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Encyclopedia > Alice Walker
Alice Walker

Alice Walker
Born February 9, 1944 (1944-02-09) (age 64)
Cheeksville, Georgia, United States
Occupation novelist, short story writer, poet
Genres African American literature
Notable work(s) The Color Purple

Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9, 1944) is an American author and feminist (although she prefers the word Womanist). She received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1983 for her critically acclaimed novel The Color Purple. Alice Walker photo widely used on the internet source: http://www. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about work. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... This article is about about the novel. ... Howard Zinn (born August 24, 1922) is an American historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and playwright, best known as author of the bestseller[5] , A Peoples History of the United States. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... // Gayl Jones (Born November 23, 1949)[[1]] Is an African American writer from Lexington, Kentucky. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction has been awarded since 1948 for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life. ... This article is about about the novel. ...


Walker was born in Eatonton, Georgia, the eighth child of sharecroppers.[1] As well as being African American, her family has Cherokee, Scottish and Irish lineage.[2] Although she grew up in Georgia, she has stated that she often felt displaced there, and lives in Berkeley, California: Eatontons most famous resident Eatonton is a city located in Putnam County, Georgia. ... Sharecropping is a system of farming in which employee farmers work a parcel of land in return for a fraction of the parcels crops. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This page contains special characters. ... This article is about the country. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ...

But I felt in Georgia and on the east coast generally very squeezed. People have so many hang-ups about how other people live their lives. People always want to keep you in a little box or they need to label you and fix you in time and location. I feel a greater fluidity here. People are much more willing to accept that nothing is permanent, everything is changeable so there is freedom and I do need to live where I can be free.

—Alice Walker, interview with The Observer in 2001, [1]

In her book Alice Walker: A Life, author Evelyn C. White talks about an incident when Walker, who was eight years old at the time, was injured when her brother accidentally shot her in the eye with a BB gun. She became blind in one eye as a result. In the book, White suggests this event had a large impact on Walker, especially when a white doctor in town swindled her parents out of $250 they paid to repair her injury. Walker refers to this incident in her book Warrior Marks, a chronicle of female genital mutilation in Africa, and uses it to illustrate the sacrificial marks women bear that allow them to be "warriors" against female suppression.

Contents

Activism and marriage

After high school, Walker went to Spelman College in Atlanta on full scholarship in 1961 and later transferred up north to Sarah Lawrence College near New York City, graduating in 1965. Walker became interested in the U.S. civil rights movement in part due to the influence of activist Howard Zinn, who was one of her professors at Spelman College. Continuing the activism that she participated in during her college years, Walker returned to the South where she became involved with voter registration drives, campaigns for welfare rights, and children's programs in Mississippi.[3] Spelman College is a four-year liberal arts womans college in Atlanta, Georgia. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Sarah Lawrence College is a private liberal arts college located in metropolitan New York City, about a thirty-minute train ride north of Manhattan. ... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans. ... Howard Zinn (born August 24, 1922) is an American historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and playwright, best known as author of the bestseller[5] , A Peoples History of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In 1965, Walker met and later married Mel Leventhal, a Jewish civil rights lawyer. They became the first legally married inter-racial couple in Mississippi.[4] This brought them a steady stream of harassment and even murderous threats from the Ku Klux Klan. The couple had a daughter, Rebecca in 1969, but divorced eight years later. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Rebecca Walker is an American feminist and writer. ...


Writing career and success

Walker's first book of poetry was written while she was still a senior at Sarah Lawrence, and she took a brief sabbatical from writing when she was in Mississippi working in the civil rights movement. Walker resumed her writing career when she joined Ms. magazine as an editor before moving to northern California in the late 1970s. An article she published in 1975 was largely responsible for the renewal of interest in the work of Zora Neale Hurston, who was a large source of inspiration for Walker's writing and subject matter. In 1973, Walker and fellow Hurston scholar Charlotte D. Hunt discovered Hurston's unmarked grave in Ft. Pierce, Florida. Both women paid for a modest headstone for the gravesite.[5] magazine Ms. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an American folklorist and author during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, best known for the 1937 novel Their Eyes Were Watching God. ... Fort Pierce is a city located in St. ...


In addition to her collected short stories and poetry, Walker's first novel, The Third Life of Grange Copeland, was published in 1970. In 1976, Walker's second novel, Meridian, was published. The novel dealt with activist workers in the South during the civil rights movement, and closely paralleled some of Walker's own experiences.


In 1982, Walker would publish what has become her best-known work, the novel The Color Purple. The story of a young black woman fighting her way through not only racist white culture but patriarchal black culture was a resounding commercial success. The book became a bestseller and was subsequently adapted into a critically acclaimed 1985 movie as well as a 2005 Broadway musical play. This article is about about the novel. ... This article is about the film. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... The Color Purple is a Broadway musical based upon the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker. ...


Walker has written several other novels, including The Temple of My Familiar and Possessing the Secret of Joy (which featured several characters and descendants of characters from The Color Purple) and has published a number of collections of short stories, poetry, and other published work. Possessing the Secret of Joy is a 1992 novel by Alice Walker. ...


Her works typically focus on the struggles of African Americans, particularly women, and their struggle against a racist, sexist, and violent society. Her writings also focus on the role of women of color in culture and history. Walker is a respected figure in the liberal political community for her support of unconventional and unpopular views as a matter of principle. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the...


Additionally, Walker has published several short stories, including the 1973 "Everyday Use: for your grandmama." This story contains Walker's traditional subjects of feminism and racism against African Americans.[6] Everyday Use is a widely studied and much-anthologized short story by Alice Walker. ...


Personal life

She has one child, Rebecca Walker, from her marriage to Mel Leventhal. Rebecca is also an author and in 2000 published a memoir entitled Black White and Jewish, chronicling her parents' relationship and how it negatively affected her childhood.[7][1] Walker and her daughter are currently estranged. Daughter Rebecca reports Walker wrote that their "relationship had been inconsequential for years, and that she was no longer interested in being my mother." [1] Walker is a vegan.[2] Rebecca Walker is an American feminist and writer. ... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ...


Musician/Comedian Reggie Watts is Walker's second cousin.[8] Reggie Watts is an internationally renowned vocalist/beatboxer/musician/comedian/improvisor[1] and founding member of the band Maktub. ...


Walker discussed her love affair with singer-songwriter Tracy Chapman in a December 2006 interview with The Guardian, explaining why they did not go public with their relationship, saying "[the relationship] was delicious and lovely and wonderful and I totally enjoyed it and I was completely in love with her but it was not anybody's business but ours."[9] The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... Tracy Chapman (born March 30, 1964) is an American singer-songwriter, best known for her singles, Fast Car, Talkin Bout a Revolution, Baby Can I Hold You and Give Me One Reason. She is a multi-platinum and multi-Grammy Award-winning artist. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...


Awards and other recognition

In 1983, The Color Purple won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, making Walker the first African-American woman to win, as well as the National Book Award. This article is about about the novel. ... The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction has been awarded since 1948 for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life. ... The National Book Awards is one of the most preeminent literary prizes in the United States. ...


Walker also won the 1986 O. Henry Award for her short story "Kindred Spirits", published in Esquire magazine in August of 1985. The O. Henry Awards are yearly prizes given to short stories of exceptional merit. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Esquire is a magazine for men owned by the Hearst Corporation. ...


In 1997 she was honored by the American Humanist Association as "Humanist of the Year"


She has also received a number of other awards for her body of work, including:

  • The Lillian Smith Award from the National Endowment for the Arts
  • The Rosenthal Award from the National Institute of Arts & Letters
  • The Radcliffe Institute Fellowship, the Merrill Fellowship, and a Guggenheim Fellowship
  • The Front Page Award for Best Magazine Criticism from the Newswoman's Club of New York

On December 6, 2006, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Alice Walker into the California Hall of Fame located at The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts. Conceived by First Lady Maria Shriver, the California Hall of Fame was established with The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts to honor legendary individuals and families who embody California’s innovative spirit and have made their mark on history. ... The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts – home of the California Hall of Fame – is housed in the State Archives Building in Sacramento, one block from the State Capitol. ...


Controversy and criticism

Existing criticism of Walker's work has centered largely on the depiction of African American men, in particular relating to the novel The Color Purple. When The Color Purple was published, there was some criticism of the portrayal of male characters in the book. The main concern of much of the criticism was that the book appeared to depict the male characters as either mean and abusive (Albert/"Mister") or as buffoons (Harpo). This criticism intensified when the film was released, as the narrative of the film cut a significant portion of the eventual resolution and reconciliation between Albert and Celie. This article is about about the novel. ... This article is about about the novel. ...


In the updated 1995 introduction to his novel Oxherding Tale, Charles Johnson criticized the book by saying, "I leave it to readers to decide which book pushes harder at the boundaries of convention, and inhabits most confidently the space where fiction and philosophy meet." Charles R. Johnson (born 1948 in Evanston, Illinois) is an American scholar and author of novels, short stories, and essays. ...


Walker addressed some of these criticisms in The Same River Twice: Honoring the Difficult 1996. The book was a semi-autobiography, discussing specific events in Walker's life, as well as the perspective of experiencing reaction to The Color Purple twice, once as a book and then as the movie was made. The book also chronicled her struggle with Lyme disease. Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ...


Selected works

Novels and short story collections

  • The Third Life of Grange Copeland (1970)
  • Everyday Use (1973)
  • In Love and Trouble: Stories of Black Women (1973)
  • Roselily (1973)
  • Meridian (novel) (1976)
  • The Color Purple (1982)
  • You Can't Keep a Good Woman Down: Stories (1982)
  • Beauty: When the Other Dancer Is the Self (1983)
  • Am I Blue? (1986)
  • To Hell With Dying (1988)
  • The Temple of My Familiar (1989)
  • Finding the Green Stone (1991)
  • Possessing the Secret of Joy (1992)
  • The Complete Stories (1994)
  • By The Light of My Father's Smile (1998)
  • The Way Forward Is with a Broken Heart (2000)
  • Now Is The Time to Open Your Heart (2005)

The Third Life of Grange Copeland is the debut novel of American author Alice Walker. ... Everyday Use is a widely studied and much-anthologized short story by Alice Walker. ... Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9, 1944) is an African-American author and feminist who received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1983 for The Color Purple. ... This article is about about the novel. ... Possessing the Secret of Joy is a 1992 novel by Alice Walker. ...

Poetry collections

  • Once (1968)
  • Revolutionary Petunias and Other Poems (1973)
  • Good Night, Willie Lee, I'll See You in the Morning (1979)
  • Horses Make a Landscape Look More Beautiful (1985)
  • Her Blue Body Everything We Know: Earthling Poems (1991)
  • Absolute Trust in the Goodness of the Earth (2003)
  • A Poem Traveled Down My Arm: Poems And Drawings (2003)
  • Collected Poems (2005)
  • Poem at Thirty-Nine

Non-fiction

  • In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens: Womanist Prose (1983)
  • Living by the Word (1988)
  • Warrior Marks (1993)
  • The Same River Twice: Honoring the Difficult (1996)
  • Anything We Love Can Be Saved: A Writer's Activism (1997)
  • Go Girl!: The Black Woman's Book of Travel and Adventure (1997)
  • Pema Chodron and Alice Walker in Conversation (1999)
  • Sent By Earth: A Message from the Grandmother Spirit After the Bombing of the World Trade Center and Pentagon (2001)
  • Women
  • We Are the Ones We Have Been Waiting For (2006)
  • Mississippi Winter IV

Works about Alice Walker

  • Alice Walker: A Life, Evelyn C. White, Norton, 2004

She opened her own bookstore with all her books in it in 2005.


See also

African-American literature is literature written by, usually about, and sometimes specifically for African-Americans. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Campbell, Duncan. "A long walk to freedom", 'dsfriurwej'The Observer, February 25, 2001. Retrieved on 2007-06-14. 
  2. ^ Alice Walker: A Critical Companion by Gerri Bates, ISBN 0-313-32024-1
  3. ^ White, Evelyn C.. "Alice Walker: On Finding Your Bliss; Interview by Evelyn C. White", Ms. Magazine, September/October 1999. Retrieved on 2007-06-14. 
  4. ^ "Inner Light in a Time of Darkness: A Conversation with Author and Poet Alice Walker", Democracy Now!, November 17th, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-06-14. 
  5. ^ Extract from "Anything We Love Can Be Saved: A Writer's Activism" by Alice Walker published by The Women's Press Ltd, 1997
  6. ^ Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use." Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. Comp. Thomas R. Arp. New York: Harcourt Brace College, 1994. 90-97.
  7. ^ The day feminist icon Alice Walker resigned as my mother. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.
  8. ^ Teagarden, Rebecca. "Reggie Watts", The Seattle Times, December 19, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-06-14. 
  9. ^ "No Retreat", The Guardian, December 15, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-06-14. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Alice Walker

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Video

Persondata
NAME Walker, Alice Malsenior
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Eatonton, Georgia, United States
SHORT DESCRIPTION American novelist, short story writer, poet
DATE OF BIRTH February 9..............., 1944
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Eatontons most famous resident Eatonton is a city located in Putnam County, Georgia. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
New Georgia Encyclopedia: Alice Walker (b. 1944) (1815 words)
Walker's creative vision is rooted in the economic hardship, racial terror, and folk wisdom of African American life and culture, particularly in the rural South.
Alice Malsenior Walker was born in Eatonton on February 9, 1944, the eighth and youngest child of Minnie Tallulah Grant and Willie Lee Walker, who were sharecroppers.
Walker's harshest critics have condemned her portrayal of fl men in the novel as "male-bashing," but others praise her forthright depiction of taboo subjects and her clear rendering of folk idiom and dialect.
NOW with Bill Moyers. Arts & Culture. Alice Walker | PBS (1149 words)
Born on February 9, 1944, Alice Walker was the eighth and youngest child born to poor sharecroppers in Eatonton, Georgia.
After two years of study, Walker was offered a scholarship to Sarah Lawrence College in New York, and although reluctant to leave the heart of the civil rights movement, she became one of the few fl students in attendance at Sarah Lawrence.
Walker's first book of poems, completed while she was a senior at Sarah Lawrence, was largely written in the span of a week during the winter of 1965 when she was struggling with depression, anxiety, and thoughts of suicide after deciding to have an abortion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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