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Encyclopedia > Ali Shariati

Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (19331977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his work in the field of sociology of religion. He is known as one of the most original and influential Iranian social thinkers of the 20th century. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... // The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ...

Dr. Ali Shariati


Image File history File links AliShariati. ... Image File history File links AliShariati. ...


Ali Shariati was born in 1933 in Mazinan, a suburb of Sabzevar, north-east of Iran. His father, Mohammad-Taghi, was an Islamic scholar, founder of the Center for Propagation of Islamic Truths in the province of Khorasan in a time when Marxism was on rise in Iran. He would later be criticized by his son for the school of Islam he believed in.Fathers life as the life of son was packed with tensions and conflicts with The followers of the more traditional Islam.The son is believed to put his life on that while the father lived his ten last years in house arrest during the islamic era in Iran. Tomb of Meulana Hosein Kashefi, Sabzevar. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire...

In his years at the Teacher's Training College, Shariati came into contact with young people who were from the less privileged economic classes of the society, and for the first time saw the poverty and hardship that existed in Iran during that period. At the same time he was exposed to many aspects of Western philosophical and political thought as evident in his writings. He attempted to explain and provide solutions for the problems faced by Muslim societies through traditional Islamic principles interwoven with and understood from the point of view of modern sociology and philosophy. Shariati was also deeply influenced by Moulana Rumi and Muhammad Iqbal. Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ...

In 1952 he became a high-school teacher and founded the Islamic Students' Association, which led to his arrest after a demonstration. He became in 1953 a member of the National Resistance Movement, the year of Mossadeq's overthrow by the CIA. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Mashhad in 1955. In 1957 he was arrested again by the Shah's police, along with 16 others members of the National Resistance Movement. The National Resistance Movement is a political organization in Uganda. ... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Mashhad University, located in the city of Mashhad, is one of Irans best universities, comparable to the University of Tehran. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ...

Ali Shariati then managed to obtain a scholarship for France, where he continued his graduate studies at the University of Paris. Considered as a brilliant student (elected best students in letters in 1958), he earned his doctorate in sociology in 1964. During this period in Paris, Shariati started collaborating with the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) in 1959. The next year, he began to read Frantz Fanon and translated an anthology of his work in Persian.[1]. Shariati would introduce Fanon's thought in Irani revolutionary emigrees circles. He was arrested in Paris during a demonstration in honour of Patrice Lumumba, on January 17, 1961. This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The National Liberation Front (French: Front de libération nationale, Arabic: Jabhah al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī) is a Algeria. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ...

He was a founding member of the Freedom Movement of Iran abroad, along with Ebrahim Yazdi, Mostafa Chamran and Sadegh Qotbzadeh in 1961. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Ebrahim Yazdi (ابراهیم یزدی; born 1931 in Qazvin) is a Persian politician, the Secretary General of Freedom Movement Party, a party which is considered illegal by some Iranian officials. ... Mostafa Chamran Savei (1932 – 21 June 1981) was an Iranian defense minister and member of parliament, as well as commander of paramilitary volunteers in Iran-Iraq war. ... Sadegh Ghotbzadeh (in Persian : صادق قطب‌زاده) (1936 - September 15, 1982) was Iranian Foreign Minister (November 30, 1979–August, 1980) during Iran hostage crisis. ...

In 1962 he continued studying sociology and history of religions, and followed the courses of Islam scholar Louis Massignon, Jacques Berque and the sociologist Georges Gurvitch. He also came to know the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre that same year, and published in Iran Jalal Al-e Ahmad's Occidentosis book. History of Buddhism History of Christianity History of Eastern Orthodox Christianity History of Hinduism History of Islam History of Judaism History of Protestantism History of Rastafarianism History of Roman Catholicism History of Santeria History of Shintoism See also Religion Categories: Religion ... Louis Massignon (July 25, 1883–October 31, 1962) was a French scholar of Islam and its history. ... Jacques Augustin Berque (June 4, 1910 - June 27, 1995) was a French Islamic scholar and sociologist. ... Georges Gurvitch (or Jorge Gurvitch, born Georgij Davydovič Gurvič, November 11, 1894, Novorossiysk - December 12, 1965, Paris) was the Russian born French sociologist, jurist. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آل احمد)‎ (1923-1969) was an Iranian writer and social/political critic. ...

He then returned to Iran in 1964 where he was arrested and shortly imprisoned by the Imperial Iranian authorities who had accused him of engaging in subversive political activities while in France. He was released after few weeks, at which point he began teaching at the University of Mashhad.

Shariati then went to Tehran where he began lecturing at the Hosseiniye Ershad Institute. These lectures proved to be a hugely popular success amongst his students and as a result word of mouth spread rapidly throughout all economic sectors of the society, including among the middle and upper classes where interest in Shariati's teachings began to grow immensely. For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The Hosseiniye Ershad (or Hoseynieh Ershad) is a religious institute in Tehran, Iran. ...

The Imperial authorities soon took a special interest once again in Shariati's continued success, and the police soon had him, as well as many of his students, under arrest. Widespread pressure from the populace and international outcry eventually led to the end of his eighteen month prison term in solitary confinement, and he was released by the on March 20, 1975.

Shariati was allowed to leave the country for England. Three weeks later he died in Southampton of what his supporters believe was an assassination by the Shah's secret service.[2] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ...


Shariati's worldview was shaped by the Marxism and Third Worldism he encountered as a student in Paris - ideas that class war and revolution would bring about a just and classless society. He is also said to have adopted the idea of Gharbzadegi from Jalal Al-e Ahmad and given it "its most vibrant and influential second life." [3] Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Third-worldism is a tendency within (ostensibly) left wing political thought to regard the division between advanced capitalist nations and (so called) third world ones as of primary political importance. ... This article is about the organisation and newspaper Class War. ... Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آل احمد)‎ (1923-1969) was an Iranian writer and social/political critic. ...

He sought to translate these ideas into cultural symbols of Shiism that Iranians could relate to. He believed Shia should not merely await the return of the 12th Imam but should actively work to hasten his return by fighting for social justice, "even to the point of embracing martyrdom", saying "everyday is Ashoura, every place is Karbala." [4] It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ...

Shariati referred to his brand of Shiism as "red Shiism" which he contrasted with "black Shiism" or Safavid Shiism. His ideas have been compared to the Catholic Liberation Theology movement founded in South America by Peruvian Gustavo Gutierrez and Brazilian Leonardo Boff.[5] The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... Gustavo Gutiérrez is one of the founders of liberation theology. ... Professor Leonardo Boff Leonardo Boff was born 14 December 1938 in Concórdia, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. ...


Image:Shariati hospital TEHRAN.jpg
One of Tehran's major hospitals is named after Shariati (located in Amir abad district.

For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... A province of Tehran in northern Tehran. ...

Shariati's most important books and speeches

  1. Hajj (The Pilgrimage)
  2. Marxism and Other Western Fallacies : An Islamic Critique
  3. Where Shall We Begin?[1]
  4. Mission of a Free Thinker[2]
  5. The Free Man and Freedom of the Man[3]
  6. Extraction and Refinement of Cultural Resources[4]
  7. Martyrdom (book)[5]
  8. Ali
  9. An approach to Understanding Islam PART1-[6]PART2-[7]
  10. A Visage of Prophet Muhammad[8]
  11. A Glance of Tomorrow's History[9]
  12. Reflections of Humanity
  13. A Manifestation of Self-Reconstruction and Reformation
  14. Selection and/or Election
  15. Norouz, Declaration of Iranian's Livelihood, Eternity
  16. Expectations from the Muslim Woman
  17. Horr (Battle of Karbala)
  18. Abu-Dahr
  19. Islamology
  20. Red Shi'ism vs. Black Shi'ism
  21. Jihad and Shahadat
  22. Reflections of a Concerned Muslim on the Plight of Oppressed People
  23. A Message to the Enlightened Thinkers
  24. Art Awaiting the Saviour
  25. Fatemeh is Fatemeh
  26. The Philosophy of Supplication
  27. Religion versus Religion
  28. Man and Islam - see chapter "Modern Man and His Prisons"

Reflections of Humanity is one of Ali Shariatis important works which concerns the role of culture in human life. ... Expectations from the Muslim Woman is one of Ali Shariatis most important lectures and regards womens rights in Islam. ... Horr was a book by the Iranian author Ali Shariati about the historic Battle of Karbala in which Hussein, the grandson of the Muslim prophet Muhammad was killed by Yazid (6th Sunni Caliph). ... Ali Shariatis Islamology: The Basic Design for a School of Thought and Action is one of his most famous works and regards Islamic ideology. ... Red Shism vs. ... A Message to Enlightened Thinkers is one of Ali Shariatis important written works and is an interpretation of a Quranic chapter called the Romans. ... Fatemeh is Fatemeh is a book written by Ali Shariati. ... Written by Ali Shariati, the Philosophy of Supplication is a famous Islamic/Iranian prayer. ...


  1. ^ «La jeune génération est un enjeu», interview with Gilles Kepel in L'Express, 26 January 2006 (French)
  2. ^ An Islamic Utopian: A Political Biography of Ali Shariati by Ali Rahnema, ISBN 1860641180
  3. ^ The Mantle of the Prophet : Religion and Politics in Iran by Roy Mottahedeh, p.330
  4. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.128-9
  5. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.129

Gilles Kepel on a Frontline documentary Gilles Kepel is a prominent French scholar and analyst of the Islamic and the Arab world. ... LExpress is the name the first news magazine in France. ...

Further reading

  • Ali Rahnemā, An Islamic utopian : A political biography of Ali Shariati, I.B.Tauris, Londres, 1998.

See also

Islamic scholars are Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... Dariush Shayegan. ... Religious intellectualism in Iran (in Persian: روشنفکری دينی) develops gradually and subtly. ... Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to counter the demand at home for a more spiritual form of socialism. ... Abdulaziz Sachedina is a Islamic studies professor at the Univesity of Virginia. ... Iranian philosophy or Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آل احمد)‎ (1923-1969) was an Iranian writer and social/political critic. ...

External links

  • The Official Web Site of Dr Ali Shariati
  • Another website dedicated to Ali Shariati
  • Humanity and the People Power: A Tribute to Dr. Ali Shariati by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq
  • Ali Shariati and the Istehmar Theory by Tarek Heggy
  • 'Ali Shari'ati: Islamic Fundamentalist, Marxist Ideologist and Sufi Mystic by David Zeidan
  • Critical Religious Reason: Ali Shari'ati on Religion, Philosophy and Emancipation by Abbas Manoochehri
  • Dr. Ali Shariati and the Role of Sacred Morality by Daniel Trent Dillon
  • The forgotten revolutionary: Ali Shariati by Lawrence Reza Ershaghi

  Results from FactBites:
Ali Shariati - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (648 words)
Ali Shariati was born in 1933 in Mazinan, a suburb of Sabzevar, Iran, and his father was a progressive nationalist preacher and Islamic scholar who would later participate in his son's political movements.
Shariati is considered to be one of the most influential philosophical leaders of pre-revolutionary Iran and the impact and popularity of his thought continues to be felt throughout Iranian society many years later.
Ali Shariati and the Istehmar Theory by Tarek Heggy
Shariati believed that Islamic societies were suffering from internal and external oppression, that revolution was the only alternative left for effecting change, and that ideology was the main tool for mobilizing society.
Shariati argues that the Iranian people must stop passively moaning about their lot and start analyzing their condition using ideological and scientific methodology, so as to discover the principles that are catalysts for change.
Shariati here displays both a Marxist predilection for the revolutionary vanguard and the influence of elitist Shi`a and Sufi thought in which there is always a contrast between the "enlightened" and initiated minority (khassa, uqal, mujtahids) that hold the esoteric knowledge, and the rather despised and ignorant masses (`amma, juhal).
  More results at FactBites »



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