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Encyclopedia > Alkali metal
Group 1
Period
1 1
H
2 3
Li
3 11
Na
4 19
K
5 37
Rb
6 55
Cs
7 87
Fr

The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). (Note that hydrogen, although nominally also a member of Group 1, very rarely exhibits behavior comparable to the alkali metals). The alkali metals provide one of the best examples of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with well characterized homologous behavior down the group. A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a row of the table. ... A period 1 element is one of the chemical elements in the first row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... A period 2 element is one of the chemical elements in the second row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... A period 3 element is one of the chemical elements in the third row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Atomic mass 85. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Caesium, Cs, 55 Series Alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1(IA), 6, s Density, Hardness 1879 kg/m3, 0. ... A period 7 element is one of the chemical elements in the seventh row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... “The Periodic Table” redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Atomic mass 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


The alkali metals are all highly reactive and are rarely found in elemental form in nature. As a result, in the laboratory they are stored under mineral oil. They also tarnish easily and have low melting points and densities. Potassium and Rubidium possess a weak radioactive characteristic (harmless) due to the presence of long duration radioactive isotopes. Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ...


The alkali metals are silver-colored (caesium has a golden tinge), soft, low-density metals, which react readily with halogens to form ionic salts, and with water to form strongly alkaline (basic) hydroxides. These elements all have one electron in their outermost shell, so the energetically preferred state of achieving a filled electron shell is to lose one electron to form a singly charged positive ion, or cation. For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... For other meanings of the word salt see table salt or salt (disambiguation). ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...


Hydrogen, with a solitary electron, is usually placed at the top of Group 1 of the periodic table, but it is not considered an alkali metal; rather it exists naturally as a diatomic gas. Removal of its single electron requires considerably more energy than removal of the outer electron for the alkali metals. As in the halogens, only one additional electron is required to fill in the outermost shell of the hydrogen atom, so hydrogen can in some circumstances behave like a halogen, forming the negative hydride ion. Binary compounds of hydride with the alkali metals and some transition metals have been prepared. Under extremely high pressure, such as is found at the core of Jupiter, hydrogen does become metallic and behaves like an alkali metal; see metallic hydrogen. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical series. ... Hydride is the name given to the negative ion of hydrogen, H−. Although this ion does not exist except in extraordinary conditions, the term hydride is widely applied to describe compounds of hydrogen with other elements, particularly those of groups 1–16. ... A binary compound is a compound that contains two different elements, such as NaCl (salt). ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... // Metallic hydrogen results when hydrogen is sufficiently compressed and undergoes a phase change; it is an example of degenerate matter. ...


Alkali metals have the lowest ionization potentials in their respective periods, as removing the single electron from the outermost shell gives them the stable inert gas configuration. But their second ionization potentials are very high, as removing an electron from a species having a noble gas configuration is very difficult.

Contents

Reactions

Reactions in water

Series of alkali metals, stored in mineral oil (note "natrium" is sodium.)
Series of alkali metals, stored in mineral oil (note "natrium" is sodium.)

Alkali metals are famous for their vigorous reactions with water, and these reactions become increasingly violent as one moves down the group. The reaction with water is as follows: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Alkali metal + water → Alkali metal hydroxide + hydrogen gas


With potassium as an example: General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...

2K (s) + 2H2O (l) → 2KOH (aq) + H2 (g)

In this reaction, enough energy is produced to ignite the hydrogen, creating a lilac flame above the potassium. If rubidium or caesium react with water though, the subsequent explosion tends to be very violent, a fact not helped by its rapidity in coming about once the metal and water start reacting.


Reaction in ammonia

Alkali metals dissolve in liquid ammonia to give blue solutions that are paramagnetic. As the solution approaches saturation, it becomes deep purple, then metallic. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Paramagnetism is the tendency of the atomic magnetic dipoles, due to quantum-mechanical spin, in a material that is otherwise non-magnetic to align with an external magnetic field. ...

K + NH3 → K+ + e-

Because the solution contains free electrons, it occupies more space than the sum of the volumes of the metal and ammonia. The presence of free electrons also makes these solutions very good reducing agents and good electrical conductors. Since they are easier to handle than the metals themselves they are sometimes used as substitutes. General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... In science and engineering, conductors, such as an electrical connector, are materials that readily conduct electric current through electrical conduction. ...


The solution is not stable over long periods, and the dissolved alkali metal will react to form the corresponding amide. This reaction, when accelerated with a catalyst (usually iron(III) nitrate), is used for the production of sodium amide: Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... Iron(III) nitrate, or ferric nitrate, is the chemical compound with the formula Fe(NO3)3·9H2O. It forms colourless to pale violet crystals that are deliquescent, i. ... Sodium amide, also called sodamide, is NaNH2. ...

2 Na + 2 NH3 → 2 NaNH2 + H2

The amide can be extracted, or it can be converted to sodium azide by bubbling nitrous oxide through the ammonia solution: For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Sodium amide, also called sodamide, is NaNH2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Sodium azide (NaN3) is a highly toxic chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ...

2 NaNH2 + N2ONaN3 + NaOH + NH3

Sodium amide, also called sodamide, is NaNH2. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Sodium azide (NaN3) is a highly toxic chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...

Trends

The alkali metals show a number of trends when moving down the group - for instance, decreasing electronegativity, increasing reactivity, and decreasing melting and boiling point.

Alkali metal Standard Atomic Weight (u) Melting Point (K) Boiling Point (K) Electronegativity (Pauling)
Lithium 6.941 453.69 1615 0.98
Sodium 22.990 370.87 1156 0.93
Potassium 39.098 336.53 1032 0.82
Rubidium 85.468 312.46 961 0.82
Caesium 132.905 301.59 944 0.79
Francium (223) ? 295 ? 950 0.7

The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction that an atom has for the bonding pair of electrons in a covalent bond. ...

Biological occurrences

  • The metal lithium is not essential for any biological functions, but was found to exist in extremely tiny quantities in umbilical cord blood. This was found during a study by taking blood samples of newborns from both the umbilical cord and the mother at the time of birth, and subjecting the samples to a number of tests. They found that there was 7 times the amount of lithium in blood than previously believed. (Krachler and Rossipal 488) While it is considered a non-essential trace element (an element needed in extremely tiny amounts for proper growth), lithium also has medicinal uses. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-week long study conducted by a group of doctors on severely depressed patients proved that lithium is a key component in the treatment of severe depression. (Joffe, Levitt, and Sokolov, 791) It has also been proven to play a role in the treatment of other mental disorders. (Bildik et al. 277) One recorded instance was the case of a girl who developed a condition known as Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, who was given an antipsychotic drug (a tranquilizing drug that induces a state of relative calm). She quickly developed the symptoms of NMS, and was quickly hospitalized. There, doctors began treating her for the disorder, and in the final stage of her treatment, lithium was administered to her to help stabilize her mental functions. Weeks later, she was released and was in good physical health, but retained her previous diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (a mental disorder that encompasses periods of mania and depression interspersed by periods of normal behavior). (Bildik et al. 278)
  • Sodium and potassium are very common alkali metals. These elements are essential for the existence of all known life. They are found in the cytoplasm (organic fluid, mainly water) of all living cells, and they are critical to everyday cell operation and regulation. (Chang and Tsong 587) Also, a common sodium salt, sodium chloride (table salt), has been identified many times as a contributor to hypertension in humans. (Sharp 727) A double-blind, two-month study was conducted on a group of elderly adults by modestly cutting their salt intake, to find if cutting salt intake would lower blood pressure. Some in the group were given half the salt that others were given for the duration of the study. The findings indicated that those who were given only half the amount of salt experienced a drop in blood pressure of up to 7.2 mm Hg (millimeters Mercury). (Cappacio and Markandu 850)
  • Rubidium is not required for any known biological functions, but is known to be an unnecessary and toxic trace-element in humans. (Krachler and Rossipal 488) A recent study conducted on rubidium levels in freshwater ecosystems from Lake Erie and two Arctic lakes indicate that this element biomagnifies (the concentration grows as you move higher in the food chain) in marine food chains. This was found by collecting samples of fish, birds and plankton, and conducting tests on them. They found that the predatory animals (the small-mouth bass, for example) had higher rubidium concentrations than animals commonly considered to be prey. (Campbell et al. 1163)
  • Caesium (also spelled cesium) is not typically found in any biological systems. However, cesium salt (cesium chloride) is a popular medicinal supplement taken to counteract the effects of damaged or diseased cells on the body. (Ackerman et al. 1011) Furthermore, this supplement has been shown to be toxic to human physiology, and has caused very serious side effects in people, and potentially can be deadly if not taken carefully. (Ackerman et al. 1011)
  • Francium is an extremely rare element, and its chemical and physical properties are unknown. At any one moment in time, less than one ounce of francium is believed to exist on Earth, and its most stable isotope has a half life of a little less than 23 minutes.("Physics update" 9) It has not been found to exist in any biological systems, and while there is no direct evidence of this, it is assumed to be true due to the rarity and instability of the element.

In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to the placenta. ... Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening, neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ...

Reference Material

Campbell, Linda M., Aaron T. Fisk, Xianowa Wang, Gunter Kock, and Derek C. Muir. "Evidence for Biomagnification of Rubidium in Freshwater and Marine Food Webs." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62 (2005): 1161-1167. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. McIntyre Library, Eau Claire. 1 May 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


Chang, Cheng-Hung, and Tian Y. Tsong. Stochastic Resonance of Na, K-Ion Pumps on the Red Cell Membrane. Noise and Fluctuations: 18th International Conference on Noise and Fluctuations, 2005, American Institute of Physics. 30 Apr. 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=11&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


Sokolov, Stephen T., Russell T. Joffe, and Anthony J. Levitt. "Lithium and Triiodothyronine Augmentation of Antidepressants." Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 51 (2006): 791-793. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. McIntyre Library, Eau Claire. 29 Apr. 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=7&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


Bauer, Brent A., Robert Houlihan, Michael J. Ackerman, Katya Johnson, and Himeshkumar Vyas. "Acquired Long QT Syndrome Secondary to Cesium Chloride Supplement." The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 12 (2006): 1011-1014. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. McIntyre Library, Eau Claire. 3 May 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=14&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


Erermis, Serpil, Muge Tamar, Hatice Karasoy, Tezan Bildik, Eyup S. Ercan, and Ahmet Gockay. Zuclopenthixol-Induced Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in an Adolescent Girl. Clinical Toxicology. Informa Healthcare, 2007. 277-280. 6 May 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=23&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


Sharp, Kelly. "Hypertension: Just the Facts." Ed. Joyce A. Marrs. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing 10 (2006): 727-729. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. McIntyre Library, Eau Claire. 8 May 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=26&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


Cappacio, F P., and N D. Markandu. "Double-Blind Randomised Trial of Modest Salt Restriction in Older People." Lancet 350 (1997): 850-854. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. McIntyre Library, Eau Claire. 6 Mar. 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=29&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


Krachler, M, and E Rossipal. "Trace Elements Transfer From Mother to the Newborn - Investigations on Triplets of Colostrum, Maternal and Umbilical Sera." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (1999): 486-494. EBSCO. McIntyre Library, Eau Claire. 9 May 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=47&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


"Physics Update." Physics Today June 1996: 9. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. McIntyre Library, Eau Claire. 9 May 2007 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=56&hid=108&sid=0795c290-e438-449b-a713-f035a2e12aa4%40sessionmgr109>.


"Visual Elements: Group 1 - The Alkali Metals." Visual Elements. Royal Society of Chemistry. <http://www.chemsoc.org/Viselements/pages/data/intro_groupi_data.html>.


See also

This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Atomic mass 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...

External links

  • Science aid:Alkali metals A simple look at alkali metals
  • Doc Brown, Alkali metals
Explanation of above periodic table slice:
Alkali metals Atomic numbers in black are solids Solid borders indicate primordial elements (older than the Earth) Dashed borders indicate natural radioactive elements with no isotopes older than the Earth

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alkali - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (523 words)
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly) is a specific type of base, formed as a carbonate, hydroxide or other basic (pH greater than 7) ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element.
This definition of an alkali as a basic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal does appear to be the most common, based on dictionary definitions [1][2], however conflicting definitions of the term alkali do exist.
In alkali lakes (a type of salt lake), evaporation concentrates the naturally occurring alkali salts, often forming a crust of mildly basic salt across a large area.
Alkali metal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (510 words)
The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table (excluding hydrogen in all but one rare circumstance): lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).
The alkali metals are silver-colored (caesium has a golden tinge), soft, low-density metals, which react readily with halogens to form ionic salts, and with water to form strongly alkaline (basic) hydroxides.
Alkali metals are famous for their vigorous reactions with water, and these reactions become increasingly violent as you move down the periods.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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