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Encyclopedia > Ali Khamenei
‘Alî Hosaynî Khâmene’î
آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای ا
Ali Khamenei

Incumbent
Assumed office 
4 June 1989
President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Mohammad Khatami
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Preceded by Ruhollah Khomeini

In office
2 October 1981 – 2 August 1989
Leader Ruhollah Khomeini
Preceded by Mohammad Ali Rajai
Succeeded by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Born 17 July 1939 (1939-07-17) (age 68)
Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran
Political party CCA
IRP
Spouse Mrs. Khamenei (1964[1]-)
Children 6[2] children including Mojtaba Khamenei
Religion Shia Islam

Grand Âyatollâh Seyyed ‘Alî Hosaynî Khâmene’î (Persian pronunciation)  (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced [ʔɒjatolɒh sejed ʔali hosejni xɒmeneʔi]) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamene'i,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 754 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1258 × 1001 pixel, file size: 132 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image: Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the current Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... Open seat redirects here. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Mohammad Ali Rajai Mohammad Ali Rajai (محمد علی رجائی in Persian) (1933 – August 30, 1981) was the second elected President of Iran, after serving as Prime Minister under Abolhassan Banisadr. ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ... The Combatant Clergy Association (Jamee-ye Rowhaniyat-e Mobarez) or (جامعه روحانیت مبارز in Persian), is a political party in Iran. ... The Islamic Republic Party (حزب جمهوری اسلامی) was a political party in Iran, founded in 1979 by Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Khamenei, and Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili, and included several supporters of the Islamic Republic government of Iran. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آیت‌الله) is a high title given to major Shia clergymen. ... Image File history File links Seyyed_Ali_Hosseini_Khamenei. ... Farsi redirects here. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Early life

Born to an Iranian Azeri[4] family in Mashhad,[5][3] Ali Khamenei began religious studies before completing elementary education. The son of a cleric,[6] he is second eldest of eight children, and two of his brothers are also clerics. His younger brother, Hadi Khamenei, is a notable newspaper editor and cleric.[7] The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and many regions of Kordestan, Hamadan and Markazi. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... He is the brother of Irans Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. ...


He attended the seminary classes at the rudimentary ("sat'h") and advanced ("kharej") levels in the hawza of Mashhad, under his mentors such as Haj Sheikh Hashem Qazvini, and Ayatollah Milani, and then went to Najaf in 1957.[8] After a short stay he left Najaf to Mashhad, and in 1958 he settled in Qom. Khamenei attended the classes of Ayatollahs Husain Borujerdi and Ruhollah Khomeini. Later, he was involved in the Islamic activities of 1963 which led to his arrest in the city of Birjand, in Southern Khorasan Province. Shortly thereafter, he was released and resumed teaching in Mashhad's religious schools and mosques, teaching the Nahj al-Balagheh.[8] Hawza is an academy or school of traditional Islamic studies. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi (آیت الله العظمی حسین بروجردی in Persian, 1875 – 1962) was a Shia Grand Ayatollah. ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Birjand (Persian: Storm city) is the capital of South Khorasan province (formerly a subprovince named Birjand or Quhestan, a part of Khorasan province) in the east Iran, known for its saffron, barberry, rug and handmade carpet exports. ...


Political life and presidency

Mohammad-Ali Rajai visiting Khamenei in hospital after an assassination attempt by the MKO on June 27, 1981
Mohammad-Ali Rajai visiting Khamenei in hospital after an assassination attempt by the MKO on June 27, 1981

Khamenei was a key figure in the Islamic revolution in Iran and a close confidant of Ayatollah Khomeini. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ...


Like many other politically active clerics at the time, Khamenei was far more involved with politics than religious scholarship. At this time he was a leftist by temperament. He also translated into Persian the works of the Egyptian Islamist extremist theoretician Sayyid Qutb. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Sayyid Qutb Sayyid Qutb (IPA pronunciation: []) (also Syed, Seyyid, Sayid, or Sayed; last name also Koteb or Kutb) (Arabic: ; born October 9, 1906[1] – executed August 29, 1966) was an Egyptian author, Islamist, and the leading intellectual of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 60s. ...


Khomeini appointed Khamenei to the post of Tehran's Friday Prayer Leader in the autumn of 1979, after the resignation of Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri from the post. He served briefly as the Deputy Minister for Defence and as a supervisor of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards. Also he went to battlefield as a representative of defense commission of the parliament. In June 1981, Khamenei narrowly escaped an assassination attempt when a bomb, concealed in a tape recorder at a press conference, exploded beside him. He was permanently injured, losing the use of his right arm,[6]. Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri (Persian: حسین علی منتظری), styled His Honourable Eminence, (born in 1922), was one of the leaders of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. ... A joint press conference by U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the White House. ...

Candidate Votes  %
Ali Khamenei 16,003,242 95.02%
Ali Akbar Parvaresh 342,600 2.03%
Hasan Ghafourifard 78,559 0.47%
Reza Zavare'i 62,133 0.37%
Blank or invalid votes 356,266 2.12%
Total 16,841,800

In 1981, after the assassination of Mohammad Ali Rajai, Khamenei was elected President of Iran by a landslide vote in the Iranian presidential election, October 1981 and became the first cleric to serve in the office. Ayatollah Khomeini had originally wanted to keep clerics out of the presidency, but this view was compromised. Mohammad Ali Rajai Mohammad Ali Rajai (محمد علی رجائی in Persian) (1933 – August 30, 1981) was the second elected President of Iran, after serving as Prime Minister under Abolhassan Banisadr. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... The Iranian presidential election of October 1981, took place on October 2, 1981, after the assasination of Mohammad Ali Rajai, the previous President of Iran, during the interim prime ministership of Mohammad Reza Mahdavi-Kani. ...


In his presidential inaugural address Khamenei vowed to eliminate `deviation, liberalism, and American-influenced leftists.` [9] Violent political opposition to the regime, including nonviolent and violent protest, assassinations, guerrilla activity and insurrections, were answered by state repression and terror in the early 1980s, both before and during Khamenei's presidency. Thousands of rank-and-file members of insurgent groups were executed, often by revolutionary courts. By 1982, the government announced that the courts would be reined in, although various political groups were repressed by the government in the first half of the decade.[10]


Khamenei helped lead the country during the long, bloody Iraq-Iran War in the 1980s, and developed close ties with the now-powerful Revolutionary Guards. As president, he had a reputation as a policy wonk deeply interested in military matters, budgets and administrative details.[6] Iranian troops in the northern front. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


He was re-elected to a second term in 1985, capturing 85.66% of total votes.[11]


Supreme Leader (Velāyat-e faqih)

Khamenei standing beside the tomb of General Ali Sayyad Shirazi, Chief of the Armed Forces of Iran during the Iran-Iraq war
Khamenei standing beside the tomb of General Ali Sayyad Shirazi, Chief of the Armed Forces of Iran during the Iran-Iraq war

Seyyed Ali Khamene'i was preceded by Ayatollah Khomeini, the leader of Islamic Revolution in Iran. When Khomeini died, Khamenei was elected as the new Supreme Leader by the Assembly of Experts on June 4, 1989. Initially, a council of three members, "Ali Meshkini, Mousavi Ardabili and Khamenei", was proposed for Leadership. After rejection of a Leadership Council by the assembly, and lack of votes for Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani, Khamenei became the Supreme Leader by two third of the votes.[12] [13] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: ) include the IRIA (Persian: ) , the IRGC (Persian: ) , and the Police Force[1] (Persian: ). These forces total about 545,000 active personnel. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ayatollah Ali Meshkini is an Iranian cleric and politician. ... Ayatollah al-Uzma Sayyed Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili (also spelt Ardabili, Persian: ‎ , born January 28, 1926) is an Iranian marja and politician. ... Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani (1898-1993) was born in Gogad village, near the city of Golpaygan, Iran. ...


The concept of an Islamic ruler superior to all national political figures or governmental organs is called Velayat e Faqih (guardianship of the jurist). It was first developed by Ayatollah Naraqi[citation needed] and expanded and revised by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. In this kind of theocratic leadership, no political decision is lawful until it is approved by the supreme leader (Vali e Faqih, ولی فقیه in Persian). Even the taking of office by the democratically elected president is subject to the approval of the Supreme Leader. This is a sub-article of Islamic leadership and Jafari jurisprudence. ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... ...


Khamenei transformed the position of supreme leader, bringing many of the powers of the presidency with him into the office, turning it into an "omnipotent overseer of Iran's political scene", according to Vali Nasr, a scholar of Shiism. Officials under Khamenei influence the country's various powerful institutions, including the parliament, the presidency, the judiciary, the Revolutionary Guards, the military, the intelligence services, the police agencies, the clerical elite, the Friday prayer leaders and much of the media, as well as various nongovernmental foundations, organizations, councils, seminaries and business groups.[6]


Appointment as Supreme Leader

At the time of Khomeini's death Khamenei was not a marja or even an ayatollah, and the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran required the Supreme Leader to be a marja. However, the Ayatollah Khomeini had not been satisfied with the field of candidates to replace him and in April 1989, three months before his death, assigned a team to revise the constitution so that the Supreme Leader of Iran need only be an expert on Islamic jurisprudence and possess the "appropirate political and managerial skills." [9][14] This new amendment to the constitution had not been put to a referendum yet, so upon choosing Khamenei the Assembly of Experts internally titled him a temporary office holder until the new constitution became effective. The choice of Khamenei, is said to be a political one,[15] but the "political elite" of the Islamic Republic "rallied behind Khamenei" and his status was "elevated overnight" from Hojjat ol-Islam to Ayatollah. Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran The Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran[1] [2] abolished the Constitution of 1906. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ...


His status as marja is controversial. In 1994, after the death of Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Araki, the Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom declared Khamenei a new marja. However, four of Iran's dissident grand ayatollahs declined to recognize Khamenei as a marja.[16] Nevertheless, according to narjes.org a cleric only needs acceptance of a few grand ayatollahs to be recognized as marja.[17] Khamenei refused the offer of marja'iyat for Iran, as he explained, due to other heavy responsibilities, but agreed to be the marja for the Shi'as outside of Iran. His acceptance of marja'iyat for Shi'as outside Iran does not have traditional precedence in Shi'ism. Marja'iyat can be, and in modern times it increasingly is, transitional.[15] Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Araki (1895-1994) was an Iranian Shia Marja. ... Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom (جامعه مدرسين حوزه علميه قم ), was founded 1961 by the leading Shia clerics of Qom to organize religious teachings in the seminaries, and expand the religious teachings in Iran. ...


Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Shirazi, who was under house-arrest at the time for his opposition to Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, did not accept Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as a marja. According to "Human Rights in Iran" (2001) by Pace University's Reza Afshari, Shirazi was "indignant" over recognition of Khamenei as the Supreme Leader and a marja. Shirazi (who died in late 2001) apparently favored a committee of Grand Ayatollahs to lead the country. Other marjas who questioned the legitimacy of Khamenei's marja'yat were dissident clerics: Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri, Grand Ayatollah Hassan Tabatabai-Qomi and Grand Ayatollah Yasubedin Rastegari.[16] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Pace redirects here. ... Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri (Persian: حسین علی منتظری), styled His Honourable Eminence, (born in 1922), was one of the leaders of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. ...


Political power following reform era

According to Karim Sadjadpour of the American Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, several factors that have strengthened Khamemei in recent years:

(1) A vast network of commissars stationed in stratgic posts throughout government bureacracies, dedicated to enforcing his authority; (2)the weak, conservative-dominated parliament, headed by Khamenei loyalist Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel(whose daughter is married to the Leader's son); (3) the rapidly rising political and economic influence of the Islamic Revoutionary Guards, whose top leaders are directly appointed by Khamenei and have always been publicly deferential to him; (4) the political disengagement of Iran's young population ....; and (5) most significant[ly], the 2005 presidential election, which saw hardliner Mahmoud Ahmadinejad trounce Khamenei's chief rival Hashemi Rafsanjani ...[9] Russian political officer during winter war Commissar is the English transliteration of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ... Haddad-Adel Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل in Persian) born in 1945 in Tehran, Iran, is the chairman of the Iranian parliament. ... The Islamic Revolutions Guards Corps (IRGC) (Persian: , Sepáh e Pásdárán e Enqeláb e Eslámi; literally: Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution), more commonly known in Iran as Sepah (Corps), also known as the Revolutions Guards (Pásdárán e...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani kharkosteh (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential Iranian politicians, and the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ...

Views and policies

In his speeches Khamenei consistently dwells on familiar themes of the 1979 revolution: the professed importance of justice, independence, self-sufficiency, and Islam; the need for resolute opposition to Israel and United States. [9] Dealing with the president's who have served during his reign, Khamenei has successfully scuttled President Rafansjani's attempts to find a modus vivendi with the United States, President Khatami's aspirations for a more democratic Islamic state, and so far at least, president Ahmadinejad's desire for confrontation. [9]


Domestic policy

Khamenei is widely regarded by some as the figurehead of the country's conservative establishment.[18]


Ali Khamenei has been supportive of scientific progress in Iran. He was among the first Islamic clerics to allow stem cell research and therapeutic cloning.[19] In 2004, Khamenei said that the country's progress is dependent on investment in the field of science and technology. He also said that attaching a high status to scholars and scientists in society would help talents to flourish and science and technology to become domesticated, thus ensuring the country's progress and development.[20] Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Blastocyst. ...


In 2007, Khamenei requested that government officials speed up Iran's move towards economic privatization. Its last move towards such a goal was in 2004, when Article 44 of the constitution was overturned. Article 44 had decreed that Iran's core infrastructure should remain state-run. Khamenei also suggested that ownership rights should be protected in courts set up by the Justice Ministry; the hope was that this new protection would give a measure of security to and encourage private investment.[21]


Additionally, Khamenei has stated that he believes in the importance of nuclear technology for civilian purposes because "oil and gas reserves cannot last forever."[22]


In April 30 2008, Ali Khamenei backed President Ahmadinejad’s economic policy and said the West was struggling with more economic difficulties than Iran, with a "crisis" spreading from the United States to Europe, and inflation was a widespread problem. Iranian leader said that the ongoing economic crisis which has crippled the world has been unprecedented in the past 60 years. “This crisis has forced the UN to declare state of emergency for food shortages around the globe but foreign radios have focused on Iran to imply that the current price hikes and inflation in the country are the results of carelessness on the part of Iranian officials which of course is not true”, he said. Khamenei emphasized that no one has the right to blame Iranian government for Iran’s economic problems. He also advised people and the government to be content and avoid waste in order to solve economic problems. “I advise you to keep in your mind that this great nation is never afraid of economic sanctions”, he added.[11][12][13][14] , sometimes also transcribed into English as Mahmud, Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad (Persian: ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


Interpretation of Islamic law

Over the past four years, the rulers of Iran have undone the reforms that were emerging in the nation. The hardliners completed this reversal by winning the parliamentary elections in 2004 —after disqualifying 44% of the candidates—and with the presidential election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in June 2005. Ultimately, however, Ayatollah Khamanei overseen the 12-man Guardian Council,which has the right to veto any law that the elected government passes. Khamane’i has shut down the free press, tortured journalists and ordered the execution of homosexual males.


In 2000, Ali Khamenei sent a letter to the Iranian parliament forbidding the legislature from debating a revision of the Iranian press law. He wrote: "The present press law has succeeded to a point in preventing this big plague. The draft bill is not legitimate and in the interests of the system and the revolution."[23] His use of "extra-legislative power" has been criticized widely by reformists and opposition groups. In reaction to the letter, some Parliament members voiced outrage and threatened to resign.[24] Kayhan and Jomhuri-ye Eslami are two newspapers published under the management of Khamenei.


In late 1996, following a fatwa by Khamenei stating that music education corrupts the minds of young children, many music schools were closed and music instruction to children under the age of 16 was banned by public establishments (although private instruction continued).[25] Khamenei stated: "The promotion of music [both traditional and Western] in schools is contrary to the goals and teachings of Islam, regardless of age and level of study".[26]


In July 2007, Khamenei criticized Iranian women's rights activists and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): "In our country ... some activist women, and some men, have been trying to play with Islamic rules in order to match international conventions related to women," Khamenei said. "This is wrong."[27] However, he is positive on reinterpreting Islamic law in a way that it is more favorable to women - but not by following Western conventions.[28] Khamenei made these comments two days after Iranian women's rights activist Delaram Ali was sentenced to 34 months of jail and 10 lashes by Iran's judiciary.[29] Iran's judiciary works under the auspices of the supreme leader and is independent from the government. Delaram Ali is a leading Iranian womens rights activist. ...


With regard to women's dress, Khamenei believes in the need for compulsory hijab.[30]


Khamenei claims that "Today, homosexuality is a major problem in the western world. They [western nations] however ignore it. But the reality is that homosexuality has become a serious challenge, pain and unsolvable problem for the intellectuals in the west."[31] Khamenei did not name these western intellectuals. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


In 2007, Iranian police which acts under the control of Supreme leader, launched a "Public Security Plan": The police arrested dozens of "thugs" to increase public security. The arrested "thugs" are sometimes beaten on camera in front of neighborhood inhabitants, or forced to wear hanging watering cans used for lavatory ablutions around their necks.[32] During the first three months of the campaign against women not adhering fully to the strict Islamic dress code, in Tehran alone 62,785 women were stopped by police, and of these 1,837 were arrested. In the first three months, police arrested in the capital more than 8,000 young "criminals" who have offended public morals.


The Islamic Republic has not yet allowed a single Sunni mosque to be built in Tehran; although President Mohammad Khatami promised during election time to build a Sunni mosque in Tehran. After he won the elections, he was reminded of his promise but he said that the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei had not agreed to the proposal.[33] Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ...


Iran's elections

In February 2004 Parliament elections, the Council of Guardians, a council of twelve members, half of whom are appointed by Khamenei, disqualified thousands of candidates, including many of the reformist members of the parliament and all the candidates of the Islamic Iran Participation Front party from running. It did not allow 80 members of the 6th Iranian parliament (including the deputy speaker) to run in the election. The conservatives won about 70% of the seats. The parliamentary election held on February 20, 2004 in Iran was a key turning point in that country's political evolution. The election marked the conclusive end of the campaign for political and social reform initiated by Mohammad Khatami after he was elected president in a landslide vote in May 1997.[34] Politics of Iran Categories: Stub | 2004 elections | Elections in Iran ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of... The Islamic Iran Participation Front (Jebheye Mosharekate Iran-e Eslaami, جبهه مشارکت ایران اسلامی in Persian) is a reformist political party in Iran. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ...


Khamenei's office is the main source of corruption in the country. His office distribute rents and benefits to ruling clerics and military officials who are loyal to him.


Human rights

Khamenei denies human rights as the ideas shaped by zionists. In his view, Islam as understood by clerics contradicts Human Rights. He has attacked Western powers who have criticized the rights record of the Islamic Republic for hypocrisy by economically oppressing people in Third World countries and supporting despots and dictators.[35] For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


However under Khamenei's interpretation this does not extend to religious rights for Bahá'í. Khamenei supported persecution of Bahá'ís and signed documents recommending several organized methods of oppression and ways of decreasing the influence of Bahá'ís in Iran and abroad. [36] According to a letter from the Chairman of the Command Headquarters of the Armed Forces in Iran addressed to the Ministry of Information, the Revolutionary Guard and the Police Force, Khamenei has also ordered the Command Headquarters to identify people who adhere to the Bahá'í Faith and to monitor their activities and gather any and all information about the members of the Bahá'í Faith. [37][38] This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The term Ministry of Information may refer to the following: Minister of Information - A British government position during the First and Second World War. ... The Revolutionary Guard Corps (Liwa Haris al-Jamahiriya) or Jamahiriyyah Guard is a Libyan paramilitary elite unit that plays the role of key protection force of the regime of Muammar al-Gaddafi. ...


In response to Western complaints of human rights abuses in Iran He has stated that the American administration has committed many crimes and is therefore not fit to judge the Islamic Republic.[39]


In a visit with hardline cleric Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, Khamenei praised Mesbah’s books and thoughts as being original, very useful, solid and correct. He also stated that the Islamic world needs these ideas today more than any time in the past.[40] Mesbah Yazdi advocates a return to the values of the 1979 Iranian revolution and is a prominent opponent of the Reformist movement in Iran. Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi (Persian: محمد تقی مصباح یزدی) (born 1934) is an Iranian Shia cleric and politician. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Second of Khordad Movement refers to a movement started by 6th presidental election in Iran. ...


People charged for criticizing Ali Khamenei

Insulting the Leader is a crime in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and Khamenei, who has been called "notoriously thin-skinned,"[who?] has not been hesitant in seeing this law enforced against Journalists and writers in Iran. Even family members are not immune, as his younger brother, the reformist cleric Hadi Kahameni, was "brutally beaten ... after a sermon in which he criticized the powers of the Supreme Leader," by Basij militia loyal to him.[9] More than 250 writers, political activists and intellectuals were killed in the 1990s by direct order of Khamenei. Some writers, journalists and politicians who have been charged with "insulting Ali Khamenei" include: For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ...

Ahmad Zeidabadi is a notable Iranian journalist and political analyst. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mojtaba Saminejad is an Iranian blogger who, as of 2006, remains under arrest in Iran. ...

Foreign policy

Khamenei's foreign policy is said to steer a course that avoids either confrontation or accommodation with the West.[9] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


United States

Khamenei has been described as consistent in his opposition to the United States which is a theme of his speeches no matter whether the topic is foreign policy, agriculture or education. He has declared that it is "clear that conflict and confrontation between" Islamic Republic of Iran and the U.S. "is something natural and unavoidable" since the United States "is trying to establish a global dictatorship and further its own interests by dominating other nations and trampling on their rights." However, while "cutting ties with America is among our basic policies," and "any relations would provide the possibility to the Americans to infiltrate Iran and would pave the way for their intelligence and spy agents," Khamenei holds the door open to relations with the U.S. at some future date, saying "we have never said that the relations will remain severed forever. Undoubtedly, the day the relations with America prove beneficial for the Iranian nation I will be the first one to approve of that." [9] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


On June 4, 2006, Khamenei said that Iran would disrupt energy shipments from the Persian Gulf region should the country come under attack from the US, insisting that Tehran will not give up its right to produce nuclear fuel. is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


On September 14, 2007, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (on 1st Friday prayer of Ramadan) predicted that George Bush and American officials will one day be tried in an international criminal court to be held "accountable" for the U.S.-led invasion.[45] is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... An official is, in the primary sense, someone who holds an office in an organisation, of any kind. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Criminal justice system flowchart Criminal justice refers to the system used by government to maintain social control, prevent crime, enforce laws, and administer justice. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ...


September 11, 2001 attacks

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Khamenei condemned the act and the attackers and called for a condemnation of terrorist activities all over the world, whether in the United States, Palestine, the Balkans, or elsewhere.[46] He is quoted as saying, "Mass killings of human beings are catastrophic acts which are condemned wherever they may happen and whoever the perpetrators and the victims may be".[47] is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Israel-Palestine

In 2001 Khamenei famously remarked that "this cancerous tumor of a state [Israel] should be removed from the region." On the same occasion he proposed that "Palestinian refugees should return and Muslims, Christians and Jews could choose a government for themselves, excluding immigrant Jews."[48] In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians and continued after... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ...


In 2005 Khamenei responded to President Ahmadinejad's alleged remark that Israel should be "wiped off the map" by saying that "the Islamic Republic has never threatened and will never threaten any country."[49] Moreover Khamenei's main advisor in foreign policy, Ali Akbar Velayati, refused to take part in Holocaust conference. In contrast to Ahmadinejad's remarks, Velayati said that Holocaust was a genocide and a historical reality.[50] The President of Iran is the head of government. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... During his presidency, Mahmoud Ahmadinejads speeches and statements have contributed to increased tensions between Iran and Israel, and between Iran and a few Western nations. ... Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President... Ali Akbar Velayati Ali Akbar Velayati (علی‌اکبر ولایتی; born June 25, 1945 in Tehran) is an Iranian politician and a pediatrician, currently an Advisor in International Affairs to the Supreme Leader. ...


Nuclear weapons

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has issued a fatwa saying the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons was forbidden under Islam. The fatwa was cited in an official statement by the Iranian government at an August 2005 meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna.[51] A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


Personal life

Khamenei has four sons and three daughters, Mojtaba, Mostafa, Massoud, Maysam, Boshra, and Hoda, and Alla. According to Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel he has an austere lifestyle.[6] Haddad-Adel Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل in Persian) born in 1945 in Tehran, Iran, is the chairman of the Iranian Parliament. ...


Government posts

Khamenei on the battlefield of Iran-Iraq war
Khamenei on the battlefield of Iran-Iraq war

Since the founding of the Islamic Republic, Khamenei has held many government posts[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ...

  • 1979 - Founded the Islamic Republic Party, along with like-minded clerics such as Mohammad Beheshti, Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili, and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.
  • 1980 - Secretary of Defense.
  • 1980 - Supervisor of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards.
  • 1980 - Leader of the Friday Congregational Prayer.
  • 1980 - The Tehran Representative in the Consultative Assembly.
  • 1981 - Ayatollah Khomeini's Representative in the High Security Council.
  • 1982 - Elected President of the Islamic Republic of Iran after assassination of Muahmmad Ali Raja’i, and was re-elected to a second term in 1985.
  • 1982 - chairman of the High Council of Revolution Culture Affairs.
  • 1988 - President of the Expediency Council.
  • 1989 - Chairman of the Constitution Revisal Committee.
  • 1989 - Ayatollah Khamenei became the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran by choice of the Council of Experts, after the death of Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Islamic Republic Party (حزب جمهوری اسلامی) was a political party in Iran, founded in 1979 by Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Khamenei, and Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili, and included several supporters of the Islamic Republic government of Iran. ... Mohammad Beheshti Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... Mohammad Javad Bahonar (محمدجواد باهنر in Persian), (1933 - August 30, 1981), was the second prime minister of Iran following the 1979 revolution, and the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic Party. ... Ayatollah Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili (عبدالکریم موسوی اردبیلی; born January 28, 1926), also spelled Ardabili, is an Iranian marja and politician. ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (Persian: مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام), is an establishment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians, and also to serve as a consultative council to the Supreme Leader. ...

Representatives

Ayatollah Khamenei has numerous representatives in different organizations (army, judiciary system, universities etc.) and cities. Here are his most notable representatives:

Abdolhossein Moezi is an Iranian Muslim cleric living in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Hossein Shariatmadari is the managing editor of Kayhan, a conservative Iranian newspaper, and is the official representative of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei at the Kayhan Institute. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati Massah (Persian: , born 1926 in Esfahan) is an Iranian ayatollah and political figure. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ahmad Khatami is one of the Iranian hardliner clerics who has very strong ties with the supreme leader. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ayatollah Mohammad Yazdi (In Persian: آیت‌الله محمد یزدی) was head of Judiciary System of Iran between 1989 and 1999 when he succeeded by Ayatollah Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... Ayatollah Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi (آیت‌الله سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی) (Born 1948 in Najaf, Iraq[1]) is an Iranian politician and Shia cleric. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, or IRIB, is the Iranian organization in control of radio and television. ... Supreme National Security Council is a body within the Islamic Republic of Iran the secretary whereof is Ali Larijani. ... Brigadier-General Ahmad Reza Radan is Tehrans police chief, infamous for his crackdown on unIslamic hair and dress style. ... Ayatollah Gholamreza Rezvani is a member of the powerful Council of Guardians in the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...

Bibliography

Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ...

See also

This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... This page is a partial list of the Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usulli Shia Muslims around the world. ... This article addresses the roots and the developmental history of Islamic fundamentalism in Iran. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.islam-pure.de/imam/others/others1992.htm
  2. ^ http://www.nndb.com/people/948/000047807/
  3. ^ a b c The Office of the Leader, Sayyid Ali Khamenei
  4. ^ http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=53543
    http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/HF08Ak02.html
    http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/FI28Ak01.html
  5. ^ Eternal Iran, in 1721. Patrick Clawson, 2005, ISBN 1-4039-6276-6, p.5.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Meet 'The Decider' of Tehran. It's Not the Hothead You Expect", Nasr, Vali, commentary article, Outlook section, Washington Post, December 9, 2007, page B01, accessed same day
  7. ^ Robin Wright, The Last Great Revolution: Turmoil and Transformation in Iran, Alfred A. Knopf, 2000
  8. ^ a b Historic Personalities of Iran: Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Reading Khamenei by Karmin Sadjadpour
  10. ^ [1]Iran Chamber Society Web site, Web page titled "History of Iran: Iran after the victory of 1979's revolution/ page 4", accessed December 9, 2007
  11. ^ : KHATAMI Museum :
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ [3]
  14. ^ Analysis: Iran's Theological Community Contends With Changing World - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY
  15. ^ a b Iranian.com | Archive Pages
  16. ^ a b Ayatollah Hojjat-ul-Islam Seyed Ali Khamenei
  17. ^ تکليف،تقليد و انتخاب مرجع تقليد براي بانوان
  18. ^ BBC NEWS | Middle East | Profile: Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
  19. ^ [4]
    Science over ethics? Channel 4, 8 Mar 2006
  20. ^ [5]
  21. ^ [6]
    [7]
    [8]
  22. ^ [9]
    Iran says will not halt uranium enrichment, Reuters 18 February 2007
  23. ^ BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Punch-up over press law
  24. ^ Supreme Leader Backs Conservatives, Angering Parliament Refomers : Ayatollah Kills Effort To Remove Press Curbs - International Herald Tribune
  25. ^ Beyond the Veil: Persian Traditional Music
  26. ^ Great Ayatollah Sayed Ali Khamenei
  27. ^ Iran's supreme leader signals limited flexibility on women's rights
  28. ^ Iran Leader Signals Flexibility on Women
  29. ^ [10]
  30. ^ http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewCulture.asp?Page=/Culture/archive/200801/CUL20080114a.html
  31. ^ Official website of Iranian leader
  32. ^ Thug” Crackdown Operation under Way in Iran (ROOZ :: English)
  33. ^ Asia Times
  34. ^ Strategic Insights - Iranian Politics After the 2004 Parliamentary Election
  35. ^ Human Rights in Islam, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, 1997-01-31, accessed on 2007-01-08
  36. ^ UN Doc. E/CN.4/1993/41, Commission on Human Rights, 49th session, 28 January 1993, Final report on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran by the Special Representative of the Commission on Human Rights, Mr. Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, paragraph 310.
  37. ^ Esfandiari, Golnaz (2006-03-30). Iran: UN, U.S. Concerned Over Situation Of Bahá'ís. globalsecurity.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  38. ^ Jahangir, Asma (2006-03-20). Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion of Belief concerned about treatment of followers of Bahá'í Faith in Iran. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  39. ^ BBC Mundo | Internacional | Irán: advertencia con petróleo
  40. ^ Khamenei visits Mesbah Yazdi (in Persian)
  41. ^ Iranian Journalist Challenges Supreme Leader
  42. ^ Iran hardliners target Khatami ally
  43. ^ Iran Focus-Iran weblogger jailed for 'insulting' supreme leader - Human Rights - News
  44. ^ Iran Freedom Concert - Civil Rights Heroes
  45. ^ Yahoo.com, Iran leader: Bush will be tried
  46. ^ BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Iran condemns attacks on US
  47. ^ BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | Iran condemns attacks on US
  48. ^ Reuters. "Iran leader urges destruction of 'cancerous' Israel", CNN, 2000-12-15. Retrieved on 2007-04-30. 
  49. ^ Edalat, Abbas. "The US can learn from this example of mutual respect", The Guardian, 2007-04-05. Retrieved on 2007-04-30. 
  50. ^ Ali Akbar Velayati, Advisor To The Leader: “Everything is negotiable” (Iran Press Service)
  51. ^ Statement about a Fatwa Against the Production, Stockpiling and use of Nuclear Weapons
    Iran MPs oblige government to revise IAEA cooperation, Reuters, 27 Dec 2006
  52. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=aRsDHQAACAAJ
  53. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=ivogAAAACAAJ
  54. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=1vAMAQAACAAJ
  55. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=GOHKHAAACAAJ
  56. ^ http://www.al-shia.com/html/eng/books/lesson-from-nahjul-balaqeh/index.htm

... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... IRIB is based in northern Tehran, adjacent to Mellat Park, where almost all studios and offices are centered at. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  • Profile: Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. BBC News.
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  • Video Archive of Ayatollah Khamenei
Political offices
Preceded by
Mohammad Ali Rajai
President of Iran
19811989
Succeeded by
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
New title Chair of Expediency Council
19881989
Preceded by
Ruhollah Khomeini
Supreme Leader of Iran
1989 – present
Incumbent
Persondata
NAME Khamenei, Seyyed Ali Hosseini
ALTERNATIVE NAMES آیت‌الله سید علی خامنه‌ای‎
SHORT DESCRIPTION Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989
DATE OF BIRTH 15 July 1939
PLACE OF BIRTH Mashhad, Iran
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Mohammad Ali Rajai Mohammad Ali Rajai (محمد علی رجائی in Persian) (1933 – August 30, 1981) was the second elected President of Iran, after serving as Prime Minister under Abolhassan Banisadr. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (Persian: مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام), is an establishment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians, and also to serve as a consultative council to the Supreme Leader. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was a senior Shia Muslim scholar, marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Abolhassan Banisadr Abolhassan Banisadr (Persian: ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر;born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 Iranian Revolution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
DEBKAfile - DEBKAfile Exclusive: Iran’s supreme rule Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, 68, appeared on state TV Monday looking ... (452 words)
Khamenei’s illness had been kept a close secret in Tehran for fear of an outbreak of factional hostilities.
The elections held last month for the Council of Experts, which is competent to choose the supreme ruler, was not accepted by the radical political and military camps, especially president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and his backers, the Revolutionary Guards.
The Islamic Republic appears therefore to face a period of confrontation and instability in the interim period between Khamenei’s rule and the succession - up to and including a violent coup d’etat by the RGs – with critical effect on the national nuclear program, depending on which camp prevails.
Ali Khamenei Summary (2638 words)
Born in 1939, Sayyid Ali Khamenei was raised in a family of Islamic scholars in Meshed, a key city in northeast Iran.
Khamenei was appointed to the powerful post of Tehran's Friday Prayer Leader by Ayatollah Khomeini in the autumn of 1979, after the resignation of Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri from the post.
Khamenei claims that "human rights, are a weapon in the hands of our enemies to fight Islam." [12] He usually says that the American administration with its many crimes and misbehaviors is not authorized for judging about human rights in Iran.
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