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Encyclopedia > Ali ibn Abi Talib
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Islam

History of Islam Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Image File history File links Mosque02. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ...

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PilgrimageCharity This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Tawhīd (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... An example of allāhu written in simple Arabic calligraphy Allah (Arabic allāhu الله) is traditionally used by Muslims as the Arabic word for Singular God (not Gods personal name, but the equivalent of the Hebrew word El as opposed to YHWH). Both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars often... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Zakât (or Zakaat or Zakah) (English:tax, alms, tithe) (Arabic: زكاة, Old (Quran) Arabic: زكوة) is the third of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam and one of the Branches of Religion in Shia Islam. ...

Major figures

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AliAbu Bakr
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Prophets of Islam This page is a list of Muslims in various professions and fields. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبو طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn AbÄ« Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... In Islam, the Sahāba (الصحابه) were the companions of the prophet Muhammad. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic:) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as Prophets of Islam (Arabic: nabee نبي ; pl. ...

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Branches of Islam

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The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ translit: Persian: ‎) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic: تصوف, taṣawwuf) is a mystic tradition of Islam. ...

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See also

Vocabulary of Islam
Index of articles on Islam The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islam and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599661) is an early Islamic leader. He is seen by Sunni Muslims as the fourth and last of the Khulafā’ ar-Rāshidūn (Rightly Guided Caliphs). Shi'a Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by Muhammad and the first rightful caliph. Ali was the cousin of Muhammad, and after marriage to Fatima Zahra, he also became Muhammad's son-in-law. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... It has been suggested that Persian language#Arabic Alphabet be merged into this article or section. ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Four Righteously or Rightly Guided Caliphs or Khulifa Rashidoon in Arabic refers to the first four caliphs in the Sunni tradition of Islam who are seen as being model leaders. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ translit: Persian: ‎) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Fatima Zahra also called Fatemeh Al Zahraa or Az-Zahra (Arabic: ) was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. ...

Contents


Birth

Ali was born in Mecca, in the Hijaz region of central western Arabia, sometime around 599 CE (the year is only an approximation). CITY OF TRASH ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ...


Shi'a Muslims believe that Ali was born inside the Kaaba, the most sacred site in Islam. Many Sunni do not accept this tradition; non-Muslim historians do not discuss it. See also: People reported to be born in the Kaaba and Birthplace of Ali ibn Abi Talib Masjid al Haram The Kaaba (Arabic: ‎ translit: Persian: ‎) also known as al-Ka‘abatu’l-Musharrafat (Arabic: ‎), al-Baytu l-‘Atīq (Arabic: ‎), or al-Baytu’l-Ḥarām (Arabic: ‎ The Sacred House), is a building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjidu’l-Ḥarām in... This is a subarticle to Reports of unusual religious childbirths and Kaaba. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (ca 599-661 CE) was a prominent figure in early Islamic history. ...


Ali was given an auspicious name, which Shi'a Muslims say is derived from one of 99 Names of God, Al-Ali (The Exalted). The 99 Names of God, also known as The 99 attributes of Allah (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى; transliterated: Asma Allah al-Husna), according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God revealed to man in the Quran. ...


Early life

Ali's father, Abu Talib, was a member of the powerful tribe of the Quraysh, and an uncle to the young Muhammad. When Muhammad was orphaned and then lost his grandfather, Abu Talib took Muhammad into his house. Later on Muhammad set out and married Khadijah, Ali was born 5 years later and Muhammad took his gardianship. When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali, then only about ten years old, believed in him and professed Islam. Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (d. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Shi'a, and some Sunni, believe that he was the first male to convert to Islam. Others say that Zayd ibn Harithah, his freed-slave and adopted son, or Abu Bakr, the first caliph, was the first male convert. See also: Identity of first male Muslim Zaid mawla Muhammad is called so because he was the freed slave of Muhammad and lived in his house. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ali. ...


Some Shi'a claim that it is wrong to say that Ali converted, as he was already a hanif, a pre-Islamic monotheist, as were Muhammad and his whole family. Hanif is an Islamic term that refers to people who during the time of Jahiliya rejected the idolatry in their society. ...


Ali stood firmly in support of Muhammad during the years of persecution of Muslims in Mecca. In 622 CE, the year of Muhammad's Hijrah (migration) to Yathrib, later renamed Medina, Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot, so that his cousin could flee in safety. Ali survived the plot, but risked his life again by staying in Makkah to carry out Muhammad's instructions: to restore to their owners all the goods and properties that had been entrusted to Muhammad for safekeeping. Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


Ali in Medina

The small community of Muslim immigrants in Medina, the Muhajirun, were at first extremely poor. They had no land, no houses, and lived on the charity of the Madinans who had converted to Islam (the Ansar). They hired themselves out for labor and raided Meccan caravans. Ali shared in all the labor and hardships of the community. Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, helpers or patrons) refer to the Muslim inhabitants of Medina who welcomed Muhammad and the other Meccan Muslims when they migrated to Medina from Mecca (in an event known as the Hijrah). ...


Ali first distinguished himself as a warrior in 624 CE, at the Battle of Badr. He defeated the Banu Umayyed champion Walid ibn Utba as well as many other Meccan soldiers. He was publicly praised by Muhammad. After this, he asked for the hand of Fatima Zahra, Muhammad's daughter by Khadijah, in marriage. Fatima and Muhammad consented, and the marriage was solemnized two months after the battle [1]. Events Justus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ali Amr ibn Hishām (aka AbÅ« Jahl) Abu Sufyan Strength 305-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic غزوة بدر), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Tha champion of Quraish, killed by Ali ibn Abu Talib in the battle of Badr. ... Khadija (Arabic: خديجه ) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad and the first female convert to Islam, the new religion he had begun to preach. ...


Shi'a believe that Ali was also prominent at the Battle of Uhud, as well as many other battles. Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 1,000 3,000 Casualties 75 dead Unknown The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625 CE, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from...


For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his cousin's service, serving in his armies, leading parties of warriors on raids, carrying messages and orders. With the exception of Tabuk, Ali joined all of Muhammad's battles and expeditions. As Muhammad's son-in-law and one of his lieutenants, Ali was a person of authority and standing in the Muslim community. The Battle of Tabouk (also called the Battle of Tabuk) took place in October 630 AD, during the month of Ramadan. ...


The death of Muhammad (632 CE)

Muhammad had been ailing for some time, but seemed to have recovered somewhat. He left his house to take part in prayers at the mosque, then returned to his quarters and died. Yeni Camii (the New Mosque), one of the landmarks of Ä°stanbul A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


While Ali and the rest of Muhammad's close family were washing the prophet's body for burial, a gathering of Muslims at Saqifah swore allegiance to Abu Bakr as the new leader of the Muslim community. Ali had many friends, followers and supporters who believed that Ali should have succeeded Muhammad, as Ali was one of Muhammad's closest assistants, his cousin and son-in-law, and a well-respected leader. Yet Ali had not even been told of the meeting, nor had his name been mentioned as a possible leader. Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


When a new Arab chief was declared, everyone in the community had to give his or her bay'ah, declaration of allegiance to the chief. Ali at first refused to swear fealty to Abu Bakr. In this he was followed by a significant portion of Medina's Muslim community. They were known as the Shi'at Ali, the party of Ali. Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ...


This is an extremely contentious issue, covered in detail in the Succession to Muhammad article. Muslims ultimately divided into two branches based on their political attitude towards this issue. The Shi'a argue that Muhammad, in accordance with God's command, designated Ali to succeed him, and that Ali was a victim of worldly intrigue; the Sunni consider that the community made a wise choice in uniting behind Abu Bakr and there was no such religious decree. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


The two Muslim groups also disagree on Ali's attitude towards Abu Bakr, and the two caliphs who succeeded him, Umar ibn al-Khattab and Uthman ibn Affan. The Sunnis tend to stress Ali's acceptance and support of their rule, while the Shi'a claim that he distanced himself from them. They argue that he did not do so because he was angry at having been denied worldly power and pleasure; rather, he felt that he had a duty to keep the Muslim community on the strict path of Islam, and that he was being kept from fulfilling the religious duty that Muhammad had appointed to him. For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Leave this page if youre under 18!! - Page contains huge lies and hardly has any facts > it will surely misguide you! Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ...


Inheritance

Shi'a Muslims believe that Ali and Fatima, as well as the wives of Muhammad had an additional cause for disaffection with Abu Bakr [2]. The new caliph argued that the Muhammad's considerable landed property had been held by the prophet in trust for the community, and was rightfully the property of the state -- despite Ali's rejoinder that Muhammad's revelations included accounts of prophetic inheritance (Qur'an 27:16, 21:89). According to Shia'a Muslims, Abu Bakr gave state pensions to Muhammad's widows, but Muhammad's blood relatives, Ali, Fatima and Ibn Abbas, did not receive even that much. Abdullah ibn Abbas was a cousin of the prophet Muhammad. ...


After Fatima's death, Ali again claimed her inheritance, but was denied with the same argument. However, Umar, the caliph who succeeded Abu Bakr, did restore the estates in Medina to al-Abbas and Ali, as representatives of Muhammad's clan, the Banu Hashim. The properties in Khaybar and Fadak were retained as state property (Madelung 1997 p. 62). Shi'a Muslims regard this as yet another instance of the persecution of Muhammad's lineage, the Ahl al-Bayt, at the hands of the caliphs they regard as usurpers. (Some of the hadith cited by both sides in this dispute can be found at [3].) Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic:) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...


Succession to the caliphate

In 656 CE, the third caliph Uthman, was murdered in his own house while reading the Qur'an, in Medina, by rebellious Muslim soldiers. Medina, now a large city and the capital of an empire stretching from Africa to Central Asia, fell into chaos. In the crisis, some Muslims turned to Ali, who had been for years a faithful and steady lieutenant of Muhammad and his successors, and urged him to seek the caliphate. Ali at first refused. He is said to have been horrified by the assassination of Uthman, and did not wish to appear to be profiting from the situation. But his supporters persevered, and Ali finally allowed himself to be proclaimed caliph. Events Ali succeeds Uthman as Caliph Battle of Basrah (also known as Battle of the Camel) Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Births Deaths Uthman ibn Affan, Caliph (murdered) Peada, king of Mercia (murdered) Categories: 656 ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (disambiguation). ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Some opponents at the time claimed that he had connived at the murder of Uthman, or at the very least had been negligent in seeking the murderers. However, most historians absolve him of any blame. Besides his extremely high status in Shi'a Islam, he is also revered by Sunnis as the last of the truly exemplary successors of Muhammad.


For a fuller discussion of this and succeeding events, see First Islamic civil war. The First Islamic civil war, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ...


Caliphate

Zulfiqar, the sword of Ali. The Arabic inscription above it reads: Ali-un-Wali-u-Allah, Ali is the friend of God. Some Shi'a add this statement to the Muslim confession of faith, the shahada.
Zulfiqar, the sword of Ali. The Arabic inscription above it reads: Ali-un-Wali-u-Allah, Ali is the friend of God. Some Shi'a add this statement to the Muslim confession of faith, the shahada.

Almost the first act of his caliphate was to put down a rebellion led by Talha and az-Zubayr (two eminent companions of Muhammad), who were urged on by Aisha, Muhammad's widow. In the view of Shi'as, she was a bitter enemy of Ali, and one of the chief hindrances to his advancement to the caliphate. The rebel army was defeated at the Battle of Basra (also known as the Battle of the Camel); Talha was killed, Zubayr fled and was killed later, and Aisha was captured and escorted with all respect to Medina, where she was given a pension. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x313, 11 KB) Caption The ThulFiqar sword of Ali. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x313, 11 KB) Caption The ThulFiqar sword of Ali. ... There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ... The murder of Uthman ibn Affan had become Talhahs tryst with destiny. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Aisha, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha (Arabic عائشة `āisha, she who lives) was a wife of Muhammad, whom Muslims regard as the final prophet of Islam. ... An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 20,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal is a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 655 between... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


Soon thereafter, Ali dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were relatives of Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides such as Malik ibn Ashter and Salman the Persian. Ali then transferred his capital from Medina to Kufa, the Muslim garrison city in what is now Iraq. The capital of the province of Syria, Damascus, was held by Mu'awiyah, the governor of Syria and a kinsman of Uthman, Ali's slain predecessor. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Salman the Persian (Arabic سلمان الفارسي Salman Farisi, Persian Salman e Farsi) was one of the Islamic prophet Muhammads companions. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ... Muˤāwiyya I, or Muˤāwiyya ibn AbÄ«-Sufyān (Arabic: ). (602 - May 6, 680) was the fifth Muslim Caliph and founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of Islamic caliphs. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (disambiguation). ...


Mu'awiyah raised an army and marched against Ali, demanding vengeance for the death of Uthman. A prolonged battle took place in July 657 CE in the Battle of Siffin, near the Euphrates; the battle seemed to be turning in favor of Ali, when a number of the opposing army, fixing copies of the Qur'an to the points of their spears, exclaimed that "the matter ought to be settled by reference to this book, which forbids Muslims to shed each other's blood." Events June 2 - Pope Eugene I dies and is subsequently canonized. ... The Battle of Siffin was a battle between ˤAlī and Muˤāwiyyas forces in 657. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, Kurdish: Fırat, Arabic: الفرات; Al-Furat, Old Persian: Ufrat, Syriac: ܦܪܘܬ/ܦܪܬ; Prâth/Frot, Turkish: Fırat, Assyrian Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu, Hebrew: פְּרָת) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Beth Nahrain in Syriac), the other being the... The Qurān (Arabic: recitation), also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly as Alcoran, is the holy book of Islam. ...


At this point, the soldiers of Ali refused to fight any longer, and demanded that the issue be referred to arbitration. Ali and his followers are said to have disagreed over the choice of advocate for Ali. Ali wanted Malik ibn Ashter or Ibn Abbas; his followers are said to have objected. Finally, Abu Musa al Asha'ri was chosen as Ali's advocate. Amr ibn al-As, a veteran diplomat, was chosen to act for Mu'awiyah. It is claimed that `Amr persuaded Abu Musa that it would be to the advantage of Islam that neither candidate should reign, and asked him to give his decision first. Abu Musa having proclaimed that he deposed both Ali and Mu'awiyah, `Amr declared that he also deposed Ali, but invested Mu'awiyah with the caliphate. This decision greatly injured the cause of Ali, which was still further weakened by the loss of Egypt to Mu'awiya's forces. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Abdullah ibn Abbas was a cousin of the prophet Muhammad. ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ...


Death

Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq - Ali is believed by many to be buried here
Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq - Ali is believed by many to be buried here

According to tradition, three Muslim zealots (purists later termed Kharijites) had agreed to assassinate Ali, Mu'awiyah and `Amr, as the authors of disastrous feuds among the faithful. The assassins sent against Mu'awiyah and `Amr failed; the only assassin who succeeded was the one who attacked Ali. Facade of the Meshed Ali, Najaf, Iraq Image by Photographers Mate 1st Class Arlo K. Abrahamson, U.S. Navy See http://www. ... Facade of the Meshed Ali, Najaf, Iraq Image by Photographers Mate 1st Class Arlo K. Abrahamson, U.S. Navy See http://www. ... Exterior view of Imam Ali Mosque The Imam Ali Mosque, also known as Meshed Ali or the Tomb of Ali, is a mosque located in Najaf, Iraq. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ... Kharijites or Khawarij(Arabic خوارج, literally those who go out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which reject the caliphate of Ali as invalid. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ...


Ali suffered a mortal head wound on the 19th of Ramadan while he was performing morning prayers in mosque in the city of Kufa. Some say that the sword that wounded him was poisoned. As he was being struck, Ali cried out "By the Lord of the Ka'bah, I have succeeded"! Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the holiest month in Islam. ...


Shi'a accounts stress Ali's concern lest his assassin be mistreated. When Ali was given milk to drink, he is said to have asked if his assassin, Abdur Rahman bin Muljam al Sarimi, had been offered milk as well. Also, when he noticed that the assassin's ropes had been tied painfully tight, he ordered them to be loosened. Ali further decreed that if he was not to survive, then Bin Muljam should be killed with no more than one stroke, as he had only struck Ali once.


Madelung gives a different account; he writes:

"He (the assassin) was led before Ali, who ordered that, if he died from his wound, Ibn Muljam should be put to death in retaliation. If he survived, he would decide on how to treat him." (Madelung 1997 p. 309)

Ali died on the 21st of Ramadan (three days after receiving the head wound) in the city of Kufa (Iraq) in 661 CE. Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the holiest month in Islam. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ...


Grave of Ali

If Ali had been buried according to Islamic law, he would have been buried simply and quickly close to the place where he died, in Kufa.


Many Muslims, however, believe that Ali feared that his grave would be desecrated by his enemies and that he asked his friends to bury him secretly. This secret gravesite is supposed to have been revealed in later times.


Most Shi'a and Sunni accept that Ali was buried at what is now the city of Najaf, which grew around the mosque and shrine called Mashad Ali. Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ... Exterior view of Imam Ali Mosque The Imam Ali Mosque, also known as Meshed Ali or the Tomb of Ali, is a mosque located in Najaf, Iraq. ...

  • One story recounts that the caliph Harun al-Rashid (ruled from 786 to 809) went hunting and came upon a bit of raised ground which his dogs refused to approach. Local inhabitants told him that this was the grave of Ali. The caliph ordered the building of a mausoleum, which was the nucleus of the city and the shrine.
  • Another story claims that the location of the gravesite was passed from father to son along the line of Shi'a imams, and that Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth imam, told the caliph where to find the grave.

A summary of the various theories held by the Shi'a is found in the controversial Shi'a text, the Peshawar Nights [4]. Persian miniature depicting Harun al-Rashid. ... Sects Within Shiism there are various sects that differ over the number of Imams, or path of succession. ... Jafar al-Sadiq (Arabic جعفر الصادق, April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, is considered the sixth Shia imam by Twelver Shia Muslims. ... Peshawar Nights is a Shia book depicting a imaginary argument between a Shia and a Sunni Muslim. ...


Descendants

Main article: Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib

Ali had eight wives after Fatima's death, and in all, it is said, thirty-three children. He had two sons by Fatima, Hasan and Hussein. Hasan is said to have refrained from publicly claiming the caliphate, so as to prevent further bloodshed among Muslims. Mu'awiyah thus became caliph and established the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs. Hasan is, however, revered by most Shi'a as the second imam; his brother Hussein is reckoned as the third, except by the Shi'a Ismaili, who consider him the second imam. Ali ibn Abi Talib was one of the first caliphs of Islam. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Imaginary portrait of Husayn ibn Ali, by contemporary Iranian artist. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام , Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ... Imaginary portrait of Husayn ibn Ali, by contemporary Iranian artist. ... The Ismāīlī (Arabic الإسماعيليون, Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmailiyan) branch of Islam is the second largest Shīˤa community after the Twelvers, who are dominant in Iran. ... Imam (Arabic: إمام , Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ...


Ali's descendants by Fatima are known as sharifs, sayyeds, or sayyids. These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayyed/sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'a place much more emphasis and value on the distinction. Sharif is a traditional Arab tribal title given to those to serve as the protector of the tribe and all tribal assets, property, land, wells etc. ... Sayyid (Arabic: سيد also rendered as syed, seyyed, sayyed, saiyed, or sayed) is an honorific title often given to descendants of Muhammad through his grandsons, Hussein and Hasan, the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib (who was Muhammads younger cousin and... An honorific is a term used to convey esteem or respect. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


Many Muslim notables are descendents of Muhammad. The Hashemite royal families of Jordan and Iraq, the Alaouite royal family of Morocco, the Husseini (or Hussaini) family of Lebanon, and the Aga Khans of the Ismaili community claim direct descent from the prophet through Ali and Fatima. There are also many humbler sayyeds whose only distinction may be the title in front of their name, or the right to wear a black turban (a sign of Alid descent in some communities). Hashemite (Arabic هاشمي) traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ... Hussaini or Sisoni is rockey valley in Gojal upper Hunza of the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Aga Khan (Persian: آقا خان ) is the hereditary title of the Imam (spiritual and general leader), of the Nizari (Nizari Ismaili) sect (result of the 1094 split with the Mustaˤliyya who followed Nizars younger brother Al-Mustali) within the Ismaili branch of Islam. ...


Legacy

Ali is respected not only as a warrior and leader, but as a writer and religious authority. The most famous collection of speeches and letters attributed to Ali is the Peak of Eloquence (Arabic: Nahj al-Balāgha). A few famous quotations from it include: The Nahj al Balagha (Peak of Eloquence) is the most famous collection of speeches and letters by Ali ibn Abi Talib, accepted as the fourth of the Caliphs by Sunni Muslims and the first of the Imams by Shia Muslims. ... The Nahj al Balagha (Peak of Eloquence) is the most famous collection of speeches (sermons) and letters by Ali ibn Abi Talib, accepted as the fourth of the Caliphs by Sunni Muslims and the first of the Imams by Shia Muslims. ...

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Ali ibn Abi Talib
  • Inability is a disaster; patience is bravery; abstinence is a treasure, self-restraint is a shield; and the best companion is submission to Divine Will.
  • Socialize with people in such a manner that when you die, they should weep for you and as long as you live, they should long for your company.
  • Greed is a permanent slavery.
  • Submission to God's will is the cure of the misery of the heart.

Ali is also reputed to have said: Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

  • He who has a thousand friends has not a friend to spare, while he who has one enemy will meet him everywhere.

Muslim view

He is greatly respected by most Muslims; the Ibadi might be the only dissenters. Having been one of the first Muslims (or even the first), he was extremely knowledgeable in matters of religious belief and practice, as well as in the history of the Muslim community. He was known for his eloquence and heroism. Al-Ibadhiyah is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni sects. ...


Just as Muslims do not picture God, or Allah, but reference him by his Ninety-nine Names or titles, so Muslims honor Muhammad, Ali, and other pious Muslims with titles of praise and add pious interjections after their names. For other uses, see Allah (disambiguation). ... The 99 Names of God, also known as The 99 attributes of Allah (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى; transliterated: Asma Allah al-Husna), according to Islamic tradition, are the names of God revealed to man in the Quran. ...


Moreover, Sunni and Shi'a alike agree that Ali deserves these titles:

  • Commander of the Faithful (Arabic: Ameer-al-Momineen)
  • Father of Dust/Soil (Arabic: Abu Turab)
  • Winning Lion of God (Arabic: Asad-ullāh al-Ghaleb)
  • The Charging Lion (Arabic: Haydar-al-Karrar)
(Please note that translation from Arabic to English may change the way the words are interpreted)

Commander of the Faithful (Arabic: Ameer-al-Momineen أمير المؤمنين). The title was used by caliphs starting with Umar bin-l-Kahttab]] as Abu Bakr used Khalifa-t RasulAllah as title. ... Abu Turab is Alis favorite nickname, given to him by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Asad is a Arabic name. ... For other uses, see Allah (disambiguation). ... Haydar-e-l-Karrar is another famous name of Ali bin abi Taleb composed of two words: Haydar the name his mother gave him at birth and the honorary name Karrar prophet Muhammad gave him just before the battle of Khaybar. ...

Sunni view of Ali

Sunnis hold Ali in high respect as one of the Ahl al-Bayt and the last of the Four Righteously Guided Caliphs. He was one of the first to accept Islam ; he was Muhammad's cousin; he was honored with the hand of Muhammad's daughter Fatima. Sunnis, however, believe that he shared this honor with Uthman, whom Sunni believe to have married two of Muhammad's biological daughters. Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic:) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Urdu: خلفأے راشدین, khalifa-e-rashidoon) refers to the first four caliphs in the Sunni tradition of Islam who are seen as being model leaders. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (disambiguation). ...


Sunnis believe that Shi'as distort history when they argue that he withdrew from public life after losing his bid to be the first caliph. Sunnis say that Ali supported the first three caliphs loyally, named some of his sons after them [5], and gave Umar his daughter in marriage [6].


Many Sunnis add the phrase "May God be pleased with him" (Arabic: radiallhu anu) after mentioning Ali's name, as is done for many illustrious figures in early Islamic history. May God be pleased with him (Arabic: Radi-Allah-u anhu رضي الله عنه) is usually mentioned after sahaba names. ...


Shi'a view of Ali

The Shi'a hold Ali in extraordinary esteem; he is venerated as second only to Muhammad. He is seen not only as Muhammad's chosen successor, but also as holding a position of authority designated by God and as deserving his position by his great personal merits.


Shia add the phrase "Peace be upon him" (Arabic: 'Alayh-es-Salam) after mentioning Ali's name, as is done for the prophets. Peace be upon him (Arabic: Alayh-es-Salam عليه السلام)is usually an islamic honorific for prophets other than Mohammad. ...


Shia make several claims for Ali, believed to indicate Ali's special status, including claims:

They also claim that Muhammad indicated in many times and in many ways his belief that Ali was his divinely appointed successor, and cite a number of hadith and verses from the Qur'an in support of that position. See Succession to Muhammad for further discussion. This is a subarticle to Reports of unusual religious childbirths and Kaaba. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (ca 599-661 CE) was a prominent figure in early Islamic history. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ali. ... Shia Muslims, a group of minority sections encompassing some 10-15% of the worlds Muslim population, believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammads cousin and son-in-law, was the rightful successor to Muhammad, and the ancestor of the Shia imams, whom the Shia believe... Hadith (Arabic: hadīth, Arabic pl. ... The Qurān (Arabic: recitation), also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly as Alcoran, is the holy book of Islam. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


In the Shi'a view, Ali's character, like Muhammad's, is considered perfect and unblemished. They celebrate the anniversaries of his death and birth and in the Shi'a version confession of faith (shahada) and call to prayer (adhan), there is an optional reference to Ali. There is also a town called Shāhāda, which is now in Nandurbār district (formerly in Dhule district) in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India. ... Adhan ([]) is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin. ...


Shia is the worst people in Islam and as matter of fact shia is not even muslim. In right way they don't even believe on our massenger Mahammad.


It has been proved in Pakistan that shia is not muslim and human either they hit thier selves and its not allowed in islam to hit your self like an animal its our responsibility to take care of our self.


The non-Muslim view of Ali

Non-Muslim views of Ali have varied. Some, like the 19th century historian Carlyle, found him an attractive, romantic figure. Some later scholars, such as Lammens and Watt, dismissed Ali as pious but a poor leader. Wilferd Madelung, a specialist in Shi'a studies, takes a much more favorable view of Ali. Most contemporary historians of early Islam, however, are not interested in judging Ali's character. Contemporary historical approaches stress economic, cultural, and ecological issues, not the role of "great men" in forming history. See Non-Muslim view of Ali for further discussions. Some of the non-Muslim scholars, like Watt, reject all hadith as fabrications, this colouring their view. ...


See also

Here follows Ali ibn Abu Talibs family tree: Paternal grand father: Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim Paternal grand mother: Fatimah bint Amr Father: Abu Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib Mother: Fatima bint Asad Brother: Jafar ibn Abu Talib Nephew: Awn ibn Jaafer married Umm Khultum bint Ali Nephew... Exterior view of Imam Ali Mosque The Imam Ali Mosque, also known as Meshed Ali or the Tomb of Ali, is a mosque located in Najaf, Iraq. ... Imam Ali International Airport is an airport currently under construction in the eastern side of the Iraqi city of Najaf. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Ismaili ( اسماعيلي, Persian Esmaaili) branch of Islam is the second-largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... The name of this Arab dynasty should not be confused with Hashem one of the names for God in Judaism Hashemite traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashim, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... The Alawites are a Middle Eastern religious group prominent in Syria. ... Alevis in Turkey Alevis (Turkish: Alevîlik) are adherents of a branch of Islam related to Shia Islam and practised mainly in Turkey. ... Wali (plural Auliyaa) is an Arabic word, literally meaning protector or guardian, also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Some of the non-Muslim scholars, like Watt, reject all hadith as fabrications, this colouring their view. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic:) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... The Nahj al Balagha (Peak of Eloquence) is the most famous collection of speeches (sermons) and letters by Ali ibn Abi Talib, accepted as the fourth of the Caliphs by Sunni Muslims and the first of the Imams by Shia Muslims. ... Zulfiqar, the sword of Ali. ...

References

There are no English-language biographies specifically of Ali. Material for his biography must be extracted from the pages of general histories, or from biographies of Muhammad.

Karen Armstrong (born 14 November 1944 in Wildmoor, Worcestershire, England) is an author, feminist and writer on Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ibn Ishaq (or ibn Ishaq), (d. ... Ibn Sad was a Sunni Muslim scholar of Islam. ... The book of The Major Classes (Arabic: Kitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir) (ISBN B0007JAWMK) is a collection in two volumes about Islam, authored by Ibn Sad. ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... The Succession to Muhammad is a book writen by Wilferd Madelung and released by the Cambridge University Press in 1997. ... Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (Arabic الطبري, AD 838-AD 923), was an author from Persia. ... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Tabari from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim history. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Muhammad at Mecca is a book about Islam writen by the non-Muslim Islamic scholar William Montgomery Watt. ... Muhammad at medina is a book about Islam writen by the non-Muslim Islamic scholar William Montgomery Watt. ...

External links

Sunni biography

  • Biography from USC's MSA website

Shi'a biography

Preceded by:
Uthman
Caliph (in Sunni and Western chronologies)
656661
Succeeded by:
Muawiyah I
Preceded by:
Muhammad
Shi'a Imam
632661
Succeeded by:
Hasan ibn Ali

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ali ibn Abi Talib - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3307 words)
Ali's father, Abu Talib, was a member of the powerful tribe of the Quraysh, and an uncle to the young Muhammad.
The capital of the province of Syria, Damascus, was held by Mu'awiyah, the governor of Syria and a kinsman of Uthman, Ali's slain predecessor.
Ali suffered a mortal head wound on the 19th of Ramadan while he was performing morning prayers in mosque in the city of Kufa.
al-imam.net Ashoora Encyclopedia (3535 words)
Ibn Abbas was the Prophet (pbuhandhf) and Imam Ali's cousin.
When Muslim Ibn Aqeel came to Koofa and entered Taw'a's house, Muslim told her about all the events that he had gone trough and that the people of Ibn Ziyad were looking for him.
She was Khawla bint Jaafer Ibn Qays Ibn Salma Ibn Tha'lebeh, and her son Mohammed was among the bravest.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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