkerton was born in Glasgow, Scotland, to William Pinkerton and his wife Isabell, in 1819. The location of the house where he was born is now occupied by the Glasgow Central Mosque. A cooper by trade, he was active in the Chartist movement as a young man. Pinkerton married Joan Carfrae ( a singer) secretly before coming to america. Disillusioned by the failure to win universal suffrage, Pinkerton emigrated to the United States in 1842, at the age of 23. In 1849 Pinkerton was appointed as the first detective in Chicago. In the 1850s, he partnered with Chicago attorney Edward Rucker in forming the North-Western Police Agency, later known as the Pinkerton's National Detectrive Agency which is still running till this day. Pinkerton's business insignia was a wide open eye with the caption "We never sleep." As the United States expanded in territory, rail transportation increased. Pinkerton's agency solved a series of train robberies during the 1850s, bringing Pinkerton first into contact with George McClellan and Abraham Lincoln For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Glasgow Central Mosque is one of the biggest Sunni mosques in Glasgow, and one of the largest in Glasgow // At present there are three Imams: Maulana Abdul-Ghafoor Esfandarani, Maulana Habib-ur-Rahman mousavi and Maulana Umar. ... Assembly of a barrel in progress A cooper readies, or rounds off, the end of a barrel using a coopers hand adze at the Van Ryn Brandy Cellar near Stellenbosch, South Africa Traditionally, a cooper is someone who makes wooden staved vessels of a conical form, of greater length than... Chartism was a movement for political and social reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century between 1838 and 1848. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquisitions within the continental United States. ... Train robbery was a crime that occurred mainly in the middle-to-late 19th century. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


Civil War

Pinkerton (left) with Abraham Lincoln
Pinkerton (left) with Abraham Lincoln

Prior to his service with the Union Army, he developed several investigative techniques that are still used today. Among them are "shadowing" (surveillance of a suspect) and "assuming a role" (undercover work). Following the outbreak of the Civil War, Pinkerton served as head of the Union Intelligence Service in 1861–62 and foiled an alleged assassination plot in Baltimore, Maryland, while guarding Abraham Lincoln on his way to his inauguration. His agents often worked undercover as Confederate soldiers and sympathizers, in an effort to gather military intelligence. Pinkerton served several undercover missions under the alias of Major E.J. Allen. Pinkerton was succeeded as Intelligence Service chief by Lafayette Baker. The Intelligence Service was the forerunner of the U.S. Secret Service. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2553x3570, 4712 KB) Allan Pinkerton, President Abraham Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2553x3570, 4712 KB) Allan Pinkerton, President Abraham Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... Look up Undercover in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Baltimore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Inauguration Day 2005 of President George W. Bush on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Lafayette Baker (October 13, 1826 – July 3, 1868) was a United States investigator and spy, serving particularly in the Union Army, during the American Civil War and under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Counter Assault Team. ...


Postbellum

Following Pinkerton's service with the Union Army, he continued his pursuit of train robbers and also sought to oppose labor unions. In 1872, the Spanish Government hired Pinkerton to help suppress a revolution in Cuba which intended to end slavery and give citizens the right to vote.[1] Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but are strongest among public sector employees such as teachers and police. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Spain in the... Combatants Cuba Spain Commanders Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Máximo Gómez Antonio Maceo Grajales Arsenio Martínez Campos Strength 12,000 rebels  ?? Casualties +300,000 rebels and civilian  ?? The Ten Years War, (Guerra de los Diez Años) (also known as the Great War) began on October 10...


Pinkerton died in Chicago, Illinois, on July 1, 1884, as a result of infection after biting his tongue when he slipped on a sidewalk. At the time of his death, he was working on a system that would centralize all criminal identification records, a database now maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...

Pinkerton on horseback on the Antietam Battlefield in 1862.
Pinkerton on horseback on the Antietam Battlefield in 1862.

Pinkerton is buried in Graceland Cemetery, Chicago. He is a member of the Military Intelligence Hall of Fame. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Graceland Cemetery is a large Victorian-era cemetery located in the north side community area of Uptown, in the city of Chicago, Illinois, USA. Established in 1860, its main entrance is at Clark and Irving Park. ... The Military Intelligence Hall of Fame is a Hall of Fame established by the Military Intelligence Corps of the U.S. Army to honor soldiers and civilians who have made exceptional contributions to Military Intelligence. ...


Legacy

After his death, the agency continued to operate and soon became a major force against the young labor movement developing in the United States and Canada. This effort tarnished the image of the Pinkertons for years. They were involved in numerous activities against labor during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including: The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ...

Many labor sympathizers accused the Pinkertons of inciting riots as a means of keeping employment or for other nefarious purposes.[citation needed] The Pinkertons' reputation was harmed by the organization's protection of replacement workers and business property of the major industrialists, including Andrew Carnegie. The Homestead Strike was a labor lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. ... Pullman Strike began on May 11, 1894. ... Front row left to right: Harry A. Longabaugh, alias the Sundance Kid, Ben Kilpatrick, alias the Tall Texan, Robert Leroy Parker, alias Butch Cassidy; Standing- Will Carver, alias News Carver & Harvey Logan, alias Kid Curry; Fort Worth, Texas, 1901. ... Ludlow massacre monument The Ludlow massacre was the death of about 20 people during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families, at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914. ... The LaFollette Civil Liberties Committee, or more formally, Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee Investigating Violations of Free Speech and the Rights of Labor (1936-1941), began as an inquiry into a National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) investigation of methods used by employers in certain industries to avoid collective bargaining... Andrew Carnegie (last name pronounced , )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel. ...


In popular culture

  • Pinkerton was so famous that for decades after his death, the word Pinkerton was a slang term for a private eye. Due to the Pinkerton Agency's conflicts with labor unions, the word Pinkerton remains in the vocabulary of labor organizers and union members as a derogatory reference to authority figures who side with management (in the opinion of the union).
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, in his novel The Valley of Fear, described an adventure in which the main figure was a Pinkerton agent on undercover.
  • Dashiell Hammett, author of The Maltese Falcon and pioneer of the hard-boiled detective literary genre, worked for years as a Pinkerton agent before becoming a successful writer.
  • In the later James Bond novels, Felix Leiter works for a detective agency called Pinkerton's.
  • In the novel Girl in Blue the main character is an operative for Pinkerton.
  • A children's book series titled "Pinkerton" features a mystery solving dog.
  • In an episode of the 1966 television series The Time Tunnel Allan Pinkerton is played by R.G. Armstrong in which,he is guarding president elect Abraham Lincoln and foils an assassination attempt with the help of the shows protagonists. A somewhat fictionalized version of a real event.
  • In the Elton John song Ballad of a Well-known Gun from the Tumbleweed Connection album, Bernie Taupin writes about an outlaw who is finally found as the Pinkertons inspect his train baggage.

Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... A private investigator, private detective, PI, or private eye, is a person who undertakes investigations, usually for a private citizen or some other entity not involved with a government or police organization. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859–7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... The Valley of Fear is a Sherlock Holmes novel by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. ... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ... Actors Bogart, Lorre, Astor and Greenstreet in The Maltese Falcon (1941) The Maltese Falcon (1930) is a detective novel by Dashiell Hammett that has been adapted several times for the cinema. ... Hard-boiled detective is a type of character that appears in crime and mystery fiction, but occasionally in other genres as well. ... “007” redirects here. ... Felix Leiter is a fictional character created by Ian Fleming in the James Bond series of novels and films. ... The Time Tunnel is a 1966-1967 U.S. color science fiction TV series. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... Tumbleweed Connection is the third album by British singer/songwriter Elton John, released in 1970 (see 1970 in music). ... Bernie Taupin (born May 22, 1950) is an English lyricist most famous for his collaboration with Elton John. ...

Writings

Pinkerton produced numerous popular detective books, ostensibly based on his own exploits and those of his agents. Some were published after his death, and they are considered to have been more motivated by a desire to promote his detective agency than a literary endeavour. Most historians believe that Allan Pinkerton hired ghostwriters, but the books nonetheless bear his name and no doubt reflect his own views. Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... For other uses, see Ghostwriter (disambiguation). ...

  • The Expressman and the Detective (1874) (available online here)
  • The Detective and the Somnambulist; The Murderer and the Fortune Teller (1875) (available online here)
  • Professional Thieves and the Detectives (188?)
  • The Railroad Forger and the Detectives (1886)
  • Claude Melnotte as a Detective, and Other Stories (1875)
  • The Mollie Maguires and the Detectives (1877)
  • Criminal Reminiscences and Detective Sketches
  • Cornered at Last: A Detective Story (1892)
  • Thirty Years a Detective (1900)
  • A Double Life and the Detectives (1885)
  • The Spy of the Rebellion (1884)
  • Strikers, Communists, Tramps and Detectives (1878)
  • Claude Melnotte as a Detective (1875) (available online here)
  • A Life for a Life; or, The Detective's Triumph (1886)
  • Allan Pinkerton's Unpublished Story of the First Attempt on the Life of Abraham Lincoln (1866)
  • Bucholz and the Detectives (1880) available at Project Gutenberg
  • History and Evidence of the Passage of Abraham Lincoln from Harrisburg, Pa., to Washington, D.C., on the Twenty-second and Twenty-third of February, 1861 (1868)
  • Mississippi Outlaws and the Detectives; Don Pedro and the Detectives; Poisoner and the Detectives (1879)

See also

The most useful military intelligence of the American Civil War was probably provided to Union officers by slaves and smugglers. ...

References

  1. ^ Allan Pinkerton: The First Private Eye. James Mackay Review author[s]: Stephen H. Norwood, The Journal of American History, Vol. 85, No. 3. (Dec., 1998), pp. 1106-1107.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Allan Pinkerton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (533 words)
Pinkerton was born in Glasgow, Scotland, to William Pinkerton and his wife Isabell, in 1819.
Pinkerton died in Chicago, Illinois on July 1, 1884 as a result of infection after biting his tongue when he slipped on a sidewalk.
Allan Pinkerton is buried in Graceland Cemetery, Chicago.
Pinkerton National Detective Agency - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (467 words)
The Pinkerton National Detective Agency was a security guard agency established in the United States in 1850 by Allan Pinkerton who became famous when he foiled a plot to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln.
Pinkerton agents were hired to track notorious western outlaws Jesse James, the Reno brothers, and the Wild Bunch (including Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid).
The Pinkerton Agency is referenced by the victim of a gold mining fraud in an attempt to persuade the perpetrator to unwind the deal in Season 1, Episode 3, of the HBO series Deadwood.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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