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Encyclopedia > Alkali

In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: Al-Qaly القلي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element. Alkalis are best known for being bases (compounds with pH greater than 7) that dissolve in water. The adjective alkaline is commonly used in English as a synonym for base, especially for soluble bases. This broad use of the term is likely to have come about because alkalis were the first bases known to obey the Arrhenius definition of a base and are still among the more common bases. Since Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory, the term alkali in chemistry is normally restricted to those salts containing alkali and alkaline earth metal elements. Alkaline batteries A Duracell AA alkaline battery 2 Duracell-Brand AAA Alkaline batteries Alkaline batteries are a type of power cell dependent upon the reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide (Zn/MnO2). ... The word alkali can be used to refer to: Alkali, a specific type of chemical base. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... The crystal structure of sodium chloride, NaCl, a typical ionic compound. ... This article is about common table salt. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a...

Contents

Common properties of alkalis

Alkalines are all Arrhenius bases and share many properties with other chemicals in this group (Arrhenius bases form hydroxide ions when dissolved in water). Common properties of alkaline aqueous solutions include: Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ...

  • Moderately-concentrated solutions (over 10-3 M) have a pH of 10 or greater. This means that they will turn phenolphthalein from colorless to pink.
  • Concentrated solutions are caustic (causing chemical burns).
  • Alkaline solutions are slippery or soapy to the touch, due to the saponification of the fatty acids on the surface of the skin.
  • Alkalis are normally water soluble, although some like barium carbonate are only soluble when reacting with an acidic aqueous solution.

Alkalis are opposite of acids. Phenolphthalein is a sensitive chemical with the formula C20H14O4 (often written as HIn in shorthand notation). ... A caustic substance, in chemistry, is one that causes corrosion, the deterioration of a material. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Barium carbonate (BaCO3), also known as witherite, is a chemical compound used in rat poison, bricks and cement. ...


Confusion between base and alkali

The terms "base" and "alkali" are often used interchangeably, since most common bases are alkalis. It is common to speak of "measuring the alkalinity of soil" when what is actually meant is the measurement of the pH (base property). In a similar manner, bases that are not alkalis, such as ammonia, are sometimes erroneously referred to as alkaline. Sea surface alkalinity (from the GLODAP climatology) Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...


Note that not all or even most salts formed by alkali metals are alkaline; this designation applies only to those salts that are basic. The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ...


While most electropositive metal oxides are basic, only the soluble alkali metal and alkaline earth metal oxides can be correctly called alkalis. An electropositive atom, or element, is one that easily loses electrons. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ...


This definition of an alkali as a basic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal does appear to be the most common, based on dictionary definitions [1][2], however conflicting definitions of the term alkali do exist. These include:

  • Any base that is water-soluble and [3][4]. This is more accurately called an Arrhenius base.
  • The solution of a base in water [5].

Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction theories pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Electrochemistry Acid-base extraction Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Organic bases edit An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction between an acid and a...

Alkali salts

Most basic salts are alkali salts, of which common examples are: Base salts or Alkali salts are salts which contain a contain a hydroxide ion. ...

  • sodium hydroxide (often called "caustic soda")
  • potassium hydroxide (commonly called "caustic potash")
  • lye (generic term, for either of the previous two, or even for a mixture)
  • calcium carbonate (sometimes called "free lime")
  • magnesium hydroxide is an example of an atypical alkali: it is a weak base (cannot be detected by phenolphthalein) and it has low solubility in water

Flash point Non-flammable. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Milk of Magnesia. ...

Alkaline soil

Soil with a pH value higher than 7.3 is normally referred to as alkaline. This soil property can occur naturally, due to the presence of alkali salts. Although some plants do prefer slightly basic soil (including vegetables like cabbage and fodder like buffalograss), most plants prefer a mildly acidic soil (pH between 6.0 and 6.8), and alkaline soils can cause problems. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Buffalo grass Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) is found on the North American prairies, a valuable fodder. ... Alkali soils are clay soils with a relatively high exchangeable sodium percentage, a relative high pH (> 9), a poor soil structure and a low infiltration capacity. ...


Alkali lakes

In alkali lakes (a type of salt lake), evaporation concentrates the naturally-occurring alkali salts, often forming a crust of mildly-basic salt across a large area. A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ...


Examples of alkali lakes:

This article is about the Canadian province. ... Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America[citation needed]. // Satellite photo of Mono Lake Mono Craters to the right of the image are rhyolitic... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

Etymology

The word "alkali" is derived from Arabic al qalīy = the calcined ashes, referring to the original source of alkaline substance. Ashes were used in conjunction with animal fat to produce soap, a process known as saponification. A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alkali metal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (510 words)
The alkali metals are the series of elements in Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table (excluding hydrogen in all but one rare circumstance): lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).
The alkali metals are silver-colored (caesium has a golden tinge), soft, low-density metals, which react readily with halogens to form ionic salts, and with water to form strongly alkaline (basic) hydroxides.
Alkali metals are famous for their vigorous reactions with water, and these reactions become increasingly violent as you move down the periods.
Alkali - definition of Alkali in Encyclopedia (415 words)
Alkalis are bitter to taste (compared with acid solutions which are described as sour).
Alkalis have a pH greater than 7 and hence can be detected with litmus paper (litmus will turn blue on contact with an alkali).
In alkali lakes (a type of salt lake), evaporation concentrates the naturally occurring alkali salts, often forming a crust of mildly basic salt across a large area.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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