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Encyclopedia > Aljamiado
Aljamiado text by mancebo de Arévalo. c. 16th century
Aljamiado text by mancebo de Arévalo. c. 16th century[1]

Aljamiado texts are manuscripts which utilize the Arabic or Hebrew alphabets for transcribing Romance languages such as Mozarabic or Ladino. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing Arabic and various other languages, together with various closely related scripts that typically differ in the presence or absence of a few letters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Iberian Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the Romance languages development in Iberia. ... Ladino is a Romance language, derived mainly from Old Castilian (Spanish) and Hebrew. ...


According to Anwar G. Chejne[2], Aljamía or Aljamiado is "a corruption of the Arabic word `ajamiyah (foreigner)[Arabic عجمية] and, generally, the Arabic expression `ajam and its derivative `ajamiyah are applicable to peoples whose ancestry is not of Arabian origin". In linguistic terms, the Aljamia is the romance language (i.e., "foreigners' language") which was used as everyday communication vehicle while Arabic was reserved as the cultivated and religious tongue.


In later times, Moriscos were banned from using Arabic as a religious language, and wrote in Spanish on Islamic subjects. Examples are the Coplas del alhichante Puey de Monzón (about a hajj) or the Poema de Yuçuf on the Biblical Joseph. Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Joseph, in the Hebrew Bible appears in the Book of Genesis. ...

Contents

Usage by the Moriscos during Muslim Persecution

Aljamiado played a very important role in preserving Islam and the Arabic language in the life of the Moriscos. After the fall of the last Muslim kingdom on the Iberian peninsula, the Moriscos (Andalusian Muslims in Granada and other parts of what was once Al-Andalus) were forced to convert to Christianity or leave the peninsula. They were forced to adopt Christian customs and traditions and to attend church services on Sundays. Nevertheless, most of the Moriscos kept their Islamic belief and traditions secretly through the usage of Aljamiado. Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1567, Philip II of Spain issued a royal degree in Spain which forced Moriscos to abandon using Arabic on all occasions, formal and informal, speaking and writing. Using Arabic in any sense of the word would be regarded as a crime. They were given three years to learn the language of the Christian Spanish, after which they would have to get rid of all Arabic written material. Moriscos translated all prayers and the sayings of their prophet Mohammed into Alijamiado transcriptions of the spanish language, while keeping all Qur'anic verses in the original Arabic. Aljamiado scrolls were circulated amongst the Moriscos. Historians came to know about Aljamiado literature only in the early nineteenth century. Some of the Aljamiado scrolls are kept in the National Library in Madrid. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Other Uses

The word aljamiado is sometimes used for other non-Semitic language written in Arabic letters. For example, some Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian and Albanian texts written in Arabic script during the Ottoman period have been referred to as aljamiado. However, many linguists prefer to limit the term to Romance languages. Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (also Croatian or Serbian, Serbian or Croatian) (srpskohrvatski or cрпскохрватски or hrvatskosrpski or hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian, Macedonian). ...


References and notes

  1. ^ The passage is an invitation directed to the Spanish Moriscos or Crypto-Muslims so that they continue fulfilling the Islamic prescriptions in spite of the legal prohibitions and so that they disguise and they are protected showing public adhesion the Christian faith.
  2. ^ Chejne, A.G. (1993): Historia de España musulmana. Editorial Cátedra. Madrid, Spain. Published originally as: Chejne, A.G. (1974): Muslim Spain: Its History and Culture. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, USA
  • Los Siete Alhaicales y otras plegarias de mudéjares y moriscos by Xavier Casassas Canals published by Almuzara, Sevilla (Spain), 2007.

Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... people who weresincere in their Islamic faith but had been forced to convert and were obliged toadhere in their daily lives to Christian practices. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • A bilingual Arabic-aljamiado Qur'an from the fifteenth century
  • Aljamiado (Texts and Studies)
  • Islam y Al-Andalus Comprehensive study of Andalusian Aljamiado (In Spanish)

  Results from FactBites:
 
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Aljamiado Learning Technologies is developing an interactive computerized system for assessment of learning disabilities employing eight criteria for children between the ages of 3-7.
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aljamiado: Information from Answers.com (520 words)
A text in a Romance language is said to be aljamiado if it is written using the Arabic or Hebrew alphabets, as texts written in the Mozarabic or Ladino languages are.
Aljamiado played a very important role in the life of the Moriscos.
Some of the Aljamiado scrolls are kept in the National Library in Madrid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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