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Encyclopedia > Allan Octavian Hume

Allan Octavian Hume (June 6, 1829 - July 31, 1912) son of Joseph Hume was a civil servant in British governed India, and a political reformer. He was, along with Sir William Wedderburn, a founder of the Indian National Congress. He was described by Dr. Salim Ali as the father of Indian Ornithology. June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Joseph Hume (January 22, 1777 - February 20, 1855) was a British doctor and politician, born in Montrose, Scotland. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party or Congress (I), abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Dr. Sálim Ali (full name Dr. Sálim Moizuddin Abdul Ali), November 12, 1896 - July 27, 1987 was the preeminent ornithologist of India. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Life and career

According to the Dictionary of National Biography, Hume was born at St Mary Cray, Kent, the son of Joseph Hume, the Radical MP. He was educated at Haileybury Training College and then University College Hospital, studying medicine and surgery. In 1849 he sailed to India and the following year joined the Bengal Civil Service at Etawah in the North-Western Provinces, in what is now Uttar Pradesh. He soon rose to become District Officer, introducing free primary education and creating a local vernacular newspaper, Lokmitra (The People's Friend). He married Mary Anne Grindall in 1853. St Mary Cray lies on the River Cray and is part of the London Borough of Bromley. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... Joseph Hume (January 22, 1777 - February 20, 1855) was a British doctor and politician, born in Montrose, Scotland. ... The East India Company College was from 1805 to 1858 the college of the British East India Company (EIC). ... Categories: Stub | London hospitals ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease and injury. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P. It is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ...


In 1860 Hume was made Companion of the Bath for his services during the rebellion or Indian rebellion of 1857. In 1867 he became Commissioner of Customs for the North West Province, and in 1870 he became attached to the central government as Director-General of Agriculture. In 1879 he returned to provincial government at Allahabad. Military Badge of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... An engraving titled Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule gives a contemporary view of events from a strictly British perspective. ... Surroundings of Allahabad, India. ...


He took up the cause of education and founded scholarships for higher education. He wrote in 1859:

a free and civilized government must look for its stability and permanence to the enlightenment of the people and their moral and intellectual capacity to appreciate its blessings.

In 1863 he moved for separate schools for Juvenile delinquents rathern than imprisonment. His efforts led to a Juvenile Reformatory not far from Etawah. He also started free schools in Etawah and by 1857 he established 181 schools with 5186 students including two girls. He was also against the revenue earned through liquor traffic and described it as "The wages of sin". With his progressive ideas about social reform, he advocated women's Education, was against infanticide and enforced widowhood. Hume laid out in Etawah a neatly gridded commercial district that is now known as Humeganj but often pronounced Homeganj. The high school that he helped build with his own money is still in operation, now as a junior college, and it has a floor plan resembling the letter H. This, according to some is an indication of Hume's imperial ego, although the form can easily be missed. Etawah is a city on the Yamuna River in the Uttar_Pradesh state of India. ...


Hume proposed to develop fuelwood plantations "in every village in the drier portions of the country" and thereby provide a substitute heating and cooking fuel so that manure could be returned to the land. Such plantations, he wrote, were "a thing that is entirely in accord with the traditions of the country-a thing that the people would understand, appreciate, and, with a little judicious pressure, cooperate in."


He also took note of rural indebtedness, chiefly caused by the use of land as security, a practice the British themselves had introduced. Hume denounced it as another of "the cruel blunders into which our narrow-minded, though wholly benevolent, desire to reproduce England in India has led us." Hume also wanted government-run banks, at least until cooperative banks could be established.


He was very outspoken and never feared to criticise when he thought the Government was in the wrong. In 1861, he objected to the concentration of police and judicial functions in the hands of the police superintendent. He criticized the administration of Lord Lytton (before 1879) which according to him cared little for the welfare and aspiration of the people of India. Lord Lytton's foreign policy according to him had led to the waste of "millions and millions of Indian money". The Rt Hon. ...


In 1879 the Government made their disapproval of his criticism and frankness known and summarily removed him from the Secretariat. The Englishman in an article dated 27 June 1879, commenting on the event stated, "There is no security or safety now for officers in Government employment." June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Hume retired from the civil service in 1882. In 1883 he wrote an open letter to the graduates of Calcutta University, calling upon them to form their own national political movement. This led in 1885 to the first session of the Indian National Congress held in Bombay. Hume served as its General Secretary until 1908. Along with Sir William Wedderburn (1838-1918) they made it possible for Indians to organize themselves in preparation of self government. This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...


Hume left India in 1894 and settled at Upper Norwood in London. His ashes are buried in Brookwood Cemetery. London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Theosophy

Hume wanted to become a chela (student) of the Tibetan spiritual gurus. During the few years of his connection with the Theosophical Society Hume wrote three articles on Fragments of Occult Truth under the pseudonym "H. X." published in The Theosophist. These were written in response to questions from Mr. Terry, an Australian Theosophist. He also privately printed several Theosophical pamphlets titled Hints on Esoteric Theosophy. The later numbers of the Fragments, in answer to the same enquirer, were written by A.P. Sinnett and signed by him, as authorized by Mahatma K. H., A Lay-Chela. The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... A.P. Sinnett (died 1921) was an author and Theosophist. ...


A long story, about Hume and his wife appears in A.P. Sinnett's book Occult World, and the synopsis was published in a local paper of India. The story relates how at a dinner party, Madame Blavatsky asked Mrs Hume if there was anything she wanted. She replied that there was a brooch, her mother had given her, that had gone out of her possession some time ago. Blavatsky said she would try to recover it through occult means. After some interlude, later that evening, the brooch was found in a garden, where the party was directed by Blavatsky. Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London), better known as Helena Blavatsky (Russian: ) or Madame Blavatsky, born Helena von Hahn, was a founder of the Theosophical Society. ...


Madame Blavatsky was a regular visitor at Hume's Rothney castle at Simla and an account of her visit may be found in Simla, Past and Present by Edward John Buck (who succeeded Mr. Hume in charge of the Agricultural Department). Later, Hume privately expressed grave doubts on certain powers attributed to Madame Blavatsky and due to this, soon fell out of favour with the Theosophists. Shimla Shimla (शिमला) is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and a hill station in North India. ...


Hume lost all interest in theosophy when he got involved with the creation of the Indian National Congress.


Contribution to ornithology

From early days, Hume had a special interest in science. Science, he wrote

...teaches men to take an interest in things outside and beyond… The gratification of the animal instinct and the sordid and selfish cares of worldly advancement; it teaches a love of truth for its own sake and leads to a purely disinterested exercise of intellectual faculties

and of natural history he wrote in 1867

... alike to young and old, the study of Natural History in all its branches offers, next to religion, the most powerful safeguard against those worldly temptations to which all ages are exposed. There is no department of natural science the faithful study of which does not leave us with juster and loftier views of the greatness, goodness, and wisdom of the Creator, that does not leave us less selfish and less worldly, less spiritually choked up with those devil’s thorns, the love of dissipation, wealth, power, and place, that does not, in a word, leave us wiser, better and more useful to our fellow-men.

During his career in Etawah, he built a personal collection of bird specimens, however it was destroyed during the 1857 mutiny. Subsequently he started afresh with a systematic plan to survey and document the birds of the Indian Subcontinent and in the process he accumulated the largest collection of Asiatic birds in the world, which he housed in a museum and library at his home in Rothney Castle on Jakko Hill, Simla. Rothney castle originally belonged to P. Mitchell, C.I.E and after Hume bought it, he tried to convert the house into a veritable palace, which he expected would be bought by the Government as a Viceregal residence in view of the fact that the Governor-General then occupied ‘Peterhoff’, which was too small for Viceregal entertainments. Hume spent over two hundred thousand pounds on the grounds and buildings. He added enormous reception rooms suitable for large dinner parties and balls, as well as a magnificent conservatory and spacious hall with walls displaying his superb collection of Indian horns. He hired a European gardener, and made the grounds and conservatory a perpetual horticultural exhibition, to which he courteously admitted all visitors. Shimla Shimla (शिमला) is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and a hill station in North India. ...


Rothney Castle could only be reached by a troublesome climb, and was never purchased by the British Government and he himself did not use the larger rooms except for one that he converted into a museum for his wonderful collection of birds, and for occasional dances.


He made many expeditions to collect birds both on health leaves and as and where his work took him. He was Collector and Magistrate of Etawah from 1856 to 1867 during which time he studied the birds of that area. He later became Commissioner of Inland Customs which made him responsible for the control of 2500 miles of coast from near Peshawar in the northwest to Cuttack on the Bay of Bengal. He travelled on horseback and camel in areas of Rajasthan and negotiated treaties with various local maharajas to control the export of natural resources such as salt. During these travels he made a number of notes on various bird species

The nests are placed indifferently on all kinds of trees (I have notes of finding them on mango, plum, orange, tamarind, toon, etc.), never at any great elevation from the ground, and usually in small trees, be the kind chosen what it may. Sometimes a high hedgerow, such as our great Customs hedge, is chosen, and occasionally a solitary caper or stunted acacia-bush. The Great Hedge of India, or The Inland Customs Line was a near impenetrable barrier of trees, thorny bushes, hedges and guard-stations that was built by the nineteenth century British rulers of India across the length and breadth of India. ...

—On the nesting of the Bay-backed Shrike (Lanius vittatus) in The Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds.

His expedition to the Indus area was one of the largest and it started in late November 1871 and continued until the end of February 1872. In March 1873, he visited the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal. In 1875 he visited the Laccadive Islands. And in 1881 he made his last ornithological expedition to Manipur. This was made on special leave following his demotion from the Central Government to a junior position on the Board of Revenue of the North Western Provinces.


He used this vast bird collection to produce a massive publication on all the birds of India. Unfortunately this work was lost in 1885 when all Hume's manuscripts were sold by a servant as waste paper. Hume's interest in ornithology reduced due to this theft as well as a landslip caused by heavy rains in Simla which damaged his personal museum and specimens. He wrote to the British Museum wishing to donate his collection on certain conditions. One of the conditions was that the collection was to be examined by Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe and personally packed by him, apart from raising Dr. Sharpe's rank and salary due to the additional burden on his work caused by his collection. The British Museum was unable to heed to his conditions. It was only after the destruction of nearly 20000 specimens, that alarm bells were raised by Dr. Sharpe and the Museum authorities let him visit India to supervise the transfer of the specimens to the British Museum. The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, with a tessellated glass roof by Buro Happold and Foster and Partners surrounding the original Reading Room. ... Richard Bowdler Sharpe (November 22, 1847 - December 25, 1909) was an English zoologist. ...


Sharpe provides the following account of Hume's impressive private ornithological museum:

I arrived at Rothney Castle about 10 am on the 19th of May, and was warmly welcomed by Mr Hume, who lives in a most picturesque situation high up on Jakko…From my bedroom window, I had a fine view of the snowy range. Although somewhat tired by my jolt in the Tonga from Solun, I gladly accompanied Mr. Hume at once into the museum…I had heard so much from my friends, who knew the collection intimately,…that I was not so much surprised when at last I stood in the celebrated museum and gazed at the dozens upon dozens of tin cases which filled the room. Before the landslip occurred, which carried away one end of the museum, It must have been an admirably arranged building, quite three times as large as our meeting-room at the Zoological Society, and…much more lofty. Throughout this large room went three rows of table cases with glass tops, in which were arranged a series of the birds of India sufficient for the identification of each species, while underneath these table- cases where enormous cabinets made of tin, with trays inside, containing species of birds in the table cases above. All of the rooms were racks reaching up to the ceiling, and containing immense cases full of birds… On the western side of the museum was the library, reached by a descent of three steps, a cheerful room, furnished with large tables, and containing besides the egg-cabinets, a well-chosen set of working-volumes. One ceases to wonder at the amount of work its owner got through when the excellent plan of his museum is considered. In a few minutes an immense series of specimens could be spread out on the tables, while all the books were at hand for immediate reference…After explaining to me the contents of the museum, we went below into the basement, which consisted of eight great rooms, six of them full, from floor to ceiling, of cases of birds, while at the back of the house two large verandahs were piled high with cases full of large birds, such as Pelicans, Cranes, Vultures, &c. An inspection of a great cabinet containing a further series of about 5000 eggs completed our survey. Mr. Hume gave me the keys of the museum, and I was free to commence my task at once.

Sharpe also noted

Mr. Hume was a naturalist of no ordinary calibre, and this great collection will remain a monument of his genius and energy of its founder long after he who formed it has passed away...Such a private collection as Mr. Hume's is not likely to be formed again; for it is doubtful if such a combination of genius for organisation with energy for the completion of so great a scheme, and the scientific knowledge requisite for its proper development will again be combined in a single individual.

The Hume collection as it went to the British museum in 1874 consisted of 82,000 specimens of which 75,577 were finally placed in the Museum. A breakup of that collection is as follows (old names retained).

  • 2830 Birds of Prey (Accipitriformes)… 8 types
  • 1155 Owls (Strigiformes)…9 types
  • 2819 Crows, Jays, Orioles etc…5 types
  • 4493 Cuckoo-shrikes and Flycatchers… 21 types
  • 4670 Thrushes and Warblers…28 types
  • 3100 Bulbuls and wrens, Dippers, etc…16 types
  • 7304 Timaliine birds…30 types
  • 2119 Tits and Shrikes…9 types
  • 1789 Sun-birds (Nectarinidae) and White-eyes (Zosteropidae)…8 types
  • 3724 Swallows (Hirundiniidae), Wagtails and Pipits (Motacillidae)…8 types
  • 2375 Finches (Fringillidae)…8 types
  • 3766 Starlings (Sturnidae), Weaver-birds (Ploceidae), and larks (Alaudidae)…22 types
  • 807 Ant-thrushes (Pittidae), Broadbills (Eurylaimidae)…4 types
  • 1110 Hoopoes (Upupae), Swifts (Cypseli), Nightjars (Caprimulgidae) and Frogmouths (Podargidae)…8 types
  • 2277 Picidae, Hornbills (Bucerotes), Bee-eaters (Meropes), Kingfishers (Halcyones), Rollers(Coracidae), Trogons (Trogones)…11 types
  • 2339 Woodpeckers (Pici)…3 types
  • 2417 Honey-guides (Indicatores), Barbets (Capiformes), and Cuckoos (Coccyges)…8 types
  • 813 Parrots (Psittaciformes)…3 types
  • 1615 Pigeons (Columbiformes)…5 types
  • 2120 Sand-grouse (Pterocletes), Game-birds and Megapodes(Galliformes)…8 types
  • 882 Rails (Ralliformes), Cranes (Gruiformes), Bustards (Otides)…6 types
  • 1089 Ibises (Ibididae), Herons (Ardeidae), Pelicans and Cormorants (Steganopodes), Grebes (Podicipediformes)…7 types
  • 761 Geese and Ducks (Anseriformes)…2 types
  • 15965 Eggs

The Hume Collection contained 258 types. In scientific classification, a type is a specimen or description that corresponds to a taxon (a group of organisms), and helps to identify which organisms may be referred to with that name. ...


Species described

Some of the species that were first described or discovered by Hume are as follows. The numbers are references to S. D. Ripley and Salim Ali's Synopsis and the old names are retained. Many of these names are no longer valid.

  • 12 Persian Shearwater (Procellaria lherminieri persica) (Puffinus persicus)
  • 17 Short-tailed Tropic-bird (Phaethon aethereus indicus)
  • 33 Great Whitebellied Heron (Ardea insignis)
  • 96 Grey, Andaman or Oceanic Teal (Anas gibberifrons albogularis)
  • 140 Burmese Shikra (Accipiter badius poliopsis)
  • 148 Indian Sparrow-hawk (Accipiter nisus melaschistos)
  • 180,183 Indian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus fulvescens)
  • 181 Himalayan Griffon Vulture (Gyps himalayensis)
  • 200 Andaman Pale Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela davisoni)
  • 201 Nicobar Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela minimus) (=Spilornis minimus)
  • 235 Northern Chukor (Alectoris chukar pallescens)
  • 239 Assam Black Partridge (Francolinus francolinus melanonotus)
  • 263 Northern Painted Bush Quail (Perdicula erythrorhyncha blewitti)
  • 265 Manipur Bush Quail (Perdicula manipurensis manipurensis)
  • 273 Redbreasted Hill Partridge (Arborophila mandellii)
  • 308 Mrs. Hume's Barredback Pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae humiae)
  • 330 Andaman Bluebreasted Banded Rail (Rallus striatus obscurior)(= Gallirallus striatus)
  • 466 Roseate Tern (Sterna dougalli korustes)
  • 476 Blackshafted Ternlet (Sterna saundersi) (=Sterna albifrons)
  • 516 Blue Rock Pigeon (Columba livia neglecta)
  • 525 Andaman Wood Pigeon (Columba palumboides)
  • 555 Andaman Redcheeked Parakeet (Psittacula longicauda tytleri)
  • 563 Eastern Slatyheaded Parakeet (Psittacula finschii)
  • 601 Bangladesh Crow-pheasant (Centropus sinensis intermedius)
  • 607 Andaman Barn Owl (Tyto alba deroepstorffi)
  • 610 Ceylon Bay Owl (Phodilus badius assimilis)
  • 611 Western Spotted Scops Owl (Otus spilocephalus huttoni)
  • 613 Andaman Scops Owl (Otus balli)
  • 614 Pallid Scops Owl (Otus brucei)
  • 618b Nicobar Scops Owl (Otus scops nicobaricus) (=Otus alius)
  • 619 Punjab Collared Scops Owl (Otus bakkamoena plumipes)
  • 626a Himalayan Horned or Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo hemachalana)
  • 643 Burmese Brown Hawk-owl (Ninox scutulata burmanica)
  • 645 Hume's Brown Hawk-owl (Ninox scutulata obscura)
  • 653 Forest Spotted Owlet (Athene blewitti) (=Heteroglaux blewitti)
  • 654 Hume's Owl (Strix butleri)
  • 669 Bourdillon's or Kerala Great Eared Nightjar (Eurostopodis macrotis bourdilloni)
  • 673 Hume's European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus unwini)
  • 679 Andaman Longtailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus macrurus andamanicus)
  • 684 Hume's Swiftlet (Collocalia brevirostris innominata)
  • 684a Black-nest Swiftlet (Collocalia maxima maxima)
  • 686 Andaman Greyrumped or “White-nest” Swiftlet (Collocalia fuciphaga inexpectata)
  • 691 Brown-throated Spinetail Swift (Chaetura gigantea indica)
  • 732 Nicobar Storkbilled Kingfisher (Pelargopsis capensis intermedia)
  • 738 Andaman Whitebreasted Kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis saturatior)
  • 773 Narcondam Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus narcondami)
  • 793 Pakistan Orangerumped Honeyguide (Indicator xanthonotus radcliffi)
  • 841 Manipur Crimsonbreasted Pied Woodpecker (Picoides cathpharius pyrrhothorax)
  • 887 Karakoram or Hume's Short-toed Lark (Calandrella acutirostris acutirostris)
  • 889 Indus Sand Lark (Calandrella raytal adamsi)
  • 898 Baluchistan Crested Lark (Galerida cristata magna)
  • 915 Pale Crag Martin (Hirundo obsoleta pallida)
  • 974 Large Andaman Drongo (Dicrurus andamanensis dicruriformis)
  • 986 Andaman Glossy Stare (Aplonis panayensis tytleri)
  • 998 Hume's or Afghan Starling (Sturnus vulgaris nobilior)
  • 1000 Sind Starling (Sturnus vulgaris minor)
  • 1041 Hume's Ground Chough (Podoces humilis)
  • 1113 Andaman Blackheaded Bulbul (Pycnonotus atriceps fuscoflavescens)
  • 1165 Mishmi Brown Babbler (Pellorneum albiventre ignotum)
  • 1172 Mount Abu Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus schisticeps obscurus)
  • 1190 Manipur Longbilled Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps austeni)
  • 1225 Kerala Blackheaded Babbler (Rhopocichla atriceps bourdilloni)
  • 1234 Hume's Babbler (Chrysomma altirostre griseogularis)
  • 1289 Western Variegated Laughing Thrush (Garrulax variegatus similis)
  • 1301 Khasi Hills Greysided Laughing Thrush (Garrulax caerulatus subcaerulatus)
  • 1330 Manipur Redheaded Laughing Thrush (Garrulax erythrocephalus erythrolaema)
  • 1363 Sikkim Whitebrowed Yuhina (Yuhina castaniceps rufigenis)
  • 1389 Bombay Quaker Babbler (Alcippe poioicephala brucei)
  • 1424 Eastern Slaty Blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa leucomelanura minuta)
  • 1434 Whitetailed Blue Flycatcher (Muscicapa concreta cyanea)
  • 1453 Eastern Whitebrowed Fantail Flycatcher (Rhipidura aureola burmanica)
  • 1484 Hume's Bush Warbler (Cettia acanthizoides brunnescens)
  • 1510 Northwestern Plain Wren-Warbler (Prinia subflava terricolor)
  • 1520 Northwestern Jungle Wren-Warbler (Prinia sylvatica insignia)
  • 1526 Sind Brown Hill Warbler (Prinia criniger striatula)
  • 1540 Blacknecked Tailor Bird (Orthotomus atrogularis nitidus)
  • 1569 Small Whitethroat (Sylvia curruca minula)
  • 1570 Hume's Lesser Whitethroat (Sylvia curruca althaea)
  • 1577 Plain Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus neglectus)
  • 1664 Andaman Magpie-Robin (Copsychus saularis andamanensis)
  • 1707 Redtailed Chat (Oenanthe xanthoprymna kingi)
  • 1714 Hume's Chat (Oenanthe alboniger)
  • 1730 Burmese Whistling Thrush (Myiophonus caeruleus eugenei)
  • 1820 Manipur Redheaded Tit (Aegithalos concinnus manipurensis)
  • 1850 Manipur Tree Creeper (Certhia manipurensis)
  • 1903 Andaman Flowerpecker (Dicaeum concolor virescens)
  • 1913 Andaman Olivebacked Sunbird (Nectarinia jugularis andamanica)
  • 1918 Assam Purple Sunbird (Nectarinia asiatica intermedia)
  • 1129a Nicobar Yellowbacked Sunbird (Aethopyga siparaja nicobarica)
  • 1955 Blanford's Snow Finch (Montifringilla blanfordi blanfordi)
  • 1960 Finn's Baya (Ploceus megarhynchus megarhynchus)
  • 1970 Nicobar Whitebacked Munia (Lonchura striata semistriata)
  • 1971-2 Jerdon's Rufousbellied Munia (Lonchura kelaarti jerdoni)
  • 1993 Tibetan Siskin (Carduelis thibetana)
  • 1995 Stoliczka's Twite (Acanthis flavirostris montanella)

An additional species, the Large-billed Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus orinus known from just one specimen collected by him on his Sind expedition of 1871 is believed, on the basis of recent DNA studies, to be a proper species. However the bird has never been subsequently seen or collected. Binomial name Puffinus lherminieri (Lesson, 1839) The Audubons Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri is a common seabird of the tropics from the family Procellariidae. ... Binomial name Phaethon aethereus Linnaeus, 1758 The Red-billed Tropicbird, Phaethon aethereus, is a tropicbird, one of three closely related seabirds of tropical oceans. ... Binomial name Ardea insignis Hume, 1878 The White-bellied Heron (Ardea insignis) is a species of heron. ... Binomial name Anas gibberifrons Muller,S, 1842 The Grey Teal (Anas gibberifrons) is a dabbling duck found in open wetlands in Australia, New Zealand, the Andaman Islands and Indonesia. ... Binomial name Arborophila mandellii Hume, 1874 The Chestnut-breasted Partridge (Arborophila mandellii) is a species of partridge endemic to the eastern Himalayas north of the Brahmaputra, and is known from Bhutan, West Bengal (Darjeeling only), Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India, and south-east Tibet. ... Binomial name Syrmaticus humiae Hume, 1881 The Humes Pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae also known as Mrs Humes Pheasant or Bar-tailed Pheasant is a large, up to 90cm long, forest pheasant with a greyish brown head, bare red facial skin, chestnut brown plumage, yellowish bill, brownish orange iris, white... Binomial name Gallirallus striatus (Linnaeus, 1766) The Slaty-breasted Rail (Gallirallus striatus) is a species of rail found in South and South-east Asia. ... Binomial name Sterna albifrons Pallas, 1764 The Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) is a seabird of the tern family Sternidae. ... Binomial name Athene blewitti (Hume, 1873) Synonyms Heteroglaux blewitti The Forest Owlet (Athene blewitti) is an owl which breeds in central India. ... Binomial name Strix butleri Hume, 1878 The Hume’s Owl or Hume’s Tawny Owl (Strix butleri) is a species of owl. ... Binomial name Strix butleri Hume, 1878 The Hume’s Owl or Hume’s Tawny Owl (Strix butleri) is a species of owl. ...


Hume made several expeditions solely to study ornithology and in March 1873 he made one to the Andaman, Nicobar and other islands in the Bay of Bengal along with geologists Dr. Ferdinand Stoliczka and Dr. Dougall of the Geological Survey of India and James Wood-Mason of the Indian Museum in Calcutta. Ferdinand Stoliczka (May 1838 - June 19, 1874) was an Austrian/Czech palaeontologist born at Hochwald in Moravia. ... (1846-1893) Zoologist who worked in the Indian Museum at Calcutta from 1877 succeeding Prof. ...


Hume employed William R. Davidson as a curator of his personal bird collection and also sent him out on collection trips to various parts of India, when he was held up with official responsibilities.


Stray Feathers

Hume started the quarterly journal Stray Feathers - A journal of ornithology for India and dependencies in 1872. He used the journal to publish descriptions of his new discoveries, such as Hume's Owl, Hume's Wheatear and Hume's Whitethroat. He wrote extensively on his own observation as well as critical reviews of all the ornithological works of the time and earned himself the nickname of Pope of Indian ornithology.


Hume's network of correspondents

Hume built up a network of ornithologists reporting from various parts of India. A list based on the correspondents mentioned in Stray Feathers and in his Game Birds is as follows. This is probably only a small fraction of the subscribers of Stray Feathers.

  • Mr. R. M. Adam, Sambhur, Oudh, Agra, Lucknow
  • Leith Adams, Kashmir
  • Mr. Benjamin Aitken, Madras, Matheran, Khandalla, Poona, 1873, Poorundhur hill, eighteen miles south of Poona
  • Mr. E. Aitken, Poona
  • Mr. James Aitken, Amraoti, Berar
  • Mr. A. A. Anderson, Futtehgurh
  • Mr. A. Anderson, Budaon
  • Major J. W. M. Anderson, Banvasi, Sirsi
  • Dr. Anderson, Upper Burma, Yunnan, Calcutta
  • Dr. Armstrong, Bay of Bengal
  • Captain J. H. Baldwin, Author of Game of Bengal, Pilibhit, Mirzapur
  • Lieut. H. E. Barnes, Afghanistan, Chaman, Rajpootana
  • Major Barnes, Pangong, Oong Lung La, Kansu
  • Mr. J. Battie, Lakhimpur Kheri
  • Sir S. C. Bayley , Sadiya Mishmi hills
  • Captain R. C. Beavan, Maunbhoom District, Shimla, Mount Tongloo (1862)
  • Captain Bellis, Sandur
  • Mr. J. A. Betham (Betul, Satna)
  • Dr. Bidie, Madras Central Museum (Goodvancherrie, Bluebreasted Quail)
  • Colonel John Biddulph, Gilgit
  • Major C. T. Bingham, Thoungyeen Valley, Burma, Tenasserim, Moulmein, Allahabad
  • Captain Bishop, Karachi
  • Mr. W. Blanford
  • Mr. William Blewitt, Hansi, Hissar
  • Mr. F. R. Blewitt, Raipur,Jhansi
  • Mr. Edward Blyth
  • Dr. Bonavia, Lucknow
  • Mr. Bourdillon, Travancore
  • Mr. Frank Bourdillon, Assamboo Hills, Travancore, Mynall (Travancore)
  • Mr. T. Fulton Bourdillon, Travancore
  • Mr. Brookes, Kashmir,Sonamarg, Kashmir.
  • Mr. Brooks, Mirzapoor District
  • Mr. W. Edwin Brooks
  • Mr. C. Browne, Salt range
  • Sir E. C. Buck, Gowra, Hatu, near Narkanda (in Himachal Pradesh), Narkanda, (about 30 miles north of Shimla)
  • Burgess, Ahmednagar
  • Captain and then Colonel E. A. Butler, Belgaum (1880), Karachi, Deesa, Abu
  • Mr. F. W. Butler, Muzzafarnagar
  • Major Campbell (26th MNI) Quilon
  • Mr. Cardozo. Kurnool
  • Mr. H. R. P. Carter, Coonoor, Nilgiris
  • Major Carwithen (Sher-ka-danda - Mountain Quail)
  • Mr. Chennell, North Khasi hills
  • Mr. W. N. Chill, Delhi, Sultanpur
  • Captain and later Major Cock, Dharamshala, Anchar Dall, Kashmir
  • Mr. R. A. Clark, Mynadhar, Cachar
  • Mr. Cleveland, Gurgaon district
  • Miss M. B. Cockburn, Nilgiris and Kotagiri
  • Colonel Congreve
  • Mr. Cowley, Sadiya, Dibrugarh
  • Mr. J. R. Cripps, Eastern Bengal,Fureedpore, Eastern Bengal, Dibrugarh District, Assam,Dacca, Sylhet
  • Mr. G. Damant, Naga hills , Rungpore, Malda
  • Mr. Darling, Tenasserim, Moulmein
  • Mr. William Davison, hot springs at Ulu Laugat, Nilghiris, Ootacamund, Tavoy
  • Mr. J. L. Darling, junior, Neddivattam,Vythery, Culputty, Wynaad (1874),
  • Nilgiris, Kartary, Coonoor, Ooty
  • Mr. James Davidson, Satara and Sholapur districts,Khandeish, Kondabhari Ghat
  • Mr. H. B. Davidson, Tavoy
  • Mr. Davis, Burma, Thatone
  • Mr. F. A. DeRopstorff (Andamans)
  • Mr. Scrope B. Doig, Eastern Narra District, in Sind,
  • Drew, Tso Morari
  • Mr. Egan, Cuddapah, Nellore
  • Mr. Ellison, Deputy Commissioner, Chhindwara
  • Mr. Elphinston, North Kanara
  • Captain H. J. Elwes, Sikkim
  • Rev. S. B. Fairbank, KodaiKanal
  • Lieut. W. S. Fairbrother (29th PNI) Safed Koh
  • Mr. H. Fasson, Chittagong
  • Captain Feilden, Northern Pegu, Thayetmyo
  • Captain FitzHerbert, Rifle Brigade, Rawalpindi
  • Major M. Forbes Coussmaker, Mysore, Bangalore
  • Mr. W. Forsyth, Dehree-on-Soane, Jumna
  • Mr. J. A. Gammie, Chinchona reserves (Sikkim)
  • Colonel Godwin-Austen, Shillong, Umian valley, Assam
  • Mr. Huntley P. Gordon, Bellary
  • Colonel Graham, Darrang District, Assam
  • Mr. G. Greig, Garhwal
  • Dr. John Harvey, Chamba
  • Mr. Hastings, Etawah
  • Henderson
  • Lt. Hill, Rifle Brigade, Peshawar (1877)
  • Mr. Hildebrande, Pahpooon, Younzaleen
  • Mr. Brian Hodgson, Nepal
  • Captain W. J. Heaviside, R.E, Ujjain, Purneah
  • Home, 'Hero of the Kashmir Gate' (Bulandshahr, Aligarh)
  • Captain Thomas Hutton, Doon, Mussoorie, Quettah
  • Mr. James Inglis, Dilkoosha, Cachar
  • Mr. J. D. Inverarity, Gujarat
  • Mr. Valentine Irwin, Tippera Hills
  • Colonel L. H. Irby Seetapore, Oudh, Munsheyaree in Kumaon
  • Mr. E. James, C.S. Satpura hills, Khandesh to Kanara (Sindh,Baikal teal)
  • Mr. J. Jarbo, Chittagong
  • Sir W. Jardine
  • E. S. Layard, Esq., Point Pedro
  • Dr. T. C. Jerdon, Tellicherry
  • Lt. Kelham, 72 Highlanders, Perak
  • W. Mahomed Oomer Khan, Peshawar district
  • Dr. King, Mt Abu (1868) commonness of Grey Junglefowl
  • Major H. Alexander Kinloch (Shot two Pink headed duck near Najafgarh jheel in Delhi)
  • Mr. H. S. Laird, Belgaum
  • Lieut. W. W. Lean, Khyber Pass, Fort Jumrood (Dr. Julian Smith)
  • Captain and later Colonel W. Vincent Legge, Ceylon
  • Professor H. Littledale, Baroda, Godhra
  • Mr. Iver Macpherson, Mysore, Kakencotte State Forest
  • Kenneth Mackinnon
  • Mr. P. J. Maitland, Jacobabad
  • Mr. F. R. Mallet , Tibet, Niti Pass (Brahminy Duck)
  • Mr. L. Mandelli, Lebong, Sikkim, Darjeeling
  • Mr. A. M. Markham, Allahabad
  • Colonel C. H. T. Marshall, Bhawulpoor, Murree
  • Colonel G. F. L. Marshall, Nainital, Bhim tal
  • Mr. Charles McInroy, Hunsur, Chitradurga(Bagriodkere tank)
  • Colonel McMaster, Kamptee, Nagpur, Secunderabad (shot a Pink headed Duck)
  • Sir William Merewether
  • Mr. H. Millet, Maldah district
  • Mr. Rhodes W. Morgan, Seeghoor Ghaut, Neilgherries
  • Khan Nizam-ud-din, Khan Bahadur, Sirsa
  • Mr. E. C. Nunn, Hoshungabad
  • Captain O'Moore Creagh, Ana-Sagur lake at Ajmer
  • Mr. James A. Murray, Karachi Museum
  • Mr. Eugene Oates, Thayetmo, Tounghoo, Pegu
  • Captain Oldham, Sialkot
  • Colonel Palin, Kutch
  • Mr. J. C. Parker, Salt-Water Lake, Calcutta, Kishnaghur and Jessore
  • Col. Peyton, (crack shooter of southern Mahratta)
  • Sir F. Pollock, Peshawar
  • Prjevalsky
  • Captain Wardlaw Ramsay, Afghanistan, Karenee hills
  • Mr. H. James Rainey, Khoolna (Sundarbans), Jessore
  • Mr. George Reid, Lucknow, Oudh
  • Colonel Renny, Karachi
  • Mr. Roberts, Naga hills
  • Mr. R. W. Rumsby, Ambala
  • Mr. G. P. Sanderson (Chittagong)
  • Dr. John Scully, Gilgit district, Nepal, Kashgaria
  • Sir R. G. Schomburgk, Bangkok
  • Mr. C. B. Sherman,Esq. Ex-Engineer, Travancore
  • Mr. F. A. Shillingford, Sahibgunj, Purneah
  • Lieut. W. J. Smith, Pangong lake
  • Mr. D. B. Sinclair, Gulabad Jheel, Peshawar
  • Captain H. Stevens, 42nd NI, Sadiya, Mishmi
  • Major later Colonel and Governor O. B. St. John, R.E., Southern Persia, Shiraz, Kandahar, South Afghanistan
  • Dr. Ferdinand Stoliczka
  • Mr. Robert Swinhoe, Hongkong
  • Mr. Charles Swinhoe, S. Afghanistan
  • Mr. H. C. Syers, Suptd. of Police, Klang, Malay peninsula
  • Mr. C. J. W. Taylor, Manzeerabad, Mysore
  • Captain Temple (Deputy Commissioner, Seoni)
  • Mr. Albert G. Theobald, Madras districts south of Mysore, Collegal
  • Mr. W. Theobald, Kashmir, Meady NE. Thayetmo
  • Mr. R. Thompson, Kumaon and Garhwal forests, Haldwani and Ramnagar, Kumaon, Garhwal (deputy conservator of forests, Central Provinces) Captain Horace
  • Terry, Pulney Hills, Pulungi, Pittur valley
  • Colonel Samuel Tickell
  • Major Maurice Tweedie, Kheri district, Lakhimpur
  • Mr. R. H. C. Tuffnell, Sirhpoor, between Ahmedabad and Deesa
  • Colonel Tytler, Dacca, 1852
  • Captain Unwin, 5th Goorkhas (1871) Rawalpindi
  • Mr. Valentine Ball, Rajmahal hills, Subanrika (Subansiri)
  • Mr. Vernon, Loharna, Kathney river Lakhimpur
  • Mr. G. W. Vidal, Ratnagiri, South Konkan
  • Mr. Wait, Coonoor
  • Captain T. M. Ward, Salsette
  • Major Waterfield, Peshawar
  • Mr. H. E. Watson, Sind, Sehwan district, Manchhar Lake (Mute Swan)
  • Mr. C. E. Wenden, Sholapur
  • Col. Williamson, Garo hills, Tura range (Inspector General of Police, Assam)
  • Frederick Wilson, Mussoorie
  • Lieut. Colonel W. J. Wilson, Condakirla, Vizagapatnam (Pink headed Duck)
  • Captain Wimberley, Andamans
  • Captain Frank Wise, Erie Hills Kurrachee district
  • Mr. A. Whyte, Ceylon
  • Mr. A. Grahame Young, Arjend, Tehran, Kullu

Additional authors who published in Stray Feathers Andrew Leith Adams (March 21, 1827 - July 29, 1882) was a Scottish physician, naturalist and geologist. ... Charles Thomas Bingham (April 16, 1848 Ireland – October 18, 1908 West Kensington, London) was an Irish military officer and entomologist. ... William Thomas Blanford (October 7, 1832 - June 23, 1905) was an English geologist and naturalist. ... Edward Blyth. ... Colonel Edward Arthur Butler, (July 4, 1843 - April 16, 1916), was an English army officer and ornithologist. ... Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen (1834 - 1923), was an English topographer, geologist and surveyor. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Thomas Jerdon. ... Charles Henry Tilson Marshall (1841 - 1927) was a British India. ... George Frederick Leycester Marshall (March 27, 1843 - March 7, 1934) was a Colonel in the Indian Army and brother of C H T Marshall. ... James A. Murray was a zoologist and museum curator in Karachi. ... Eugene William Oates (1845-1911) was an English naturalist who lived in India. ... Nikolai Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky, also spelled Przewalski and Prjevalsky (Russian: ) (April 12, 1839—November 1, 1888 (Gregorian calendar)), was a Russian geographer and explorer in central and eastern Asia. ... George Peress Sanderson Born in India in 1848 to Rev. ... Ferdinand Stoliczka (May 1838 - June 19, 1874) was an Austrian/Czech palaeontologist born at Hochwald in Moravia. ... Robert Swinhoe (September 1, 1836 - October 28, 1877) was an English naturalist. ... Colonel Charles Swinhoe (29 Aug 1836 - 2 Dec 1923) Colonel in the British Army in India. ... Colonel Samuel Richard Tickell (August 19, 1811 - April 20, 1875) was an British army officer, artist and ornithologist in India and Burma. ... Valentine Ball (1843 – 1894) was an Irish geologist, and a brother of Sir Robert Ball. ...

  • Andrew Anderson
  • J. M. Anderson
  • J. C. Berkeley
  • T. Bomford
  • E. S. Butler
  • Frank W. Chanter
  • Robert Cran
  • Charles Chubb
  • J. W. Ditmas
  • M. Eden
  • D. G. Elliot
  • F. Field
  • C. Gubbins
  • Edward L. Hawkins
  • H. E. M. James
  • J. S. Laird
  • A. LeMessurier, Sindh
  • R. P. LeMessurier
  • E. Lowis
  • Richard Lydekker
  • J. MacGregor, Deccan and South Mahratta
  • A. Manson
  • J. H. McLeod
  • F. Montresor
  • R. W. Morgan
  • 'Mountaineer'
  • J. Burn Murdoch
  • Alfred Newton
  • H. Parker (N W Ceylon)
  • H. M. Plowden
  • W. C. Plowden
  • G. M. Rayment
  • G. Rippon
  • Henry Seebohm
  • G. E. Shelley
  • R. N. Stoker
  • Hugh Edwin Strickland
  • J. Tennant
  • A. Tomes
  • Charles A. Tostems
  • G. Trevor
  • J. W. Vipan
  • J. H. Yule

He also corresponded with ornithologists outside India including R. Bowdler-Sharpe, the Marquis of Tweeddale, Pere David, Dresser, Dybowski, John Henry Gurney, J.H.Gurney, Jr. ,Johann Friedrich Naumann, Severtzov, Dr. Middendorff. Richard Lydekker (1849 - April 16, 1915) was an English naturalist, geologist and writer of numerous books on natural history. ... For the SOE field agent, see Alfred Newton (SOE). ... Henry Seebohm (1832 - November 26, 1895) was an English steel manufacturer, and amateur ornithologist, oologist and traveller. ... Captain George Ernest Shelley (1840 - November 29, 1910) was an English geologist and ornithologist. ... Hugh Edwin Strickland (March 2, 1811 - September 14, 1853), was an English geologist, ornithologist and systemist. ... Richard Bowdler Sharpe (November 22, 1847 - December 25, 1909) was an English zoologist. ... Arthur Hay, 9th Marquess of Tweeddale Viscount Walden (November 9, 1824 - December 29, 1878) was a Scottish soldier and ornithologist. ... Father Armand David (September 27, 1826 near Bayonne –November 10, 1900 in Paris) was a Lazarist missionary Catholic priest as well as a zoologist and a botanist. ... Henry Eeles Dresser. ... John Henry Gurney (July 4, 1819 - April 20, 1890) was an English banker and amateur ornithologist. ... Johann Friedrich Naumann (February 14, 1780 - August 15, 1857) was a German scientist and editor. ... Nikolai Alekseevich Severtzov (1827 - February 8, 1885) was a Russian explorer and naturalist. ... Alexander Theodor (Aleksandr Fyodorovich) Middendorf (or Middendorff) (August 6, 1815 - January 16, 1894) was a Russian zoologist and explorer of German origin. ...


My Scrap book: or rough notes on Indian Oology and ornithology (1869)

This was Hume's first major work. It had 422 pages and accounts of 81 species. It was dedicated to Edward Blyth and Dr. Thomas C. Jerdon who had done more for Indian Ornithology than all other modern observers put together and he described himself as their their friend and pupil. He hoped that his book would form a nucleus round which future observation may crystallize and that others around the country could help him fill in many of the woeful blanks remaining in record. Edward Blyth. ... Thomas Claverhill Jerdon (1811 - 1872) was a British physician, zoologist and botanist. ...


Game Birds of India, Burmah and Ceylon (1879-1881)

This work was co-authored by C. H. T. Marshall. The three volume work on the game birds was made using contributions and notes from a network of 200 or more correspondents. Hume delegated the task of getting the plates made to Marshall. The chromolithographs of the birds were drawn by W. Foster, E. Neale, M. Herbert, Stanley Wilson and others and the plates were produced by F. Waller in London. Hume had sent specific notes on colours of soft parts and instructions to the artists. He was unsatisfied with many of the plates and included additional notes on the plates in the book. Charles Henry Tilson Marshall (1841 - 1927) was a British India. ...


In the preface Hume wrote

In the second place, we have had great disappointment in artists. Some have proved careless, some have subordinated accuracy of delineation to pictorial effect, and though we have, at some loss, rejected many, we have yet been compelled to retain some plates which are far from satisfactory to us.

while his co-author Marshall, wrote

I have performed my portion of the work to the very best of my abilities, and yet personally felt almost as if I were sailing under false colors in appearing before the world as one of the authors of this book; but I allow my name to appear as such, partly because Mr. Hume strongly wishes it, partly because I do believe that as Mr. Hume says this work, which has been for years called for, would never have appeared had I not proceeded to England, and arranged for the preparation of the plates, and partly because with the explanation thus afforded no one can justly misconstrue my action.

Hume's comment on the illustration The plate is a cruel caricature of the species, just sufficiently like to permit of identification, but miscolored to a degree only explicable on the hypothesis of somebody's colour-blindness… Fortunately for our supporters, this is the very worst plate in the three volumes.
Hume's comment on the illustration The plate is a cruel caricature of the species, just sufficiently like to permit of identification, but miscolored to a degree only explicable on the hypothesis of somebody's colour-blindness… Fortunately for our supporters, this is the very worst plate in the three volumes.
White-fronted Goose One of the illustrations that Hume considered as exceptionally good.
White-fronted Goose One of the illustrations that Hume considered as exceptionally good.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (969x545, 104 KB) Pterocles senegallus Painting from Hume and Marshall, 1880, Gamebirds of India, Burmah, Ceylon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (969x545, 104 KB) Pterocles senegallus Painting from Hume and Marshall, 1880, Gamebirds of India, Burmah, Ceylon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Anser_albifrons_hm. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Anser_albifrons_hm. ... Binomial name Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769) Subspecies (European White-fronted Goose) (Pacific White-fronted Goose) (Gambels White-fronted Goose) (Tule Goose) (Greenland White-fronted Goose) The White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) is a goose closely related to the smaller Lesser White-fronted Goose (). In North America it is known...

Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds (1883)

This was another major work by Hume and in it he covered descriptions of the nests, eggs and the breeding seasons of most Indian bird species. It makes use of notes from contributors to his journals as well as other correspondents and works of the time.


Hume's last piece of ornithological writing was done in 1891 as part of an Introduction to the Scientific Results of the Second Yarkand Mission an official publication on the contributions of Dr. Ferdinand Stoliczka, who died during the return journey on this mission. Stoliczka in a dying request had asked that Hume should edit the volume on the ornithological results.


South London Botanical Institute

Shortly after Hume's return to London he took up an interest in botany, and founded and endowed the South London Botanical Institute which continues to promote the study of plants to the present day. It was intended as a sort of local alternative to Kew. The SLBI has a herbarium containing approximately 100,000 specimens mostly of flowering plants from the British Isles and Europe including many collected by Hume. The collection has been augmented by the addition of other herbaria over the years, and has significant collections of Rubus (bramble) species and of the Shetland flora, the latter including a major gift from the late Richard Palmer, joint author of the standard work on Shetland plants. Other resources include a very good library originally containing Hume's own books. There are classroom facilities, a small botanical garden, and an ongoing programme of talks and courses. In the years leading up to the establishment of the Institute, Hume built up links with many of the leading botanists of his day. He worked with F. H. Davey and in the Flora of Cornwall (1909), Davey thanks Hume as his companion on excursions in Cornwall and Devon, and for helping in the compilation of that Flora, publication of which was financed by him. Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... The South London Botanical Institute was founded in 1910 by Allan Octavian Hume, a former civil servant for the British Raj in India. ...


References

  • Bruce, Duncan A. (2000) The Scottish 100: Portraits of History's Most Influential Scots, Carroll & Graf Publishers.
  • Buck, E. J. (1904) Simla, Past and Present. Thacker & Spink, Calcutta, 1904. excerpt
  • Biographies for Birdwatchers, Mearns and Mearns, ISBN 0-12-487422-3
  • Moulton, Edward (2003) 'The Contributions of Allan O. Hume to the Scientific Advancement of Indian Ornithology' in Petronia: Fifty Years of Post-Independence Ornithology in India, ed. J. C. Daniel and G. W. Ugra. Bombay Natural History Society - New Delhi: Oxford University Press, New Delhi. Pages 295-317.
  • Moxham, Roy (2002) The Great Hedge of India. ISBN 0-7567-8755-6

The Bombay Natural History Society is the largest organisation engaged in conservation research in the Indian subcontinent. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hume - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (332 words)
Allan Octavian Hume, (1829-1912) British administrator in India
Hume, Australian Capital Territory, a suburb of Canberra
Division of Hume, an electoral district in the Australian House of Representatives, in New South Wales.
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