FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Alkaloids" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Alkaloids

An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. The name derives from the word alkaline; originally, the term was used to describe any nitrogen-containing base (an amine in modern terms). Alkaloids are found as secondary metabolites in plants (e.g., in potatoes and tomatoes), animals (e.g., in shellfish) and fungi, and can be extracted from their sources by treatment with acids (usually hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, though organic acids such as maleic acid and citric acid are sometimes used).


Even though many alkaloids are poisonous (such as strychnine or coniine), some are used in medicine as analgesics (pain relievers) or anaesthetics, particularly morphine and codeine. Most alkaloids have a very bitter taste.


Alkaloid classifications

Alkaloids are usually classified by their common molecular precursors, based on the biological pathway used to construct the molecule. When not much was known about the biosynthesis of alkaloids, they were grouped under the names of known compounds, even some non-nitrogenous ones (since those molecules' structures appear in the finished product; the opium alkaloids are sometimes called "phenanthrenes", for example), or by the plants or animals they were isolated from. When more is learned about a certain alkaloid, the grouping is changed to reflect the new knowledge, usually taking the name of a biologically-important amine that stands out in the synthesis process.

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to:
Gallery Alkaloids



  Results from FactBites:
 
Alkaloid Networks :: Projects: News (863 words)
Ben Klang, an active developer for Horde, is now hosting the main CVS tree for Horde right here on Alkaloid Networks and Jeff Smith is opening up Realclip development again for use in a number of large-scale projects on the horizon...
Alkaloid Networks is proud to announce the merger of Lucid Interactive's Docupedia.
If you read Alkaloid at all, you'll know one of the projects we've been working on is a free travel blog website named Footstops.com.
Alkaloid - LoveToKnow 1911 (447 words)
The purely chemical literature on the alkaloids is especially voluminous; and from the assiduity with which the constitutions of these substances have been and are still being attacked, we may conclude that their synthesis is but a question of time.
The opium alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, narcotine, narceine, andc.; and the complicated substances hydrastine and berberine.
The chemistry of the alkaloids is treated in detail by Ame Pictet in his La Constitution chimique des alcaloides vegetaux (Paris, 1897); enlarged and translated by H. Biddle with the title The Vegetable Alkaloids (New York, 1904); and by J. Bruhl, E. Hjelt, and O. Aschan: Die Pflanzen-Alkaloide (two).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m