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Encyclopedia > Allan Bloom
Allan Bloom's translation and interpretation, Second edition 1991.

Allan David Bloom (born September 14, 1930 in Indianapolis, Indiana, died October 7, 1992 in Chicago, Illinois) was an American philosopher, public intellectual, neoconservative and academic. Bloom championed the idea of 'Great Books' education, as did his mentor Leo Strauss, and became famous for criticism of contemporary American higher education in his bestselling 1987 book, The Closing of the American Mind. Image File history File links Bloom's_Republic_Translation_and_essay. ... Image File history File links Bloom's_Republic_Translation_and_essay. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Location in the state of Indiana Coordinates: County Marion Founded 1821 Mayor Bart Peterson (D) Area    - City 953. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, The City of Big Shoulders The 312 Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook Incorporated March 4, 1837 Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 0 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Core Curriculum. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... The Closing of the American Mind, by Allan Bloom (published 1987 ISBN 5-551-86868-0), describes how higher education has failed democracy and impoverished the souls of todays students. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Allan Bloom was an only child born to social worker parents. Bloom's mother was particularly intelligent and ambitious, earning her degree at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Entering university at the age of fifteen, as part of the University of Chicago's early admission program for gifted students, Bloom embarked upon his life-long passion for the 'idea' of the university. In the preface to Giants and Dwarfs, a collection of his essays published between 1960 and 1990, he stated that his education "began with Freud and ended with Plato". The theme of this education was self-knowledge, or self-discovery -- an idea that Bloom would later describe as seemingly impossible to conceive for a Midwestern American boy. Bloom credits Leo Strauss as the teacher who made this endeavour possible for him. The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ...


Allan Bloom earned his Ph.D. from the Committee on Social Thought of the University of Chicago in 1955. The Committee on Social Thought, one of several PhD-granting committees at the University of Chicago, was started in 1941 by the historian John U. Nef along with economist Frank Knight, anthropologist Robert Redfield, and University President Robert Maynard Hutchins. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Career Accomplishments

Bloom studied and taught abroad in Paris (1953-55) and Germany (1957). Upon returning to the United States he taught adult education students at the University of Chicago with his friend Werner J. Dannhauser, author of Nietzsche's View of Socrates. Bloom later taught at Yale, Cornell, Tel Aviv University and the University of Toronto, before returning to the University of Chicago. Yale redirects here. ... Cornell redirects here. ... The Engineering Faculty Boulevard The Smolarz Auditorium Tel Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל אביב, אתא) is one of Israels major universities. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a coeducational public research university in Toronto, Ontario. ...


In 1963, as a Professor at Cornell, Allan Bloom served as a faculty member of the Telluride Association. The organization aims to foster an everyday synthesis of self-governance and intellectual inquiry that enables students to develop their potential for leadership and public service. The students receive free room and board in the Telluride House on the Cornell University campus and run the house themselves, hiring staff, supervising maintenance and organizing seminars. Bloom had a major influence on several residents of Telluride House, including Paul Wolfowitz, one of the founding members of both the Project for the New American Century and the New Citizenship Project. 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The Telluride Association is a non-profit organization that creates and fosters educational communities that rely upon democratic participation. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (b. ... The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American political neo-conservative think tank, based in Washington, DC co-founded by William Kristol and Robert Kagan. ... New Citizenship Project (also New Citizenship Project, Inc. ...


During 1968, he published his most significant work of philosophical translation and interpretation, a translation of Plato's Republic. According to online bookseller Alibris, "it is the first translation of Plato's Republic that attempts to be strictly literal, the volume has been long regarded as the closest and best English translation available." Although the translation is not universally accepted, Bloom strove to act as a matchmaker between readers and the texts he translated and interpreted. He repeated this effort while a Professor at the University of Toronto in 1978, translating Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Emile. Bloom was an editor for the scholarly journal Political Theory as well as a contributor to History of Political Philosophy (edited by Joseph Cropsey and Leo Strauss) among many other publications during his years of academic teaching. Bloom also translated and commented upon Rousseau's "Letter to D'Alembert On the Theater" on which he relied heavily upon Plato's Laws. Plato (ancient Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... The Republic (Greek ) is an influential work of philosophy and political theory by the Greek philosopher Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 3, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political Science is the systematic study of the allocation and transfer of power in decision making. ... History of Political Philosophy is an important philosophy and political sciences text book published by the University of Chicago Press, edited by famous American philosophers Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey. ... Joseph Cropsey (New York City, August 27, 1919) is an american political philosopher and professor of political science at the University of Chicago, where he has also been associate director of the John M. Olin Center for Inquiry into the Theory and Practice of Democracy. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ...


After returning to Chicago, he befriended and taught courses with Saul Bellow. Bellow wrote the Preface to The Closing of the American Mind in 1987, the book that made Bloom famous and quite wealthy. Bellow immortalized his dead friend in the novel Ravelstein. In it, Ravelstein is clearly based on Allan Bloom and the novel relates Bloom's many interesting personal characteristics, including his homosexuality -- something Bloom himself never spoke of publicly. One may gather from his silence that he found it unnecessary to his thought or purpose as a teacher or philosopher. Even while authoring his last work Love and Friendship (Bloom), Bloom did not touch upon his private love life. In some sense this silence, a forgetting of the body, is distincly part of Bloom's educational approach. Bellow as depicted in his Nobel diploma. ... The Closing of the American Mind, by Allan Bloom (published 1987 ISBN 5-551-86868-0), describes how higher education has failed democracy and impoverished the souls of todays students. ... Ravelstein cover Ravelstein is Saul Bellows final novel. ...


Philosophy

Bloom's work is not easily defined, yet there is a thread that links all of his published material. Allan Bloom was a philosopher and he was primarily concerned with preserving the philosophical way of life for the future generation. He strived to do this through both scholarly and popular writing. Accordingly, his writings fall into two basic categories: scholarly (e.g. Plato's Republic) and popular political comment (e.g. Closing of the American Mind). On the surface, this is a valid distinction, yet closer examinations of Bloom’s works reveal a direct connection between the two types of expression, which reflect his view of philosophy and the role of the philosopher in political life. Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... The Republic is an influential dialogue by Plato, written in the first half of the 4th century BC. This Socratic dialogue mainly is about political philosophy and ethics. ... The Closing of the American Mind, by Allan Bloom (published 1987 ISBN 5551868680), describes how higher education has failed democracy and impoverished the souls of todays students. ... The Death of Socrates, by Jacques-Louis David (1787) depicts the philosopher Socrates carrying out his own execution. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ...


Plato's Republic

Bloom’s translation and interpretive essay on Plato’s Republic was published in 1968. For Bloom, previous translations were lacking. In particuliar, Bloom was eager to sweep away the Christian Platonist layers that had coated the translations and scholarly analysis. In 1971, he wrote, "With the Republic, for example, a long tradition of philosophy tells us what the issues are. [...] This sense of familiarity may be spurious; we may be reading the text as seen by the tradition rather than raising Plato's own questions." ("The Political Philosopher in a Democratic Society", Giants & Dwarfs, 1990, p.106). 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...


Up until the late 20th century, most English language Platonists were following a tradition that blended Christian theology with Plato. This view, named Christian Platonism, interprets Plato as prophet of the coming Christian age, a monotheist in a polytheist world. In this school, Socrates is considered a pre-Christian saint; the tradition emphasizes Socrates' 'goodness' and other-worldly attributes, such as accepting his death like a martyr. Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ... Plato (ancient Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Monotheism (in Greek monon = single and Theos = God) is the belief in a single, universal, all-encompassing deity. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Socrates (Greek: Σωκράτης, invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Socrates (Greek: Σωκράτης, invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Yet there developed a different type of Platonism, Pagan Platonism, a type of which Bloom became aware and most certainly adopted from his teacher Leo Strauss (1899-1973), the most important representative of this thought in the past century. Adherents have a significantly different view of Plato’s Republic. Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a term which, from a western perspective, has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born American political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical philosophy. ...


Strauss developed this point of view by studying ancient Islamic and Jewish theorists, such as Al-Farabi (870-950) and Moses Maimonides (1135-1204). Each philosopher was faithful to his religion but sought to integrate classical political philosophy into Islam and Judaism. Islam has a prophet-legislator Muhammad and similarly, Jewish law is a function of its theology. Thus these philosophers had to write with great skill, incorporating the ideas of Plato and Aristotle, many of which contradicted or contravened Islamic or Jewish thought and practice, without being seen to challenge the theology. According to Strauss, Al-Farabi and Moses Maimonides were really writing for potential philosophers within the pious faithful. Strauss calls this the discovery of esoteric writing, and he first presents it as a possibility in Persecution and the Art of Writing (1952). Christianity differed from these faiths in that philosophy was always free to establish a foothold in Christendom, without necessarily being seen as heretical. All one has to do is think of Saint Augustine (354-430) and his City of God and On Free Will. Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Plato (ancient Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (Hebrew: רבי משה בן מיימון; Arabic: Mussa bin Maimun ibn Abdallah al-Kurtubi al-Israili; March 30, 1135—December 13, 1204), commonly known by his Greek name Maimonides, was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... For the first Archbishop of Canterbury, see Saint Augustine of Canterbury. ...


Strauss took this insight and applied it eventually to Plato’s writings themselves. Bloom's translation and essay of the Republic takes this stance; therefore, it is radically different in many important aspects than the previous translations and interpretations of the Republic. Most notable is Bloom's discussion of Socratic irony. In fact, irony is the key to Bloom’s take on the Republic. (See his discussion of Books II-VI of the Republic.) But what is this irony? Allan Bloom says a philosopher is immune to irony because he can see the tragic as comic and comic as tragic. Bloom refers to Socrates, the philosopher par excellence, in his Interpretative Essay stating, "Socrates can go naked where others go clothed; he is not afraid of ridicule. He can also contemplate sexual intercourse where others are stricken with terror; he is not afraid of moral indignation. In other words he treats the comic seriously and the tragic lightly." (Plato’s Republic, Interpretative Essay, p.387). Thus irony in the Republic refers to the 'Just City in Speech'. Bloom looks at it not as a model for future society, nor as a template for the human soul; rather, it is an ironic city, an example of the distance between philosophy and every potential philosopher. Bloom follows Strauss in suggesting that the 'Just City in Speech' is not natural; it is man-made, and thus ironic. Plato (ancient Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Socratic irony is feigned ignorance, and feigned belief that ones interlocutor knows the truth about something, in order to provoke discussion and advance the search for truth. ... Irony is a literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history). ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... See comedian Stand up comedian List of Comedians List of British comedians comics comic book comic strip underground comics alternative comics web comic sprite comics manga graphic novel List of comic characters This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self-aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ...


Closing of the American Mind

Bloom's Closing of the American Mind is a critique of the contemporary university and how Bloom sees it as failing its students. Also, Bloom criticises analytic philosophy as a movement, "Professors of these schools simply would not and could not talk about anything important, and they themselves do not represent a philosophic life for the students". To a great extent, Bloom's criticism revolves around the devaluation of the Great Books of Western Thought as a source of wisdom. However, Bloom's critique extends beyond the university to speak to the general crisis in American society. "Closing of the American Mind" draws analogies between the United States and the Weimar Republic. The modern liberal philosophy, he says, enshrined in the Enlightenment thought of John Locke - that a Platonically just society could be based upon self-interest alone, coupled by the emergence of relativism in American thought - had led to this crisis. The Closing of the American Mind, by Allan Bloom (published 1987 ISBN 5551868680), describes how higher education has failed democracy and impoverished the souls of todays students. ... Analytic philosophy is the dominant philosophical movement in University philosophy departments in English-speaking countries and in Scandinavia, although one of its founders, Gottlob Frege, was German, and many of its leading proponents, such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, Rudolf Carnap, Kurt Gödel, Karl Popper, Hans Reichenbach, Herbert Feigl, Otto Neurath... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... The Age of Enlightenment (from the German word Aufklärung, meaning Enlightenment) refers to either the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the seventeenth century and the Age of Reason. ... John Locke (August 29, 1632 – October 28, 1704) was an influential English philosopher. ...


For Bloom, this created a void in the souls of Americans, into which demagogic radicals as exemplified by 60's student leaders could leap. (In the same fashion, Bloom suggests, that the Nazi brownshirts once filled the lacuna created in German society by the Weimar Republic.) In the second instance, the higher calling of philosophy/reason understood as freedom of thought, had been eclipsed by a pseudo-philosophy, or an ideology of thought. Relativism was one feature of modern liberal philosophy that had subverted the Platonic/Socratic teaching. The Great Books of Western Thought simply became the ramblings of dead white men rather than beacons leading to the highest calling. National Socialism redirects here. ... Look up lacuna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Compare Moral relativism, Aesthetic relativism and Cultural relativism. ...


The power behind Bloom's critique of contemporary social movements at play in universities or society at large is derived from his philosophical orientation. The failure of contemporary liberal education leads to the social and sexual habits of modern students, and their inability to fashion a life for themselves beyond the mundane offerings touted as success. Commercial pursuits had become more highly valued than the philosophic quest for truth or the civilized pursuits of honour and glory. Social movements are broader political associations focussed on specific issues. ... The term liberal education has its origins in the medieval concept of the liberal arts , but now tends to be mainly associated with the application of Enlightenment liberalism. ...


While Bloom discusses contemporary social movements (particularly those that gained ascendancy in the 1960's), he is virtually silent on the gay rights movement. This is of some interest, as there has been much public discussion concerning Bloom's own homosexuality, a subject he never wrote about, and that was widely known by his friends and many of his students. The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ...


List of works

  • Shakespeare on Love & Friendship. (2000) (reprint of a section of Love & Friendship).
  • Love & Friendship. (1993)
  • Giants and Dwarfs: Essays, 1960-1990. (1990)
  • Closing of the American Mind. (1987)
  • Shakespeare's Politics. (1981) (with Harry V. Jaffa).

List of Editor Works

  • Plato's Symposium: a translation by Seth Benardete with commentaries by Allan Bloom and Seth Benardete. (2001)
  • Confronting the Constitution. (1990)
  • Kojève, Introduction to the reading of Hegel, ed. by Allan Bloom, tr. by James H. Nichols Jr. (1969)
  • Republic of Plato. Translated with notes and an interpretive essay. (1968), (1991 2nd ed.)
  • Letter to D'Alembert and writings for the theater. (Edited and translated by Allan Bloom, Charles Butterworth, and Christopher Kelly.) (1968)

List of Works on Bloom as Subject

  • Political Philosophy and the Human Soul: essays in memory of Allan Bloom. Edited by Michael Palmer and Thomas Pangle. (1995)
  • Ravelstein. (Novel) Saul Bellow (2000) Please Note: This is piece of fiction which Bellow partially based on Allan Bloom, his former friend and colleague at the University of Chicago; though the personage Bellow describes is likely somewhat exaggerated, various sources corroborate the novel's details.
  • Platonische Kulturkritik in Amerika. Studien zu Allan Blooms The Closing of the American Mind (Schriften zur Literaturwissenschaft Band 18). Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. Till Kinzel (2002)

Thomas Pangle is a political theorist. ... Ravelstein cover Ravelstein is Saul Bellows final novel. ...

Quotes

  • "Education is the movement from darkness to light."
  • "The most successful tyranny is not the one that uses force to assure uniformity but the one that removes the awareness of other possibilities, that makes it seem inconceivable that other ways are viable, that removes the sense that there is an outside." (Closing of the American Mind)
  • "[The culmination of our vast technology is] a pubescent child whose body throbs with orgasmic rhythms, whose feelings are made articulate in hymns to the joys of onanism or the killing of parents; whose ambition is to win fame and wealth by imitating the drag-queen who makes the music." (ibid.)
  • "Law may prescribe that the male nipples be made equal to the female ones, but they still will not give milk."

Miscellaneous

Allan Bloom should not be confused with the American literary critic Harold Bloom. Harold Bloom, Literary Critic Dr. Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Allan Bloom at AllExperts (2036 words)
Allan Bloom was a philosopher and he was primarily concerned with preserving that way of life for future philosophers.
Allan Bloom says a philosopher is immune to irony because he can see the tragic as comic and comic as tragic.
Bloom looks at it not as a model for future society, nor as a template for the human soul; rather, it is an ironic city, an example of the distance between philosophy and every potential philosopher.
Allan Bloom (893 words)
Bloom believed that the Great Books were the vehicles of the best of 2500 years of reflection on the most permanent and important questions one can face as an individual and as society.
Allan Bloom was a “psychologist” in the classical sense, thus a perennialist.
Bloom also referred to an openness to study historical and cultural texts and materials in their original form, and be open to develop one’s own thoughts from them rather than accepting them at first glance with the opinions of so-called experts in the field of their textbooks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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