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Encyclopedia > Alkaloid
Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid
Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid

An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. Many alkaloids have pharmacological effects on humans and other animals. The name derives from the word alkaline; originally, the term was used to describe any nitrogen-containing base. Alkaloids are part of the group of natural products (also called secondary metabolites) and are chemical derivatives of amino acids or other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as polyamines. Some alkaloids may have a bitter taste. Produced in dedicated biosynthetic pathways consisting of multiple enzyme -catalysed steps, such as prenylation, methylation/demethylation, and various oxidation/reduction reactions, alkaloids are found in plants (e.g. potatoes and tomatoes), animals (e.g. shellfish) and many fungi. Many alkaloids can be purified from crude extracts by acid-base extraction. While many alkaloids are poisonous, some are used medicinally as analgesics (pain relievers) or anaesthetics, particularly morphine and codeine, and for other uses. Image File history File links Ephedrine. ... Image File history File links Ephedrine. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... -1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into natural product. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... The polyamines are organic compounds having two or more primary amino groups - such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine - that are growth factors in both eucaryotic and procaryotic cells. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Biosynthesis is a phenomenon where chemical compounds are produced from simpler reagents. ... Enzyme catalysis is the catalysis of chemical reactions by enzyme molecules. ... Prenylation or isoprenylation is the addition of hydrophobic molecules to a protein to facilitate its attachment to the cell membrane. ... Methylation is a term used in the chemical sciences to denote the attachment or substitution of a methyl group on various substrates. ... Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Reduction or reducing has several meanings: In mathematics, reduction is the process of manipulating a series of equations or matrices into a desired simpler format. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Acid-base extraction is a procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extractions to purify acids and bases from mixtures based on their chemical properties. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... This article is about the drug. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ...

Image File history File links Caffeine. ... Image File history File links Caffeine. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ...

Alkaloid classifications

Alkaloids are usually classified by their common molecular precursors, based on the metabolic pathway used to construct the molecule. When not much was known about the biosynthesis of alkaloids, they were grouped under the names of known compounds, even some non-nitrogenous ones (since those molecules' structures appear in the finished product; the opium alkaloids are sometimes called "phenanthrenes", for example), or by the plants or animals they were isolated from. When more is learned about a certain alkaloid, the grouping is changed to reflect the new knowledge, usually taking the name of a biologically-important amine that stands out in the synthesis process. In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. ... Biosynthesis is a phenomenon where chemical compounds are produced from simpler reagents. ...

Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Categories: Stub ... Coniine or 2-propylpiperidine is a poisonous alkaloid found in poison hemlock. ... Natural Product with Antitumor Activity Name: Trigonelline NSC 714350 Molecular Formula C7H7NO2 MTDP, unpublished Source: Carmia sp. ... Pilocarpine is a muscarinic alkaloid obtained from the leaves of tropical American shrubs from the genus Pilocarpus. ... Cytisine is a toxic pyridine-like alkaloid. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Sparteine is a class 1a antiarrhythmic agent. ... Flash point 3 °C R/S statement R: 11 20/21/22 35 S: 16 26 28 36/37 45 RTECS number UX9650000 Related compounds Related compounds pyrrole piperidine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and... Hygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid, found mainly in coca leaves (0. ... Cuscohygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid found in coca. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Chemical structure of tropane Tropane (C8H15N, 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo[3. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Ecgonine (C9H15NO3), is an organic chemical most known for its relation to cocaine: it is both a metabolite and a precursor, and as such, it is a controlled substance, as are all substances which can be used as precursors to ecgonine itself. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ... Catuabine are a group of tropane-alkaloides, isolated from Erythroxylum vacciniifolium, which is used for the preparation of the drug Catuaba. ... Quinoline, also known as 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, or benzo[b]pyridine, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent in the heart. ... Dihydroquinine is a organic compound and as a cinchona alkaloid closely related to quinine. ... Dihydroquinidine is a organic compound and as a cinchona alkaloid closely related to quinine. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... Brucine is a chemical compound, closely related to strychnine. ... Veratrine is an alkaloid drug that increases the sodium permeability of axons. ... Isoquinoline (also benzo[c]pyridine)is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... This article is about the drug. ... This article is about the drug. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... A minor constituent of opium, thebaine or paramorphine (C19H21NO3) is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but produces stimulatory rather than depressant effects. ... Papaverine is an opium alkaloid used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm, vasospasm (especially those involving the heart and the brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. ... Noscapine (also known as Narcotine) is an alkaloid opioid agonist from plants of the Papaveraceae family, without significant painkilling properties [1]. It is grouped as part of the benzylisoquinolines, of which papaverine is also included. ... // SANGUINARINE Sanguinarine (SA), a quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid, exerts wide spectrum of biological activities, e. ... Hydrastine is a natural alkaloid which was discovered in 1851 by Alfred P. Durand. ... Chemical structure of berberine. ... Emetine is a drug used as both an anti-protozoal and to induce vomiting. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ... NMT (N-Methyltryptamine, monomethyltryptamine) is a tryptamine alkaloid that has been found in the bark, shoots and leaves of several species of Virola, Acacia and Mimosa. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. ... LSA, also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Ergotamine is a vasoconstrictor used for migraine prevention and is sometimes mixed with caffeine. ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... β-Carboline (9H-pyrid-[3,4-b]-indole) is an organic amine that is the prototype of a class of compounds known as β-Carbolines. ... Harmala, also known at various times as Telepathine and Banisterine, is a blanket term for a group of naturally occurring beta-carbolines including harmine, harmaline, and others. ... Peganum harmala, commonly known as Syrian Rue The MAOI (MonAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) alkaloids found in seeds of Peganum harmala (also known as Harmal or Syrian Rue)- harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine- are collectively known as harmala alkaloids. ... Yohimbine, also known under the outdated names quebrachin, aphrodin, corynine, yohimvetol and hydroergotocin, is the principal alkaloid of the bark of the West-African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe Pierre (formerly Corynanthe yohimbe), family Rubiaceae (Madder family). ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... Species About 85 species known. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... Purine (1) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... Species About 60: see text Aconitum is a genus of plants belonging to the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. ... Structure of Aconitine Aconitine is a highly poisonous alkaloid derived from the aconite plant. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Solanine is a glycoalkaloid poison found in species of the nightshade family. ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Muscarine, L-(+)-muscarine, or muscarin is a natural product found in certain mushrooms, particularly in Inocybe and Clitocybe species, such as the deadly C. dealbata. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... Neurine is an alkaloid found in egg yolk, brain, bile and in cadavers. ... Species See text Catharanthus (Madagascar Periwinkle) is a genus of eight species of herbaceous perennial plants, seven endemic to the island of Madagascar. ... Vinblastine stick molecular model Vinblastine is an anti-mitotic drug used to treat certain kinds of cancer, including Hodgkins lymphoma, non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer and testicular cancer. ... Vincristine (Oncovin®), also known as leurocristine, is a vinca alkaloid from the Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, formerly Vinca rosea and hence its name). ... Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chilli peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. ...

Physicochemical Properties of Alkaloids

  • colourless,crystalline,non-volatile solids that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol,ether,chloroform,etc.
  • Molecular weight 100-900
  • Those without oxygen atoms in the structure are usually liquid at ordinary temperature (e.g. nicotine, sparteine, coniine)
  • Those with oxygen atoms are crystalline (e.g. berberine -> yellow)
  • Most are optically active (usually laevorotatory), but not those from the purine group
  • Basicity depends on the availability of lone pairs of electrons on the N atom & the type of heterocycle and substituents.
  • Ability to form salts with mineral acids (e.g. with HCl, H2SO4, HNO3) or organic acids (e.g. tartrates, sulfamates, maleates)

Levorotation (also spelled laevorotation) is the counterclockwise rotation of plane polarized light. ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Alkaloid
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... 5-MeO-DMT is a very powerful psychedelic tryptamine. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is a psychedelic tryptamine. ... Peganum harmala, commonly known as Syrian Rue The MAOI (MonAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) alkaloids found in seeds of Peganum harmala (also known as Harmal or Syrian Rue)- harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine- are collectively known as harmala alkaloids. ... Psilocin,(4-HO-DMT) sometimes called psilocine or psilotsin, is a psychedelic (hallucinogenic) mushroom alkaloid. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family, found in psilocybin mushrooms. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Yohimbine, also known under the outdated names quebrachin, aphrodin, corynine, yohimvetol and hydroergotocin, is the principal alkaloid of the bark of the West-African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe Pierre (formerly Corynanthe yohimbe), family Rubiaceae (Madder family). ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat). ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... In organic chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, para-tyramine, p-tyramine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... Purine (1) is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Coniine or 2-propylpiperidine is a poisonous alkaloid found in poison hemlock. ... Flash point 3 °C R/S statement R: 11 20/21/22 35 S: 16 26 28 36/37 45 RTECS number UX9650000 Related compounds Related compounds pyrrole piperidine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Quinoline, also known as 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, or benzo[b]pyridine, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Quinine (IPA: ) is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-smallpox, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Isoquinoline (also benzo[c]pyridine)is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... This article is about the drug. ... Chemical structure of tropane Tropane (C8H15N, 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo[3. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Hyoscyamine is a chemical compound, a tropane alkaloid it is the levo-isomer to atropine. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ... Chemical structure of the terpenoid isopentenyl pyrophosphate. ... Structure of Aconitine Aconitine is a highly poisonous alkaloid derived from the aconite plant. ... Solanine is a glycoalkaloid poison found in species of the nightshade family. ... Trimethylglycine (Betaine) functions very closely with choline, folic acid, vitamin B12, and a form of the amino acid methionine known as S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... Muscarine, L-(+)-muscarine, or muscarin is a natural product found in certain mushrooms, particularly in Inocybe and Clitocybe species, such as the deadly C. dealbata. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Look up nucleic acid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Nucleotide sugars are biochemicals that act as donors of sugar residues in nucleotide sugars metabolism. ... Some common lipids. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Polypyrrole A Polypyrrole (PPy) is a chemical compound formed from a number of connected pyrrole ring structures. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... Polyketides are secondary metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alkaloid Networks :: Projects: News (863 words)
Ben Klang, an active developer for Horde, is now hosting the main CVS tree for Horde right here on Alkaloid Networks and Jeff Smith is opening up Realclip development again for use in a number of large-scale projects on the horizon...
Alkaloid Networks is proud to announce the merger of Lucid Interactive's Docupedia.
If you read Alkaloid at all, you'll know one of the projects we've been working on is a free travel blog website named Footstops.com.
Alkaloid - LoveToKnow 1911 (447 words)
The purely chemical literature on the alkaloids is especially voluminous; and from the assiduity with which the constitutions of these substances have been and are still being attacked, we may conclude that their synthesis is but a question of time.
The opium alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, narcotine, narceine, andc.; and the complicated substances hydrastine and berberine.
The chemistry of the alkaloids is treated in detail by Ame Pictet in his La Constitution chimique des alcaloides vegetaux (Paris, 1897); enlarged and translated by H. Biddle with the title The Vegetable Alkaloids (New York, 1904); and by J. Bruhl, E. Hjelt, and O. Aschan: Die Pflanzen-Alkaloide (two).
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