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Encyclopedia > Ali Pasha
Engraving of Ali Pasha
Engraving of Ali Pasha

Ali Pashë Tepelena, commonly known as Ali Pasha, (1741January 24, 1822) was the military ruler (pasha) of a large area of the Ottoman Empire's European territories. Known as the Lion of Ioánnina (after his capital in the Greek town of Ioánnina), he achieved a notorious reputation as a cruel and bloodthirsty tyrant. Image File history File links Ali_pasha. ... Image File history File links Ali_pasha. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article discusses the rank/title used in the Ottoman Empire. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ... Ioannina (Greek: Ιωάννινα, often Γιάννενα Giannena, Yiannena or Γιάννινα Giannina, Yiannina ; Albanian: Janinë or Janina; Aromanian: Ianina, Bulgarian: Янина Janina) is a city in and the capital of Epirus, Greece, with a population of approximately 100,000 and lies at an elevation of 600 metres above sea level. ...

Contents


The rise of Ali Pasha

Ali was born into a powerful clan in the Albanian town of Tepelenë in 1744, where his father Veli was bey (leader). The family lost much of its political and material status while Ali was still a boy, and following the murder of his father in 1758 his mother, Hanko, formed a band of brigands. Ali became a notorious brigand leader and attracted the attention of the Turkish authorities. He aided the pasha of Negroponte (Euboea) in putting down a rebellion at Shkodër. In 1768 he married the daughter of the wealthy pasha of Delvino, with whom he entered an alliance. The District of Tepelenë (Albanian: Rrethi i Tepelenës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Euboea or Negropont (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Evia, Ancient Greek Εúβοια Eúboia; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is the largest island of the Greek archipelago. ... Shkodër Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


His rise through Ottoman ranks continued with his appointment as lieutenant to the pasha of Rumelia. In 1787 he was awarded the pashaluk of Trikala in reward for his support for the sultan's war against Austria. This was not enough to satisfy his ambitions; shortly afterwards, he seized control of Ioánnina, which remained his power base for the next 33 years. He took advantage of a weak Ottoman government to expand his territory still further until he gained control of most of Albania, western Greece and the Peloponnese. Rumelia (or Roumelia) (in Turkish Rumeli, the East Roman or Byzantine Empire), a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Trikala (Greek: Τρίκαλα) is a city in northwestern Thessaly, Greece. ... Though Peloponnese is used to refer to the entire peninsula, the periphery with that name includes only part of that landmass. ...


Ali Pasha as ruler

Castle of Ali Pasha
Castle of Ali Pasha

Ali's policy as ruler of Ioánnina was governed by little more than simple expediency; he operated as a semi-independent despot and allied himself with whomever offered the most advantage at the time. In order to gain a seaport on the Albanian coast Ali formed an alliance with Napoleon I of France. After Napoleon was defeated in Egypt, Ali switched sides and allied with the United Kingdom in 1814. His machinations were permitted by the Ottoman government in Constantinople for a mixture of expediency - it was deemed better to have Ali as a semi-ally than as an enemy - and weakness, as the central government did not have enough strength to oust him at that time. Castle of Ali Pasha (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Castle of Ali Pasha (image under GFDL from Marc Morell used with permission) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Constantinople. ...


The poet Byron visited Ali's court in Ioánnina in 1809 and recorded the encounter in his work Childe Harold. He evidently had mixed feelings about the despot, noting the splendour of Ali's court and the Greek cultural revival that he had encouraged in Ioánnina, which Byron described as being "superior in wealth, refinement and learning" to any other Greek town. In a letter to his mother, however, Byron deplored Ali's cruelty: "His Highness is a remorseless tyrant, guilty of the most horrible cruelties, very brave, so good a general that they call him the Mahometan Buonaparte ... but as barbarous as he is successful, roasting rebels, etc, etc." [1] This article incorporates public domain text from: Cousin, John William (1910). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Childe Harolds Pilgrimage by J.M.W. Turner, 1823. ...


The Life of Lord Byron by John Galt offers a different explanation of the Lake Pamvotis incident. In this version, Ali Pasha acted out of concern for his daughter-in-law, who was heartbroken at her husband's infidelity. It does not mention anything about rape or the additional execution of the woman's companions. John Galt as a young man. ...


Galt also points out that Ali's severe dealing with the brigands that infested the country as well as his significant improvements of infrastructure opened the country for trade, improving the living conditions of the people, and that, all in all, he "acted the part of a just, though a merciless, prince."


The downfall of Ali Pasha

In 1820, Ali ordered the assassination of a political opponent in Constantinople. The reformist Sultan Mahmud II, who sought to restore the authority of the Sublime Porte, took this opportunity to move against Ali by ordering his deposition. Ali refused to resign his official posts and put up a formidable resistance to Ottoman troop movements. In January 1822, however, Ottoman agents assassinated Ali Pasha and sent his head to Constantinople. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sultan Mahmud II Animation showing the structure of the Tughra of Mahmud II Mahmud II (in Arabic محمودالثانى ) (July 20, 1785–July 1, 1839) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death. ... Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The story of Ali Pasha's downfall was fictionalized in The Count of Monte Cristo, by Alexandre Dumas. In this famous novel, the daughter of Ali Pasha becomes a slave of the Count and helps him take revenge on the man who betrayed her father. The Count of Monte Cristo (Le comte de Monte Cristo) is a classic adventure novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ...


The scene of Ali's death, the monastery of Pandelimonos on an island in Lake Pamvotis, is today a popular tourist attraction. The hole made by the bullet which killed him can still be seen, and the monastery has a museum dedicated to the tyrant, which includes a number of his personal possessions.


See also

This article briefly outlines each period of History of Albania only; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ...

References

  • "Ali Pasa Tepelenë." Encyclopædia Britannica (2005)
  • "Ali Pasha (1744? – 1822)". The Columbia Encyclopedia (2004).
  • Rough Guide to Greece, Ellingham et al (2000)

Books

  • Ibrahim Manzour Effendi, Mémoires sur le Grèce et l'Albanie pendant le gouvernement d'ali Pacha, (Paris, 1827)
  • Pencker, Die Sulioten und ihre Kriege mit Ali Pascha von Janina, (Breslau, 1834)
  • Davenport, The Life of Ali Pasha, (London, 1837)
  • Brøndsted, Peter Oluf, Interviews with Ali Pacha. Edited by Jacob Isager, (Athens, 1998)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ali Pasha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (830 words)
Ali Pashë Tepelena, commonly known as Ali Pasha, (1741 – January 24, 1822) was the military ruler (pasha) of a large area of the Ottoman Empire's European territories.
Ali was born into a powerful clan in the Albanian town of Tepelenë in 1744, where his father Veli was bey (leader).
Ali became a notorious brigand leader and attracted the attention of the Turkish authorities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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