FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > All India Forward Bloc
All India Forward Bloc
Party Chairperson {{{chairman}}}
General Secretary {{{secretary}}}
Parliamentary Party Chairperson {{{ppchairman}}}
Leader of Lok Sabha {{{loksabha_leader}}}
Leader of Rajya Sabha {{{rajyasabha_leader}}}
Founded 1939
Headquarters 28, Gurudwara Rakab Ganj Road, New Delhi 110001
Alliance Left Front
Seats in Lok Sabha {{{loksabha_seats}}}
Seats in Rajya Sabha {{{rajyasabha_seats}}}
Political Ideology Left wing Nationalism, Socialism
Political Position Fiscal:
Social:
Publications Towards Socialism, Lokmat
Website forwardbloc.org

The All India Forward Bloc is a leftwing nationalist political party in India. It emerged as a faction within the Indian National Congress in 1939, led by Subhas Chandra Bose. The party re-established as an independent political party after the independence of India. It has its main stronghold in West Bengal. Image File history File links Aifbflag. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... Left wing redirects here. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Subhas Chandra Bose, (Bengali: , (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), generally known as Netaji (lit. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ...

Contents

History

Formation of the Forward Bloc

Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram
Netaji poster in Thiruvananthapuram

The Forward Bloc of the Indian National Congress was formed on 3 May 1939 by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, who had resigned from the presidency of the Indian National Congress on April 29 after being outmanœuvred by Gandhi. The formation of the Forward Bloc was announced to the public at a rally in Calcutta. Initially the aim of the Forward Bloc was to rally all the leftwing sections within the Congress and develop an alternative leadership inside the Congress. Bose became the president of the Forward Bloc and S.S. Cavesheer its vice-president. A Forward Bloc Conference was held in Bombay in the end of June. At that conference the constitution and programme of the Forward Bloc were approved.[1] In July 1939 Subhas Chandra Bose announced the Committee of the Forward Bloc. It had Subhas Chandra Bose as president, S.S. Cavesheer from Punjab as its vice-president, Lal Shankarlal from Delhi, as its general secretary and Pandit B Tripathi and Khurshed Nariman from Bombay as secretaries. Other prominent members were Annapurniah from Andhra Pradesh, Senapati Bapat, Hari Vishnu Kamnath from Bombay, Pasumpon U Muthuramalingam Thevar from Tamilnadu and Sheel Bhadra Yajee from Bihar. Satya Ranjan Bakshi, was appointed as the secretary of the Bengal Provincial Forward Bloc.[2] All India Forward Bloc poster i Kerala celebrating Netaji Subhash Chandra Boses birthday 23rd January. ... All India Forward Bloc poster i Kerala celebrating Netaji Subhash Chandra Boses birthday 23rd January. ... , Thiruvananthapuram   (Malayalam: തിരുവനന്തപുരം TiruvanÅ­ntapuraṁ), also known as Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala and the headquarters of the Thiruvananthapuram District. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Sardul Singh Caveeshar (1886 in Amritsar - 1963) was an Indian newspaper editor, and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Sardul Singh Caveeshar (1886 in Amritsar - 1963) was an Indian newspaper editor, and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Khursheed Framji Nariman (also known as Veer Nariman) was one of the second generation of Parsi stalwarts in the Indian National Congress. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... Sheel Bhadra Yajee (1906-1996) was a freedom fighter from Bihar who was associated with the non-violent and the violent form of freedom struggle. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ...


In August the same year Bose began publishing a newspaper titled Forward Bloc. He travelled around the country, rallying support for his new political project.[2]


Nagpur conference

The following year, on June 2022 1940, the Forward Bloc held its first All India Conference in Nagpur. The conference declared the Forward Bloc to be a socialist political party, and the date of June 22 is considered as the founding date of the party by the Forward Bloc itself. The conference passed a resolution titled 'All Power to the Indian People', urging militant action for struggle against British colonial rule. Subhas Chandra Bose was elected as the president of the party and H.V. Kamath the general secretary.[3] is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arrest and exile of Bose

Soon thereafter, on July 2, Bose was arrested and detained in Presidency Jail, Calcutta. In January 1941 he escaped from house arrest, and clandestinely went into exile. He travelled to the Soviet Union via Afghanistan, seeking Soviet support to the Indian independence struggle. Stalin declined Bose's request, and he then travelled to Germany. In Berlin he set up the Free India Centre, and rallied the Indian Legion.[4] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... During World War 2 the Tiger Legion was a unit of the German Wehrmacht made up of men from India. ...


In August 1942 the British authorities banned the Forward Bloc. Its offices around the country were ransacked. In 1943 Bose was transported to Asia, were he took over the leadership of the Indian National Army. During the final phase of the war the INA fought alongside the Japanese against the British army. The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second...


Inside India, local activists of the Forward Bloc was continued anti-British activities without central coordination. For example, in Bihar members were involved in the Azad Dasta resistance groups, and distributed propaganda in support of Bose and INA. They did not have, however, any organic link neither with Bose nor the INA.[5]


Post-war reorganization

At the end of the war, the Forward Bloc was reorganized. In February 1946 R.S. Ruiker organised a All India Active Workers Conference at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. The conference declared the formation of the 'FB Workers Assembly', in practice the legal cover of the still illegal Forward Bloc. Notably some leading communists from Bombay, like K.N. Joglekar and Soli Batliwalli, joined the 'FB Workers Assembly'. The Workers Assembly conference declared that the "Forward Bloc is a a Socialist Party, accepting the theory of class struggle in its fullest implications and a programme of revolutionary mass action for the attainment of Socialism leading to a Classless Society."[6] Ramchandra Sakharam Ruikar was a pioneer of the Indian labor movement. ... , Jabalpur (Hindi: जबलपुर) is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh in India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...


The Ahead of the 1946 assembly elections the ban on the Bloc was lifted in June that year. The Working Committee of the Forward Bloc met on June 10.[7] is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Elections to the Constituent Assembly and to provincial legislatures were held in December 1946. The Forward Bloc contested the elections. H.V. Kamath won a seat in the Constituent Assembly and Jyotish Chandra Ghosh, Hemantha Kumar Basu and Lila Roy were elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly.[8]


However, the Bloc was clearly divided along ideological lines. One section was influenced by Marxism whereas the other upheld 'Subhasism', a syncretic ideology consisting of socialism, nationalism and Indian spiritualism. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Arrah conference

The Bloc held its 2nd All India Conference in Arrah, Bihar on January 1214 1947. S.S. Cavesheer (a leading member of the Subhasist sector) was elected president and Sheel Bhadra Yagee (a leading member of the Marxist sector) was elected general secretary.[9] The party took the name 'All India Forward Bloc'. The conference denounced the understanding between the Congress and the British government for the Independence of India, and called upon the Forward Bloc members present in the Constituent Assembly to withdraw from it.[10] Subsequently, a national council was held in Bauria, West Bengal, which reaffirmed the demand of boycotting the Constituent Assembly as well as issuing a decree that Bloc members of state legislatures would resign. Arrah is a town in India, located 36 miles from Patna, in the state of Bihar. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sardul Singh Caveeshar (1886 in Amritsar - 1963) was an Indian newspaper editor, and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... Sheel Bhadra Yajee (1906-1996) was a freedom fighter from Bihar who was associated with the non-violent and the violent form of freedom struggle. ... Bauria is an extinct genus of the suborder therocephalia. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ...


Split between Yagee and Ruikar

Following Independence and Partition, the party national council met in Varanasi February 1948. The national council meeting was also preceded by a decision of the Indian National Congress in the beginning of the year to expel all dissenting tendencies within the Congress, including the Forward Bloc. Thus the party decided to renounce any links with the Congress once and for all, and reconstruct itself as an independent opposition party.[11] Moreover, it passed a resolution that the party be divided into a Forward Bloc for India and a Forward Bloc for the new nation of Pakistan. This would soon prove to be very controversial. The general secretary Yagee did, in line with the Varanasi resolution, dissolve the Bengal committee of the Forward Bloc and set-up ad hoc committees for West Bengal and East Bengal. Now the division between 'Marxists' and 'Subhasists' resurfaced. The 'Subhasists', and S. S. Cavesheer in particular, criticized Yagee's actions.[12] Yagee resigned from the post of general secretary. This article is under construction. ... , Vārāasī ( , Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras ( , Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi ( , Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ...


The split was now a fact. The 'Subhasist' group, led by Ruiker and Cavesheer, called for a conference in Chandranagar, West Bengal. Their conference was held on December 29–31. On the same dates Yagee organised a conference in Calcutta. Effectively there was now two Forward Blocs, the Forward Bloc led by Ruiker and the Forward Bloc led by Yagee. Yagee was elected general secretary and K. N. Joglekar, chairman of the Yagee-led group.[13] Notably, the Yagee-led group adopted a red flag with a leaping tiger and a hammer and sickle. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... In 1948 the recently reorganized All India Forward Bloc split into two factions, which came to function as separate parties. ... For other uses, see Hammer and sickle (disambiguation). ...


Roughly speaking the Yagee's party had its main base in Bihar, Punjab and West Bengal, whereas the Ruiker-led group had its strongholds in Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.[14]


The same year Yagee's party decided to join the United Socialist Organisation of India, a front led by Subhas Chandra Bose's elder brother Sarat Chandra Bose. Joglekar revolted against this decision. His followers, which were found in West Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, rallied to form the Forward Communist Party. United Socialist Organisation was a leftwing alliance in India. ... Sarat Chandra Bose (Septem, 1889 - February 20, 1950) was a barrister and Indian freedom fighter. ... Forward Communist Party was a political party in India. ...


The Yagee-led party did however survive Joglekar's departure. Yagee was able to push through a merger between the Forward Bloc and the Desh Sevak Party, led by INA officers General Mohan Singh and Colonel Guridal Singh Dhillon, in October 1949. Both had worked closely with Subhas Chandra Bose. They had both been amongst the accused in the Red Fort trials. Now, Mohan Singh was appointed chairman of the Forward Bloc and Dhillon was appointed as its general secretary. This merger gave a considerable moral boost to the party. In June 1951 the majority of the Ruiker-led Forward Bloc reunified with the party. A joint central committee meeting was held on June 23, which confirmed the merger of the two parties. Mohan Singh and Dhillon were re-elected as the party chairman and general secretary. Desh Sevak Party was a political party in India. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1952 elections

In the 1952 general election the party contested as 'Forward Bloc (Marxist)', a denomination that differentiated it from the rump 'Forward Bloc (Ruiker)'.


In Tripura a united front was formed by the Communist Party of India, Tripura Ganatantrik Sangha, Ganamukti Parishad, Ganatantrik Nari Samiti and independents for to contest the election to the Tripura electoral college (whose function was to appoint a Rajya Sabha delegate from Tripura) jointly. The Forward Bloc participated in mass rallies on October 2 and December 2, 1951. However, just before the election the Forward Bloc withdrew from the front and decided to contest three of the 30 seats on their own. None of the Forward Bloc candidates were elected.[15] Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... Ganamukti Parishad flag Mukti Parishader Itikatha Tripura Rajaer Upajati Ganamukti Parishad (Tripura State Tribal Peoples Liberation Council) In 1948 the Mukti Parishad (Liberation Council, later renamed Ganamukti Parishad) was formed as a struggle front against the despotic rule of the monarchic leadership of Tripura. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 5th party conference (a 4th party plenum had been held in Ingota, U.P. in 1949) was held in Puri, Orissa on December 2831 1952. Mohan Singh was elected chairman and Dhillon as general secretary.[13] , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Puri can mean: Puri, a city in the Indian state of Orissa, which is famous for the Jagannath temple and the serene beaches located there . ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1953 a group of party leaders from West Bengal, like Amar Bose, Satyapriya Banerjee and Suhurit Chaudhury, were expelled for breaking party discipline. The expellees formed the Marxist Forward Bloc. Marxist Forward Bloc, splinter-group of All India Forward Bloc. ...


Expulsion of Yagee and Singh

In 1955 the Indian National Congress adopted socialism as its policy. Thus leaders like Yagee and Singh then proposed that as the Congress had become a socialist party, the Forward Bloc ought to merge with it. Singh and Yagee, without consulting the Central Committee nor the party membership, declared the unification of the Forward Bloc into the Congress. Many sections of the party disagreed with this move, and a Central Committee meeting was held in Nagpur May 11-15. The Central Committee decided to expel Singh and Yagee. Hemanta Kumar Bose was elected as the new chairman and R.K. Haldulkar as general secretary.[16] This team would continue in their posts until Bose's murder in 1971. U. Muthuramalingam Thevar from Tamil Nadu was elected as deputy chairman of the party. , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, also known as Pasumpon Muthuramalingam Thevar (October 30, 1908 – October 30, 1963) was an Indian politician. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


Following the 1955 split the party would enjoy a relatively long period without any major splits.


Socialist unity

In 1964 a unity process was initiated by the Praja Socialist Party, which eventually resulted in the formation of the Samyukta Socialist Party. The Forward Bloc was invited to join the new party, and the Delhi unit of the party did take part in a joint socialist anti-Nehru campaign conference in April 1964.[17] However, the party did not merge into the SSP. The Praja Socialist Party was an Indian political party in existence from 1952 to 1972. ... Samyukta Socialist Party (United Socialist Party), a political party in India. ...


Death of U.M. Thevar

The party stalwart in Tamil Nadu, U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, died on October 30, 1963. Following his death a power-struggle began between two of his disciples, Sasivarna Thevar and P.K. Mookiah Thevar. Mookiah Thevar emerged victorious and Sasivarna Thevar left to form his own party, the Subhasist Forward Bloc. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Subhasist Forward Bloc was a political party in Tamil Nadu, India. ...


A bye-election for the Aruppukottai Lok Sabha constituency seat vacated by U. Muthuramalingam Thevar's death was held in 1964, in which the Forward Bloc was defeated for the first time.[18]


Progressive Front in Tripura

In 1965 the party joined a 'Progressive Front' in Tripura. The front consisted of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India, the Forward Bloc and a break-away faction of the Socialist Party. The front demanded nationwide land reforms, strengthening of the national defence, withdrawal from the Commonwealth, nationalisation of foreign capital, a rational food policy, release of all political prisoners and scrapping of the Indo-American agreement of food supply. Existence of the new front was declared at a meeting in Agartala on November 17. Mass rallies of the front were held in Belonia on November 28 and then in Birchandra Bazar (near Belonia) on December 1.[19] The front did not last, though, as in the 1967 election the communist parties aligned with a splinter-group of the Congress Party. The Forward Bloc did not present any candidates in that election.[20] The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ... Socialist Party has been the name of several political parties in India, all of which have their roots in the Congress Socialist Party formed during the freedom struggle. ... -1... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Agartala   (Bengali: আগরতলা) is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Belonia is a town and a nagar panchayat in South Tripura district in the state of Tripura, India. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1968 split in Tamil Nadu

In 1968 two influential party leaders in Tamil Nadu Velayudham Nayar (then a central committee member of the party) and S. Andi Thevar broke away from AIFB and founded the Revolutionary Forward Bloc. Nayar and Thevar accused the Forward Bloc of having deviated from its socialist principles through its cooperation with the rightwing Swatantra Party.[21] K. Velayudham Nayar was an Indian politician. ... Revolutionary Forward Bloc was a political party in Tamil Nadu, India. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Swatantra Party (swatantra in Hindi means independence) was a political party in India founded by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari in 1959. ...


West Dinajpur clashes

In July 1969, violent clashes erupted in West Dinajpur, West Bengal, between peasants aligned with the of Communist Party of India (Marxist) and East Pakistani refugee cultivators, who supported the Forward Bloc. CPI(M) leader Hare Krishna Konar characterized the events as a degeneration of the agrarian struggles in rural West Bengal.[22] East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


Split in the Indian National Congress

In 1969 a major split in the Indian National Congress. Indira Gandhi had entered into open conflict with the traditional Congress leadership. Effectively two separate Congress parties appeared, the Congress(R) led by Indira and the Congress(O) led by Kamaraj. The split was in many ways a left-right one, with Indira whipping up populism against the established party elites. The Forward Bloc did in some ways welcome the new developments. It appreciated Indira's stands and reformulated its anti-Congress line to focus mainly opposition to the traditional Congress elite (i.e. the Congress(O)). In the 1969 presidential elections, AIFB supported Indira's candidate V.V. Giri. This caused an abrupt break-up of the Swatantra-AIFB alliance in Tamil Nadu, as the Swatantra Party sought to align itself with the Congress(O).[23] A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... The Indian National Congress (Organisation) or Congress (O) was a political party in India formed when Indira Gandhi (then the Congress president) broke away from the leadership of the Congress Party (which became known as Congress (I)). As Indira had control over the state machinery, her faction was recognized as... K. Kamaraj (July 15, 1903–1975) was an Indian politician widely known as a kingmaker in Indian politics. ... Varahagiri Venkata Giri (August 10, 1894 - June 23, 1980), commonly known as V. V. Giri, was the fourth president of the Republic of India (August 24, 1969 - August 23, 1974). ...


1971–72 elections

On February 20, just ahead of the 1971 general elections, the All India Forward Bloc chairman Hemantha Kumar Bose was murdered in Calcutta. An emergency central committee meeting was held on February 24, which appointed P.K. Mookiha Thevar as the new chairman of the party.[24] is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 1971 Lok Sabha election, the Forward Bloc launched 24 candidates around the country. Two were elected, P.K. Mookiah Thevar from Ramanthapuram[25] and Jambuwantrao Dhote from Nagpur[26]. The party contested 3 seats in the interior of Maharashtra, were it performed well. Dhote, who was then known as Vidarbha ka Sher (the Lion of Vidarbha), had joined the Forward Bloc and campaigned for a separate Vidarbha state with the Forward Bloc as his platform. Dhote was hugely popular in the region at the time, and could draw crows of hundreds of thousands to his meetings.[27][28][29] , Nāgpur   (Marathi: नागपुर) Third largest city in the western Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune with a population of 2. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Map of the districts comprising the Vidarbha region. ...


In Tamil Nadu the party contested one seat, Ramanthapuram, with the support of its allies in the Progressive Front (most notably the Congress(R) and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam). Meanwhile the Forward Bloc played an important role in securing Mukkulathor votes for its Progressive Front allies.[23] DMK redirects here. ...


In West Bengal the party contested 10 Lok Sabha seats. The party obtained some significant votage in constituencies like Cooch Behar (22.17%) and Birbhum (19.70%), but in general it was defeated by the CPI(M) candidates.[30] For other uses see Cooch Behar (disambiguation) Cooch Behar (Bengali: কোচবিহার Pronunciation: kOOch bĭhär`) is the district headquarters and the largest town of Cooch Behar District of Indian state of West Bengal. ... Birbhum is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal. ...


Moreover the party contested 3 seats in Bihar, 1 in Haryana, 1 in Madhya Pradesh, 4 in Uttar Pradesh and 1 in Delhi. In total the candidates of the party obtained 962 971 votes (0.66% of the national vote).[30]


In the 1971 state legislative assembly election in Orissa, the party contested four seats. It got 8393 votes (0.19% of the state-wide vote), but was not close to winning any seat.[31] In Tamil Nadu the party contested 9 seats in the southern part of the state within the framework of the Progressive Front.[23]. Out of these nine candidates, seven won. In total its vote stood at 268 721 (1.71% of the state-wide vote). One of its candidate came second and in the Mudukulathor constituency (that had been the epicentre of the violent 1957 Ramnad riots) the AIFB candidate R. Rathina Thevar came third with 17244 votes (31.02%). The most spectacular victory was that of P.K. Mookiah Thevar (who contested Lok Sabha and assembly elections simultaneously) who got 49292 votes (74.46%) in the Usilampatti constituency, defeating S. Andi Thevar of the Revolutionary Forward Bloc.[32][33] Lastly in West Bengal the party contested 52 constituencies, but could only win three seats. Its vote stood at 374 141 (2.90% of the state-wide vote).[34] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


On March 28, 1972 the party was able to win a seat in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Council (the upper house of the regional parliament) for the first time. S. Sakthi Mohan, the editor of the regional party organ Kannagi, was elected with the votes of the AIFB, DMK, PSP, Muslim League and the Tamil Arasu Kazhagam.[24] is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kannagi was a Tamil language newspaper in published in Tamil Nadu, southern India. ...


In the 1972 state legislative assembly election, the Forward Bloc presented 1 candidate in Assam[35], 5 in Bihar[36] and 2 in Madhya Pradesh[37]. In Maharashtra the party contested 26 seats. Like in the 1971 Lok Sabha elections the party did well in the interior areas of the state. It won the Nagpur North and Yeotmal seats, and came second in several others. In total the AIFB candidates in Maharashtra got 363 547 votes (2.4% of the state-wide vote).[38] In West Bengal, were fresh elections to the state assembly were again held in 1972, the Forward Bloc launched 18 candidates. It got 331 244 votes (2.48% of the state-wide vote), but could not win a single seat.[39]


Realignment in Tripura

After having contested the 1972 elections on its own, the Forward Bloc decided to join a 'United Front' led by the communist parties in Tripura.[40] The front demanded clear-cut policies for procurement and distribution of food grains, stop to sprilalling prices of essential commodities, a land reform legislation for delimitation of Tribal reserve areas and creation of employments opportunities for the unemployed. A 24-hour Tripura Bandh was organised by the front on December 16. On May 3, 1974 the four parties organised a 12-hour Tripura Bandh.[41] Bandh, originally a Hindi word meaning closed, is a form of protest used by political activists in India. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


1977 elections

1977 was a crucial year in Indian political history. For the first time in independent India, the Congress Party was routed in a national election. The Forward Bloc had contested four seats in the Lok Sabha election. In West Bengal it had three candidates which were supported by the Left Front, out of whom all three were elected.[42] Moreover, the party contested one seat in Haryana.[43]. Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ...


In Tripura a Left Front was formed consisting of the CPI(M), RSP and the Forward Bloc. The Front launched one Forward Bloc candidate, Brajagopal Roy in the Town Bordowali constituency. Roy won the seat with 7800 votes (62.76%). In the beginning of 1978 the Left Front formed a majority government in the state, with Brajagopal Roy appointed minister in the state government.[44] Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ...


Recent history

Ahead of the 2000 Bihar legislative election AIFB took part in building a front together with the Bharatiya Jan Congress, the Bihar Vikas Party, the Janata Dal (Secular), the Samajwadi Janata Party and the Nationalist Congress Party. The front vowed to maintain equidistance towards the two major blocs in Bihari politics, the Rashtriya Janata Dal and the National Democratic Alliance, condeming them as 'casteist and communal'.[45] Bharatiya Jan Congress (Indian Popular Congress) was a Indian state of Bihar around 1999-2001. ... Bihar Vikas Party (Bihar Development Party), political party in the Indian state of Bihar. ... The Janata Dal (Secular) is a left of centre Indian political party. ... This January 2007 needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... RJD Womens wing office in Delhi The [Rashtriya Janata Dal]http://www. ... The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition in India. ...


In 2002 AIFB was one of four leftwing parties that nominated Lakshmi Sehgal as a candidate for the presidency of India. Sehgal, who challenged the main candidate A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, got around 10% of the votes. Captain Doctor Lakshmi Sehgal, an India doctor and politician. ... Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (born October 15, 1931, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India), usually referred to as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, is the President of India. ...


Just before the 2006 Tamil Nadu legislative election, the party was joined by the actor Karthik. Karthik was given the post of president of the Tamil Nadu state unit by the national party leadership and was put in charge of the election campaign of the party in the state. The party decided to contest a large number of seats wiuthout joining neither of the two major political blocs in Tamil Nadu. The appointment of Karthik as the new leader of the state unit provoked the sole Forward Bloc legislator and secretary of the state unit, L. Santhanam to leave the party.[46][47] In the election the party lost its representation in the assembly. A few months later the party leadership expelled Karthik on the grounds of 'anti-party activities'[48][49] Karthik Karthik is a Tamil Actor, son of vetren actor Muthuraman has got around 20 years experience in more than 100 films. ...


Ahead of the 2006 West Bengal legislative election, a section of the party led by Jayanta Roy, former AIFB Rajya Sabha member, and Chhaya Ghosh, former West Bengal Minister of Agriculture, broke away and formed the Indian People's Forward Bloc. This party aligned itself with the Indian National Congress. Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... Indian Peoples Forward Bloc is a political party in West Bengal, India. ...


2007 UP election

In the 2007 assembly election in Uttar Pradesh AIFB launched three candidate, Ram Lakhan in Bisalpur (732 votes, 0.51% of the votes in the constituency), Samar Singh in Fatehpur (870 votes, 0.69%) and Jabar Singh in Hastinapur (503 votes, 0.42%).[50] Vidhan Sabha, the name of the state-level legislature assemblies in India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...


Forward Bloc today

AIFB struggles for socialism in India but they consider that their ideology differs from that of Communist Party of India (Marxist) and Communist Party of India, as they build their socialism on foreign ideologues as Marx and Lenin, whereas the socialism of AIFB is the Indian socialism of Subhas Chandra Bose. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a...


AIFB has branches throughout the country, but the main strength of the party is concentrated in West Bengal. It is part of the Left Front government in there, and Forward Bloc has various ministers in the state government. Notably though AIFB is cooperating with CPI(M) in West Bengal, Tripura and on the national level, AIFB is not part of the Left Democratic Front in Kerala. , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... Left Democratic Front is one of the two major alliances that dominate the political life of the Indian state Kerala. ...


AIFB, together with the Revolutionary Socialist Party, is significantly more hesitant towards supporting the Congress-led governments than the CPI and CPI(M). Party flag Announcement of the 17th RSP National Conference in Pondicherry RSP-UTUC flagpole in Allepey, Kerala RSP poster in Kerala, honouring historical RSP leader T.K. Divakaran RSP mural in Agartala RSP election propaganda in Amarpur, Tripura Revolutionary Socialist Party is a Marxist-Leninist political party in India. ...


In the Lok Sabha elections 2004 the party received 0,4% of votes and three seats (All from West Bengal). The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The current general secretary of AIFB is Debabrata Biswas.


Andhra Pradesh

In Andhra Pradesh the party had significant presence during the 1950s, but then declined sharply. In 2005 the party took an initiative to revive its Andhra Pradesh State Committee. A.K. Biswas became the secretary of the Andhra Pradesh State Committee. Other State Committee members includes G. Appa Rao, Malla Reddy, K. Narender, Konda Dayanand and D. Venkatesam. The party is opposed to the Congress-led state government.[51][52]


Haryana

AIFB has a small state unit in Haryana. The chairman of Haryana state committee is Com. D.K Sharma. In the 2005 election to the Haryana legislative assembly AIFB ran a single candidate, Mukhtiar Singh Kaushik in the Nilokheri constituency. Kaushik got 442 votes (0.44%).[53]


Tripura

The Forward Bloc established its presence in Tripura in 1948.[54] Today, AIFB is a member of the ruling Left Front coalition, but since they've failed to win any seat in the state legislative assembly they don't have any minister in that government. In the 2003 Tripura legislative election the Tripura State Committee president Brajagopal Roy contested the Town Borowali constituency on behalf of the Left Front. Roy got 9844 votes (43.57%), but was defeated by a Congress candidate.[55] The secretary of the Tripura State Committee of Shyamal Roy (who replaced the former state committee secretary Nisith Das).[56][57] The AIFB state unit publishes Tripura Bani. Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... Brajagopal Roy, an Indian politician. ... Tripura Bani letter-head Tripura Bani is the Bengali language organ of the Tripura State Committee of the All India Forward Bloc. ...


In 2005 the labour fronts of CPI, RSP and AIFB in Tripura formed the Shramik Aikya Manch (Workers United Front), in an attempt to challenge the dominance of the pro-CPI(M) Centre of Indian Trade Unions in the Tripura trade union movement. In the summer of 2005 the AIFB Tripura State Committee vice-president Anil Krishna Sharma was arrested, following clashes between CITU and Shramik Aikya Manch in Northern Tripura.[56][58] 4th CITU West Bengal state conference poster Centre of Indian Trade Unions, a national central trade union federation in India. ...


Mass Organizations

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
All India Forward Bloc

It has also formed an India - China Friendship Association.
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... All India Youth League is the youth wing of All India Forward Bloc. ... TUCC Flag Trade Union Coordination Committee, a central trade union federation in India. ...


Lok Sabha Election Results

State/UT No. of candidates 2004 No. of elected 2004 No. of candidates 1999 No. of elected 1999 Total no. of seats from the state
Bihar 0 0 3 0 40 (2004)/54(1999)
Haryana 1 0 0 0 10
Jammu and Kashmir 4 0 0 0 6
Karnataka 1 0 0 0 28
Punjab 0 0 1 0 13
Tamil Nadu 0 0 8 0 39
West Bengal 3 3 3 2 42
Delhi 1 0 0 0 7
Total: 10 3 15 2 543

For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

State Election Results

State No. of candidates No. of elected Total no. of seats in Assembly Year of election
Delhi 5 0 70 2003
Karnataka 1 0 224 2004
Madhya Pradesh 1 0 230 2003
Maharashtra 1 0 288 1999
Orissa 1 0 147 2004
Punjab 2 0 117 2002
Tamil Nadu 1 1 234 2001
Tripura 1 0 60 2003
Uttar Pradesh 4 0 402 2002
West Bengal 34 25 294 2002
Jharkhand 4 2 81 2001

For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 29–30
  2. ^ a b Banglapedia
  3. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 32–4, 55
  4. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 36, 39
  5. ^ Ramayan Singh was involved in these activities. [1]
  6. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 42–3
  7. ^ The members of the Working Committee at the time were Subhas Chandra Bose (Sr. Founder President), S.S. Cavesheer (President), R.S. Ruikar (Vice-President), Sheel Bhadra Yagee (Vice-President), Hari Vishnu Kamath (General Secretary), Mukundalal Sarkar (Secretary), Vishwanbhar Dayal Tripathi (Secretary), Prof. Bidesh Kulkarni (Secretary), Rajmannar Chity (Secretary), Satyanarayan Bajaj (Treasurer), Mian Akber Shah, Alim T. Gidwani, Lala Shankarlal, Ramgati Ganguly, Mathura Prasad Misra, Lila Roy, Harendra Nath Ghosh, Ashrafuddin Ahmad Chowdhury, A.M.A. Zaman, Satyanarayan Bakshim, Kusum Ranjan Chowdhury, Senapati M.P. Bapat, H.J. Khandekar, V.V. Subedar, Dr. S.G. Patwardhan, B.P. Bappaya, U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, R.A. Mandgi, Giridhar Thakkar, K.N. Joglekar, Ram Bhaw Nishel and Sardar Niranjan Singh Talib. Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 43–5.
  8. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. p. 45
  9. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. p. 55
  10. ^ H.K. Kamath, a Forward Bloc executive committee member and delegate in the Constituent Assembly, refused to go along with this order. He kept his seat in the Constituent Assembly and resigned from the party.
  11. ^ Bose, K.; Forward Bloc. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. p. 85
  12. ^ Notably, the Forward Bloc faction led by Ruiker and Cavesheer was the last group in the West Bengal left to raise the slogan of a united Bengal. Ahead of the 1952 general election, the Ruiker-led Forward Bloc called for "a Bengali Union of Socialist Republics ... a people's state unifying all shades of difference and autonomy in a federal government."Franda, Communism and Regional Politics in East Pakistan.
  13. ^ a b Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. p. 56.
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ Basu, Pradip Kumar; The Communist Movement in Tripura, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1996. pp. 98, 100
  16. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. p. 57
  17. ^ [3]
  18. ^ Velayudham Nayar was the Forward Bloc candidate. His candidature was supported by the Swatantra Party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and the Indian Union Muslim League. Nayar was defeated by the Congress candidate R.K. Dorai (brother of the Raja of Ramnad). Nayar got 131 281 votes, against 138 358 for Dorai. 2 independent candidates were also in the fray. [4]
  19. ^ Basu, Pradip Kumar; The Communist Movement in Tripura, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1996. p. 124.
  20. ^ ECI
  21. ^ At the time, the AIFB members of the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly sat in the same legislative group as the Swatantra members. The leader of the Forward Bloc in Tamil Nadu, P.K. Mookiah Thevar, was considered as very close to the Swatantra leader C. Rajagopalachari. Moreover, Thevar was leading the Swatantra group in the assembly. Bose, K.; Forward Bloc. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. pp. 163, 189, 193
  22. ^ [5]
  23. ^ a b c Now two poles emerged in Tamil politics. Congress(R) formed a 'Progressive Front' with Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Communist Party of India, Praja Socialist Party, Muslim League and Tamil Arasu Kazhagam in November 1970, ahead of the municipal elections. The Progressive Front would also contest the 1971 Lok Sabha and Tamil Nadu state legislative elections. The Swatantra Party and the Congress(O) formed a 'Democratic Front'. Bose, K.; Forward Bloc. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. pp. 193–95
  24. ^ a b Bose, K.; Forward Bloc. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. p. 196
  25. ^ Thevar got 208 431 votes (58.16%), defeating the Congress(O) candidate S. Balakrishnan. ECI Statistical Report 1971.
  26. ^ Dhote got 125 552 (37.09%). He was challenged by four other candidates, including A.B. Bardhan of the CPI who got around 10%. ECI Statistical Report 1971.
  27. ^ As mentioned the party won the Nagpur seat. Moreover it came second in the Ramtek (14.32%) and Yeotmal (44.69%, also with Dhote as the candidate) constituencies. ECI Statistical Report 1971.
  28. ^ The Hindu 16 March 2004.
  29. ^ Rediff 2006-10-12.
  30. ^ a b ECI.
  31. ^ ECI
  32. ^ After the elections, P.K. Mookiah Thevar decided to retain his Lok Sabha seat. Thus a bye-election was held for the Usilampatti assembly seat. The Forward Bloc nominated its Tamil Nadu state secretary K. Kandaswamy who was challenged by S. Andi Thevar. Kandaswamy won with 36351 votes against 16362 for Thevar. By-election results, ECI.
  33. ^ ECI.
  34. ^ Mihir Kumar Ray won the Mekhliganj seat, Apurba Lal Majumdar in Bagdaha and Saral Deb in Barasat. ECI.
  35. ^ Man Mohan Paul of the AIFB stood in the Lumding constituency. He got 2403 votes (6.37%), trailing behind both CPI(M) and CPI candidates. The election was won by the Congress Party. Assam 1972, ECI.
  36. ^ In total the AIFB candidates in Bihar got 20 525 votes. Ghanshyam Mahto came second with 7560 votes (21.68%) in the Ichagarh constituency. Satya Narayan Yadav came fourth in Sarath with 6535 votes (17.44%), and Ramayan Singh came fourth in Bikram with 4662 votes (7.96%). ECI.
  37. ^ R.K. Haldulkar came third in the Chhindwara constituency with 2656 votes (8.99%). His party colleague Basantrao Shivajee got 875 votes (1.87%) in Pandhurna. ECI.
  38. ^ ECI
  39. ^ ECI
  40. ^ The front had been formed by CPI(M) and CPI on November 2, 1973. AIFB and the RSP joined the front on November 14.
  41. ^ Basu, Pradip Kumar; The Communist Movement in Tripura, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1996. pp. 146, 149.
  42. ^ Amrendranath Roy Pradhan won in Cooch Behar with 226 521 votes (64.69%), Chitta Basu won in Barasat with 203 694 votes (56.15%) and Chittaranjan Matara won in Purulia with 200 985 votes (68.33%). 1977 ECI.
  43. ^ K.K. Toofan of the Forward Bloc contested the Mahendragarh seat in Haryana. Toofan got 2444 votes (0.53%). Statistical Report 1977, ECI.
  44. ^ Basu, Pradip Kumar; The Communist Movement in Tripura, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1996. pp. 156–57, ECI
  45. ^ SJP leader Ramsunder Das was chosen as the convenor of the front. A 13-member committee was formed to coordinate the political activities of the front. Tribune 28 August, 1999
  46. ^ L. Santhanam had argued that the party should take part in the election as an ally of AIADMK. After his departure from the party, the AIADMK allotted one seat for him to contest in the election. Hindu 2006-02-06.
  47. ^ Telegraph India.
  48. ^ According to the national party leadership, Karthik had failed to turn up for Central Committee meetings and had generally acted on his own. Moreover he had been accused of nepotism by sections of the Tamil Nadu unit. Chennai, Kerala Global.
  49. ^ New Kerala.
  50. ^ [6]
  51. ^ The Hindu, 9 May 2006.
  52. ^ The Hindu, 19 July 2005.
  53. ^ ECI
  54. ^ Majumder, Benimadhab; The Legislative Opposition in Tripura, Agartala: Tripura State Tribal Cultural Research Institute & Museum, 1997. p. 19
  55. ^ ECI
  56. ^ a b The Telegraph 26 July 2005.
  57. ^ Excelsior 14 February 2003.
  58. ^ Sharma had been one of the Forward Bloc candidates in the 1972 state legislative assembly election, contesting in the Sonichera constituency. He then got 292 votes (3.72%). 1972, ECI.

Subhas Chandra Bose, (Bengali: , (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), generally known as Netaji (lit. ... Sardul Singh Caveeshar (1886 in Amritsar - 1963) was an Indian newspaper editor, and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ... Ramchandra Sakharam Ruikar was a pioneer of the Indian labor movement. ... Sheel Bhadra Yajee (1906-1996) was a freedom fighter from Bihar who was associated with the non-violent and the violent form of freedom struggle. ... U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, also known as Pasumpon Muthuramalingam Thevar (October 30, 1908 – October 30, 1963) was an Indian politician. ... K. Velayudham Nayar was an Indian politician. ... Swatantra Party (swatantra in Hindi means independence) was a political party in India founded by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari in 1959. ... DMK redirects here. ... IUML banner Indian Union Muslim League is an Islamic nationalist political party in India. ... Vidhan Sabha, the name of the state-level legislature assemblies in India. ... Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (Tamil: சக்ரவர்தி ராஜகோபாலாச்சாரி) (b. ... DMK redirects here. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... The Praja Socialist Party was an Indian political party in existence from 1952 to 1972. ... IUML banner Indian Union Muslim League is an Islamic nationalist political party in India. ... The Indian National Congress (Organisation) or Congress (O) was a political party in India formed when Indira Gandhi (then the Congress president) broke away from the leadership of the Congress Party (which became known as Congress (I)). As Indira had control over the state machinery, her faction was recognized as... Ardhendu Bhushan Bardhan is the general secretary of the Communist Party of India, one of the oldest political parties in India. ... Ramtek is a city and a municipal council in Nagpur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... All India Forward Bloc (Ramayan Singh) was a political party in India. ... Chhindwara (also spelt Chindawara or Chindwara) is a city in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Party flag Announcement of the 17th RSP National Conference in Pondicherry RSP-UTUC flagpole in Allepey, Kerala RSP poster in Kerala, honouring historical RSP leader T.K. Divakaran RSP mural in Agartala RSP election propaganda in Amarpur, Tripura Revolutionary Socialist Party is a Marxist-Leninist political party in India. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses see Cooch Behar (disambiguation) Cooch Behar (Bengali: কোচবিহার Pronunciation: kOOch bĭhär`) is the district headquarters and the largest town of Cooch Behar District of Indian state of West Bengal. ... , Barasat (Bangla: বারাসাত) is a city in the outskirts of Calcutta, West Bengal, India and is the district head quarter of the district North 24 parganas. ... , Purulia(Bengali: পুরুলিয়া) (also spelled Puruliya) is a town located in West Bengal state, India. ... All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) is a regional political party in India. ...

External links

The Election Commission of India is a constitutional body created to hold free and fair elections in India. ... Political parties in India lists political parties in India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a coalition in India. ... United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is the present ruling coalition of political parties in India. ... For the Nepalese party, see Bahujan Samaj Party, Nepal. ... The Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP] (Hindi: , translation: Indian Peoples Party), created in 1980, is a major right wing Indian political party. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M) or CPM) is a political party in India. ... Indian National Congress, (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... This January 2007 needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Dr M. G. Ramachandran Janaki Ramachandran second Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu from AIADMK Party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) (Tamil: அனைத்து இந்திய அண்ணா திராவிட முன்னேற்ற கழகம்) is a regional political party in Tamil Nadu state in India. ... Arunchal Congress election symbol Arunachal Congress is a regional political party in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. ... Asom Gana Parishad (Assam Peoples Association), political party in Assam, India. ... The Biju Janata Dal is a regional party of the Indian state of Orissa. ... Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation is a communist political party in India. ... DMK redirects here. ... The Federal Party of Manipur is a political party recognised in the Indian state of Manipur. ... The Hill State Peoples Democratic Party is a political party of the Indian state of Meghalaya. ... Indian National Lok Dal, a political party in India, based in the state of Haryana. ... INPT flag Indigenous Nationalist Party of Twipra, political party in the Indian state of Tripura. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... The Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party is a political party based in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... € The Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party is a political party in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... The Janata Dal (Secular) is a left of centre Indian political party. ... Janata Dal (United) is a political party in India. ... JSS party emblem, on a mural in Alappuzha Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy (Association for Defence of Democracy) is a political party in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (झारखंड मुक्ति मोर्चा) is a political party in India. ... The Kerala Congress (Mani faction) is a recognised state level political party in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party, the oldest political party in the Indian state of Goa. ... Manipur Peoples Party, a political party in the Indian state of Manipur. ... Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK; Tamil: மறுமலர்ச்சித் திராவிட முன்னேற்றக் கழகம் a political party in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu formed in 1994. ... The Meghalaya Democratic Party is a political party recognised in the India state of Meghalaya. ... Mizo National Front, a regional political party in Mizoram, India. ... Mizoram Peoples Conference, a regional political party in Mizoram, India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories... The Nagaland Peoples Front is a political party in the Indian state of Nagaland. ... The Nationalist Democratic Movement is a political part based in the Nagaland, India. ... Nationalist Trinamool Congress is a political party in India. ... Pattali Makkal Katchi (பாட்டாளி மக்கள் கட்சி, abbreviated PMK), a Tamil political party. ... RJD Womens wing office in Delhi The [Rashtriya Janata Dal]http://www. ... Rashtriya Lok Dal (National Peoples Party), a political party in India. ... Party flag Announcement of the 17th RSP National Conference in Pondicherry RSP-UTUC flagpole in Allepey, Kerala RSP poster in Kerala, honouring historical RSP leader T.K. Divakaran RSP mural in Agartala RSP election propaganda in Amarpur, Tripura Revolutionary Socialist Party is a Marxist-Leninist political party in India. ... Samajwadi Party flag Samajwadi Party (Socialist Party) is a political party in India. ... Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar), registered with the Election Commission of India as Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann), a splinter group of the Shiromani Akali Dal led by Simranjit Singh Mann. ... Akali Dal, also termed as Shiromani Akali Dal (Akali Religious Party), is a Sikh political party mainly based in Punjab, India. ... SS election symbol Shiv Sena or शिव सेना (meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shiva) is a political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is the president of the party. ... The Sikkim Democratic Front is the largest and ruling party of the Indian state of Sikkim. ... Telugu Desam Party (Telugu :తెలుగు దేశం Party for Telugu Land and people) or TDP is a regional political party in Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... The United Democratic Party is a political party recognised in Meghalaya state, India. ... United Goans Democratic Party one of the two former dominating political parties in the Indian state of Goa. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories... Zoram Nationalist Party, formerly Mizo National Front (Nationalist), is a political party in Mizoram, India. ... All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (meaning All India Council of the Union of Muslims, name in Urdu: , Kul Hind Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen) is a Muslim political party India. ... Bharatiya Navshakti Party (Indian New Force Party), a political party in India. ... The Lok Jan Shakti Party is a political party in India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories... National Loktantrik Party (National Democratic Party), a political party in India, working amongst the Muslim minority community. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) (Socialist Peoples Party (National)), a political party in India led by former Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is an overview of political parties by country, in the form of a table with a link to a list of political parties in each country and showing which party system is dominant in each country . ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 29–30
  2. ^ a b Banglapedia
  3. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 32–4, 55
  4. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 36, 39
  5. ^ Ramayan Singh was involved in these activities. [7]
  6. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 42–3
  7. ^ The members of the Working Committee at the time were Subhas Chandra Bose (Sr. Founder President), S.S. Cavesheer (President), R.S. Ruikar (Vice-President), Sheel Bhadra Yagee (Vice-President), Hari Vishnu Kamath (General Secretary), Mukundalal Sarkar (Secretary), Vishwanbhar Dayal Tripathi (Secretary), Prof. Bidesh Kulkarni (Secretary), Rajmannar Chity (Secretary), Satyanarayan Bajaj (Treasurer), Mian Akber Shah, Alim T. Gidwani, Lala Shankarlal, Ramgati Ganguly, Mathura Prasad Misra, Lila Roy, Harendra Nath Ghosh, Ashrafuddin Ahmad Chowdhury, A.M.A. Zaman, Satyanarayan Bakshim, Kusum Ranjan Chowdhury, Senapati M.P. Bapat, H.J. Khandekar, V.V. Subedar, Dr. S.G. Patwardhan, B.P. Bappaya, U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, R.A. Mandgi, Giridhar Thakkar, K.N. Joglekar, Ram Bhaw Nishel and Sardar Niranjan Singh Talib. Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. pp. 43–5.
  8. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. p. 45
  9. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. p. 55
  10. ^ H.K. Kamath, a Forward Bloc executive committee member and delegate in the Constituent Assembly, refused to go along with this order. He kept his seat in the Constituent Assembly and resigned from the party.
  11. ^ Bose, K.; Forward Bloc. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. p. 85
  12. ^ Notably, the Forward Bloc faction led by Ruiker and Cavesheer was the last group in the West Bengal left to raise the slogan of a united Bengal. Ahead of the 1952 general election, the Ruiker-led Forward Bloc called for "a Bengali Union of Socialist Republics ... a people's state unifying all shades of difference and autonomy in a federal government."Franda, Communism and Regional Politics in East Pakistan.
  13. ^ a b Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. p. 56.
  14. ^ [8]
  15. ^ Basu, Pradip Kumar; The Communist Movement in Tripura, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1996. pp. 98, 100
  16. ^ Ghosh, Asok (ed.), A Short History of the All India Forward Bloc. Kolkata: Bengal Lokmat Printers Pvt Ltd., 2001. p. 57
  17. ^ [9]
  18. ^ Velayudham Nayar was the Forward Bloc candidate. His candidature was supported by the Swatantra Party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and the Indian Union Muslim League. Nayar was defeated by the Congress candidate R.K. Dorai (brother of the Raja of Ramnad). Nayar got 131 281 votes, against 138 358 for Dorai. 2 independent candidates were also in the fray. [10]
  19. ^ Basu, Pradip Kumar; The Communist Movement in Tripura, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1996. p. 124.
  20. ^ ECI
  21. ^ At the time, the AIFB members of the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly sat in the same legislative group as the Swatantra members. The leader of the Forward Bloc in Tamil Nadu, P.K. Mookiah Thevar, was considered as very close to the Swatantra leader C. Rajagopalachari. Moreover, Thevar was leading the Swatantra group in the assembly. Bose, K.; Forward Bloc. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. pp. 163, 189, 193
  22. ^ [11]
  23. ^ a b c Now two poles emerged in Tamil politics. Congress(R) formed a 'Progressive Front' with Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Communist Party of India, Praja Socialist Party, Muslim League and Tamil Arasu Kazhagam in November 1970, ahead of the municipal elections. The Progressive Front would also contest the 1971 Lok Sabha and Tamil Nadu state legislative elections. The Swatantra Party and the Congress(O) formed a 'Democratic Front'. Bose, K.; Forward Bloc. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. pp. 193–95
  24. ^ a b Bose, K.; Forward Bloc. Madras: 1988, Tamil Nadu Academy of Political Science. p. 196
  25. ^ Thevar got 208 431 votes (58.16%), defeating the Congress(O) candidate S. Balakrishnan. ECI Statistical Report 1971.
  26. ^ Dhote got 125 552 (37.09%). He was challenged by four other candidates, including A.B. Bardhan of the CPI who got around 10%. ECI Statistical Report 1971.
  27. ^ As mentioned the party won the Nagpur seat. Moreover it came second in the Ramtek (14.32%) and Yeotmal (44.69%, also with Dhote as the candidate) constituencies. ECI Statistical Report 1971.
  28. ^ The Hindu 16 March 2004.
  29. ^ Rediff 2006-10-12.
  30. ^ a b ECI.
  31. ^ ECI
  32. ^ After the elections, P.K. Mookiah Thevar decided to retain his Lok Sabha seat. Thus a bye-election was held for the Usilampatti assembly seat. The Forward Bloc nominated its Tamil Nadu state secretary K. Kandaswamy who was challenged by S. Andi Thevar. Kandaswamy won with 36351 votes against 16362 for Thevar. By-election results, ECI.
  33. ^ ECI.
  34. ^ Mihir Kumar Ray won the Mekhliganj seat, Apurba Lal Majumdar in Bagdaha and Saral Deb in Barasat. ECI.
  35. ^ Man Mohan Paul of the AIFB stood in the Lumding constituency. He got 2403 votes (6.37%), trailing behind both CPI(M) and CPI candidates. The election was won by the Congress Party. Assam 1972, ECI.
  36. ^ In total the AIFB candidates in Bihar got 20 525 votes. Ghanshyam Mahto came second with 7560 votes (21.68%) in the Ichagarh constituency. Satya Narayan Yadav came fourth in Sarath with 6535 votes (17.44%), and Ramayan Singh came fourth in Bikram with 4662 votes (7.96%). ECI.
  37. ^ R.K. Haldulkar came third in the Chhindwara constituency with 2656 votes (8.99%). His party colleague Basantrao Shivajee got 875 votes (1.87%) in Pandhurna. ECI.
  38. ^ ECI
  39. ^ ECI
  40. ^ The front had been formed by CPI(M) and CPI on November 2, 1973. AIFB and the RSP joined the front on November 14.
  41. ^ Basu, Pradip Kumar; The Communist Movement in Tripura, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1996. pp. 146, 149.
  42. ^ Amrendranath Roy Pradhan won in Cooch Behar with 226 521 votes (64.69%), Chitta Basu won in Barasat with 203 694 votes (56.15%) and Chittaranjan Matara won in Purulia with 200 985 votes (68.33%). 1977 ECI.
  43. ^ K.K. Toofan of the Forward Bloc contested the Mahendragarh seat in Haryana. Toofan got 2444 votes (0.53%). Statistical Report 1977, ECI.
  44. ^ Basu, Pradip Kumar; The Communist Movement in Tripura, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers, 1996. pp. 156–57, ECI
  45. ^ SJP leader Ramsunder Das was chosen as the convenor of the front. A 13-member committee was formed to coordinate the political activities of the front. Tribune 28 August, 1999
  46. ^ L. Santhanam had argued that the party should take part in the election as an ally of AIADMK. After his departure from the party, the AIADMK allotted one seat for him to contest in the election. Hindu 2006-02-06.
  47. ^ Telegraph India.
  48. ^ According to the national party leadership, Karthik had failed to turn up for Central Committee meetings and had generally acted on his own. Moreover he had been accused of nepotism by sections of the Tamil Nadu unit. Chennai, Kerala Global.
  49. ^ New Kerala.
  50. ^ [12]
  51. ^ The Hindu, 9 May 2006.
  52. ^ The Hindu, 19 July 2005.
  53. ^ ECI
  54. ^ Majumder, Benimadhab; The Legislative Opposition in Tripura, Agartala: Tripura State Tribal Cultural Research Institute & Museum, 1997. p. 19
  55. ^ ECI
  56. ^ a b The Telegraph 26 July 2005.
  57. ^ Excelsior 14 February 2003.
  58. ^ Sharma had been one of the Forward Bloc candidates in the 1972 state legislative assembly election, contesting in the Sonichera constituency. He then got 292 votes (3.72%). 1972, ECI.
  59. ^ See the List of recognised political parties in India.
  60. ^ To gain recognition as a state party, the party must have some kind of political activity for at least five continuous years, and send at least 4% of the state's quota to the Lok Sabha (India's Lower house), or 3.33% of members to the state assembly. If the above conditions are not fulfilled, then a party may gain recognition by garnering not less than 6% of the total votes in a state or national election, polled in by all its contesting candidates. If a party is recognised in four or more states, it is automatically recognised as a national party by the EC.

  Results from FactBites:
 
All India Forward Bloc - definition of All India Forward Bloc in Encyclopedia (378 words)
AIFB struggles for socialism in India but they consider that their ideology differs from that of Communist Party of India (Marxist) and Communist Party of India, as they build their socialism on foreign ideologues as Marx and Lenin, whereas the socialism of AIFB is the Indian socialism of Netaji.
AIFB has branches throughout the country, but the main strength of the party is concentrated in West Bengal.
Notably though AIFB is cooperating with CPI(M) in West Bengal, Tripura and on the national level, AIFB is not part of the Left Democratic Front in Kerala.
All India Netaji Revolutionary Party - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (195 words)
The party was founded in connection with the 5th All India Netaji Convention 1999.
AINRP was critical of the collaboration of the left (CPI(M) and All India Forward Bloc) with the Indian National Congress.
Later Saini joined All India Forward Bloc, and became the secretary of the central committee.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m