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Ali
Commander of the Faithful (Amir al-Mu'minin)
caption
This mosque near an-Najaf, Iraq, is believed by Shias to house the tombstone of Ali
Reign 656661[1]
Full name ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib
Titles Father of Hasan (Arabic: Abu Al-Hasan)
Father of Dust/Soil (Arabic: Abu Turab)
Murtada (“One Who Is Chosen and Contented”)
Lion of God (Arabic: Asad-ullah)
Lion (Arabic: Heydar)[1]
First Ali (Turkish: Birinci Ali)
Born March 17, 599(599-03-17) or March 17, 600(600-03-17)[1][2]
Kaaba, Mecca[1]
Died February 28, 661 (aged 61)
Kufa[1]
Buried Imam Ali Mosque, Najaf, Iraq
Predecessor Uthman Ibn Affan
Successor Hasan[3]
Wife/wives Fatimah[1]
Fatima binte Hizam (Ummul Banin)
Issue Hasan
Husayn
(See:Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib )
Royal House Ahl al-Bayt
Banu Hashim
Father Abu Talib
Mother Fatima bint Asad

Part of a series on
Islam:
Ali ibn Abi Talib early Islamic leader and fourth caliph: The first person by this name ALI (graffiti artist) Ali (name), the Muslim name Muhammad Ali, boxing champion Ali (film), a 2001 biographical film about Muhammad Ali Laila Ali, female boxer and daughter of Muhammad Ali Ali (rapper) , American rapper... It has been suggested that Amir-al-Muminin be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Meshed_ali_usnavy_(PD). ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Abu Turab is Alis favorite nickname, given to him by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Asad (Arabic: ) is one of many Arabic male given names for lion, each denoting some aspect of the animal. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Exterior view of Imam Ali Shrine The Imam Ali Holy Shrine (Arabic: حرم الإمام علي), also known as Meshed Ali or the Tomb of Ali, is a mosque located in Najaf, Iraq. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Fatima bintr Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Ummul Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower after the death of his first wife Fatima bint Muhammad (S). ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... BanÅ« Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib (d. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Ali
The Shia Imam Image File history File links Meshed_ali_usnavy_(PD). ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...


The Rashidun Caliph The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...





Views: ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ()‎ (599 – 661)[1] was an early Islamic leader. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... 17 March 599 coincided with Thirteenth of Rajab , 24 BH: Birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the Kaba, in the city of Mecca. ... According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... The Hadith Of The Cloak (Arabic: ; transliterated: Hadiyth al-Kisa), is an account of an incident where the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered Hassan ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali, Ali and Fatimah (various members of his immediate family) under his cloak. ... Mubahela means debating with each other. ... The word Hadith refers to a saying of Muhammad. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (ca 599-661 CE) was a prominent figure in early Islamic history. ... Zulfiqar, a fictional representation of the sword of Ali. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Exterior view of Imam Ali Shrine The Imam Ali Holy Shrine (Arabic: حرم الإمام علي), also known as Meshed Ali or the Tomb of Ali, is a mosque located in Najaf, Iraq. ...

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Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أﺑﻲ طالبTransliteration: ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramadan, 40 AH; approximately, March 17, 599 or 600[4]- January 27, 661[5]) was the cousin, son-in-law and one of the Ahl al-Bayt, people of the house, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, reigning over the Rashidun empire from 656 to 661. Sunnis revere Ali as the fourth and final Rashidun (Rightly Guided Caliph). Shia Muslims glorify Ali as the first infallible Imam and consider him and his descendants as the rightful successors to Muhammad. This disagreement split the Muslim community into the Sunni and Shi'a branches.[1][6] Sunnis hold him in high respect as one of the Ahl al-Bayt and the last of the Four Righteously Guided Caliphs. ... This is a parallel sub-article to Shia and Ali This article is about the Shia view of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam. ... Some non-Muslim scholars reject all hadith as fabrications, which colors their views. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Rajab (Arabic: ) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: ) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Some sources, especially Shi'ite ones, record that Ali was the only person born in the Kaaba sanctuary in Mecca. His father was Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and his mother was Fatima bint Asad[1] but he was raised in the household of Muhammad. When Muhammad reported receiving a divine revelation, a ten year old Ali was among the first to accept his message, dedicating his life to the cause of Islam.[7][8][5][9] The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... AbÅ« Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-MutÌ£tÌ£alib (Arabic: )(b. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wahy is the Arabic word for revelation. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Ali migrated to Medina shortly after Muhammad. There Muhammad told Ali that he had been ordered by God to give his daughter, Fatimah, to Ali in marriage.[1] For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service, leading parties of warriors on battles, and carrying messages and orders. Ali took part in almost all the battles fought for Islam. For other uses, see Hijra. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ...


Ali was appointed caliph by Muhammad's companions in Medina after the assassination of the third caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan.[10] He encountered defiance and civil war (First Fitna) during his reign. In 661 CE, Ali was attacked while praying in the mosque of Kufa, dying a few days later.[11] For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ...


Muslims greatly respect Ali for his knowledge, belief, honesty, unbending devotion to Islam, deep loyalty to Muhammad, equal treatment of all Muslims and generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies. Ali retains his stature as an authority on Qur'anic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and religious thought.[12][6] Ali holds a high position in almost all Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him to Muhammad.[1] Ali's influence has thus continued throughout Islamic history. A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsīr, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ...

Contents

In Mecca

Birth and childhood

Ambigram depicting Muhammad and Ali written in a single word. The 180 degree inverted form shows both words.
Ambigram depicting Muhammad and Ali written in a single word. The 180 degree inverted form shows both words.

Ali's father Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib was the custodian of the Kaaba and a sheikh of Banu Hashim, an important branch of the powerful Quraysh tribe. He was also an uncle of Muhammad. Ali's mother Fatima binte Asad also belonged to Banu Hashim, making Ali a descendant of Ismael, the son of Ibrahim.[13] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... An animation of a rotationally symmetric ambigram for the word ambigram An ambigram, also sometimes known as an inversion, is a graphical figure that spells out a word not only in its form as presented, but also in another direction or orientation. ... ‘AlÄ« ibn AbÄ« Ṭālib ()‎ (599 – 661)[1] was an early Islamic leader. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (ca 599-661 CE) was a prominent figure in early Islamic history. ... AbÅ« Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-MutÌ£tÌ£alib (Arabic: )(b. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... BanÅ« Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Fatimah binte Asad (Arabic: فاطمه بنت اسد) was the mother of first Shi’a Imam Ali bin Abu Talib, and the mother-in-law of the Islamic Prophet Mohammeds daughter, Fatima Zahra binte Muhammad. ... Ishmael or Yishmael (יִשְׁמָעֵאל God hears or obeys, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic إسماعيل) is Abrahams eldest son, born by his servant Hagar. ... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ...


Muhammad had a close relationship with Ali's parents. When Muhammad was orphaned and later lost his grandfather Abdul Muttalib, Ali's father took him into his house.[1] Ali was born two or three years after Muhammad married Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.[14] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra (555 AD – 623 AD) was the first wife of Muhammad. ...


Many sources, especially Shi'a ones, record that Ali was the only person born inside the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, where he stayed with his mother for three days. Some sources contend that he was born beside the Kaaba. According to the tradition, Muhammad was the first person whom Ali saw as he took the newborn in his hands. Muhammad named him Ali, meaning "the exalted one".[1][15] This is a subarticle to reports of unusual religious childbirths and Kaaba. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


When Ali was five or six years old, a famine occurred in and around Mecca, affecting the economic conditions of Ali's father, who had a big family to support. Muhammad was then requested to become Ali's guardian.[7] [16] [1]


Conversion to Islam

Part of a series on
Islam
For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...

Allah · Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shi'a Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia
Kalam · Tasawwuf (Sufism) The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shi'a

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Animals · Art
Calendar · Children · Demographics
Festivals · Mosques · Philosophy
Politics · Science · Women Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Islam - percentage by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...

Islam & other religions
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Christianity · Jainism
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See also
This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

Islam Portal  v  d  e 

The second period of Ali's life begins in 610 when he converted to Islam and ends with the Hijra of Muhammad to Medina in 622.[1] When Muhammad reported that he had received a divine revelation, Ali, then only about ten years old, believed him and professed to Islam.[5][1][7][17] According to Ibn Ishaq, Ali was the first male to enter Islam. Tabari adds other traditions making the similar claim of being the first Muslim in relation to Zayd or Abu Bakr.[18] Some historians and scholars believe Ali's conversion is not worthy enough to consider him as the first male Muslim because he was a child at the time.[19] There is some disagreement among Muslims, and among historians of Islam, as to the identity of the first male convert to Islam (Muhammad excluded). ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... Revelation of the Last Judgment by Jacob de Backer Revelation is an uncovering or disclosure via communication from the divine of something that has been partially or wholly hidden or unknown, which could not be known apart from the unveiling (Goswiller 1987 p. ... Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, or simply Ibn Ishaq (Arabic: , meaning the son of Isaac) (died 767, or 761 (Robinson 2003, p. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian...


Shi'as believe that in keeping with Ali's divine mission, he converted to Islam before he took part in any pre-Islamic Meccan traditional religion rites, regarded by Muslims as polytheistic (see shirk) or paganistic. Hence the Shi'a say of Ali that his face is honored - that is, it was never sullied by prostrations before idols.[7] Ali, along with some members of the Banu Hashim clan, were Hanifs prior to the coming of Islam. Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... (Arabic , plural حنفاء) is an Arabic term that refers to pre-Islamic non-Jewish nor Christian Arabian monotheists. ...


After conversion to Islam

For three years Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret. Then he started inviting people publicly. When, according to the Qur'an, he was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam[20] he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. Allameh Tabatabaei narrates from al-Tabari, Ibn Athir and Abu al-Fida that M told clearly that whoever would be the first to accept his invitation would become his successor and inheritor. Ali, who was 13 or 14 years old at that time, stepped forth and submitted to help him as his vazir. This invitation was repeated three times but only Ali answered Muhammad. Then Muhammad declared this person is his brother, inheritor and vicegerent and people must obey him. Others laughed at them and dispersed.[21] This event is known as Hadith Yawm Al-Dar or Yawm Al-Enzar among Muslim historians and scholars. Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... Ibn Athir is the family name of three brothers, all famous in Arabian literature, born at JazIrat ibn Umar in Kurdistan. ... أبو الفدا or Abu al-Fida or Abul Fida Ismail ibn Kathir (fully Abu Al-fida Ismail Ibn Kathir imad Ad-din, (also transliterated Abulfeda, Abu Alfida, and other ways) ( 1301 - 1373) was an Syrian historian and mufassir. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Vizir, Wasir, Wazir, Wesir - grammatical voyel changes are common in many oriental languages) is an oriental, originally Persian, term for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan. ... The warning hadith is a famous islamic hadith , that is recorded in all muslim books throught different chain of narraraion , which is condsidred to be a mutawter and an authentic hadith . ...


During persecution of Muslims and boycott of Banu Hashim in Mecca, Ali stood firmly in support of Muhammad.[22] In the early days of Islam at Mecca, the new Muslims were often subjected to abuse and persecution. ... This is a sub-article to Muhammad before Medina The Meccan boycott of the Hashemites by the Quraish was proclaimed in 617. ...


Migration to Medina

See also: Hijra (Islam)

In 622 CE, the year of Muhammad's migration to Yathrib (now Medina), Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot, so that Muhammad could escape in safety.[1][7][23] This night is called Laylat al-mabit. According to some hadith, a verse was revealed about Ali concerning his sacrifice on the night of Hijra which says, "And among men is he who sells his nafs (self) in exchange for the pleasure of Allah"[24][25] For other uses, see Hijra. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Drawing from Quranic verses, virtually all Sufis distinguish Lataif-e-Sitta (The six subtleties), Nafs, Qalb, Sirr, Ruh, Khafi & Akhfa. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


Ali survived the plot, but risked his life again by staying in Mecca to carry out Muhammad's instructions: to restore to their owners all the goods and properties that had been entrusted to Muhammad for safekeeping. Ali then went to Medina with his mother, Muhammad's daughter Fatima and two other women.[7][5]


In Medina

During Muhammad's era

See also: Muhammad in Medina and Ali the Warrior

Ali was 22 or 23 years old when he migrated to Medina. When Muhammad was creating bonds of brotherhood among his companions (sahaba) he selected Ali as his brother.[5][7][26] The period when Muhammad in Medina started with the Migration to Medina in 622 and ended with the Conquest of Mecca in 630. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... A system of Brotherhood among the Sahaba was created in the Islamic prophet Muhammad, each Muslim being paired with another one. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...


For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali was extremely active in his service, serving in his armies, the bearer of his banner in every battle, leading parties of warriors on raids, and carrying messages and orders.[27] As one of Muhammad’s lieutenants, and later his son-in-law, Ali was a person of authority and standing in the Muslim community.


Family life

See also: Ahl al-Bayt
The calligraphy which shows Allah at center and Ahl al-Bayt around it.
The calligraphy which shows Allah at center and Ahl al-Bayt around it.

In 623, Muhammad told Ali that God ordered him to give his daughter Fatimah Zahra to Ali in marriage.[1] Muhammad said to Fatimah: "I have married you to the dearest of my family to me."[26] This family is glorified by Muhammad frequently and he declared them as his Ahl al-Bayt in events such as Mubahala and hadith like Hadith of the Event of the Cloak. They were also glorified in the Qur'an in several cases such as "the verse of purification".[28][29] Ali had four children born to Fatimah, the only child of Muhammad to have progeny. Their two sons (Hasan and Husain) were cited by Muhammad to be his own sons, honored numerous times in his lifetime and titled "the leaders of the youth of Jannah" (Heaven, the hereafter.) Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Fāţimah Zahrā’ also called Faatemah Az-Zahraa (Arabic: ) was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. ... Mubahala (Arabic: مباهلة Cursing) or Li’an (Arabic: لعان) refers in Islamic tradition to invoking the curse of God on the erring party as a means to prove ones truthfulness. ... The Hadith Of The Cloak (Arabic: ; transliterated: Hadiyth al-Kisa), is an account of an incident where the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered Hassan ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali, Ali and Fatimah (various members of his immediate family) under his cloak. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ...


Theirs was a simple life, in fact, so far as material comforts were concerned, it was a life of hardship and deprivation. Throughout their life together, Ali remained poor because he did not set great store by material wealth. Fatimah was the only one of her sisters who was not married to a wealthy man. To relieve their extreme poverty, Ali worked as a drawer and carrier of water and she as a grinder of corn. Even often there was no food in her house. One day she said to Ali: "I have ground until my hands are blistered." and Ali answered "I have drawn water until I have pains in my chest,"[26][30]


Their marriage lasted about ten years and ended when Fatimah died. Although polygamy was permitted, Ali did not marry another woman while Fatimah was alive, and his marriage to her possesses a special spiritual significance for all Muslims because it is seen as the marriage between the greatest saintly figures surrounding Muhammad. After Fatimah's death, Ali married other wives and fathered many children.[1] Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ...


In battles

Main article: Ali the Warrior
Scene of Battle of Badr from the film The Messenger of God: The Muslim army sends out its champions including Ali. Zulfiqar is in the foreground.
Zulfiqar, a fictional representation of the sword of Ali.

With the exception of the Battle of Tabouk, Ali took part in all battles and expeditions fought for Islam.[7] As well as being the standard-bearer in those battles, Ali led parties of warriors on raids into enemy lands. This article should belong in one or more categories. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... The Banu Qaynuqa (also spelled Banu Kainuka, Banu Kaynuka, Banu Qainuqa, Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... Banu Nadir (Arabic: ) were one of the three main Jewish tribes living in the 7th century of Medina, now in Saudi Arabia. ... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 3,000 10,000 Casualties only few few hundreds or more The Battle of the Trench or Battle of the Ditch (Arabic غزوة الخندق), also known as or Battle of Confederates (Arabic غزوة الاحزاب) was an attack by the non-Muslim Ahzab... Detail from miniature painting The Prophet, Ali, and the Companions at the Massacre of the Prisoners of the Jewish Tribe of Beni Qurayzah, illustration of a 19th century text by Muhammad Rafi Bazil. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Combatants Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis Commanders Muhammad  ? Strength 1,600  ? Casualties 16  ? The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part... Combatants Muslim Arabs Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) Christian Arabs Commanders Zayd ibn Harithah†, Jafar ibn Abu Talib†, Abdullah ibn Rawahah†, Khalid ibn al-Walid Heraclius, Theodorus, Shurahbil ibn Amr al-Ghassani Strength 3,000 (Ibn Qayyim)[4][5] 3,000 (Ibn Hajar)[6][5] 200,000 according to Muslim... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... For other uses, see Hunayn (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Autas or Auras was an early battle involving Muslim forces, fought in the year 630. ... The Siege of Taif took place in 630 CE, as the Muslims besieged the city of Taif after their victory in the Battle of Hunayn. ... Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... A battle between Ali and the khawarij See also Ibadi External links Shia http://playandlearn. ... This article should belong in one or more categories. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x547, 88 KB) Summary A scene from the Mustafa Akkad film The Message. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x547, 88 KB) Summary A scene from the Mustafa Akkad film The Message. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Zulfiqar, a fictional representation of the sword of Ali. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (805x313, 5 KB)A fictional representation of Alis Dhulfiqar. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (805x313, 5 KB)A fictional representation of Alis Dhulfiqar. ... The Battle of Tabouk (also called the Battle of Tabuk) is said to have taken place in October AD 630. ... A standard-bearer is a person (soldier or civilian) who bears an emblem called an ensign or standard, i. ...


Ali first distinguished himself as a warrior in 624 at the Battle of Badr. He defeated the Umayyad champion Walid ibn Utba as well as many other Meccan soldiers. According to Muslim traditions Ali killed between twenty and thirty-five pagans, most agreeing with twenty seven.[31] Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Tha champion of Quraish, killed by Ali ibn Abu Talib in the battle of Badr. ...


Ali was prominent at the Battle of Uhud, as well as many other battles where he wielded a bifurcated sword known as Zulfiqar.[32] He had the special role of protecting Muhammad when most of the Muslim army escaped at the battle of Uhud[1] and it was said "There is no brave youth except Ali and there is no sword which renders service except Zulfiqar."[33] He was commander of the Muslim army in the Battle of Khaybar.[34] He also defended Muhammad in Battle of Hunayn in 630.[1] Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... Zulfiqar, a fictional representation of the sword of Ali. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Combatants Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis Commanders Muhammad  ? Strength 1,600  ? Casualties 16  ? The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part... For other uses, see Hunayn (disambiguation). ...


Missions for Islam

Muhammad designated Ali as one of the scribes who would write down the text of the Qur'an, which had been revealed to Muhammad during the previous two decades. As Islam began to spread throughout Arabia, Ali helped establish the new Islamic order. He was instructed to write down the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, the peace treaty between Muhammad and the Quraysh in 628. Ali was so reliable and trustworthy that Muhammad asked him to carry the messages and declare the orders. In 630, Ali recited to a large gathering of pilgrims in Mecca a portion of the Qur'an that declared Muhammad and the Islamic community were no longer bound by agreements made earlier with Arab polytheists. During the Conquest of Mecca in 630, Muhammad asked Ali to guarantee that the conquest would be bloodless. He ordered Ali to break all the idols worshipped by the Banu Aus, Banu Khazraj, Tayy, and those in the Kaaba to purify it after its defilement by the polytheism of the pre-Islamic era. Ali was sent to Yemen one year later to spread the teachings of Islam. Ali also was charged with settling several disputes and putting down the uprisings of various tribes.[1][5] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Surat at-Tawba (Arabic: سورة التوبة ) (the Repentance) is the 9th sura of the Quran, with 129 ayat according to mainstream Islam and 127 ayat according to Quran Alone Muslims. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... The Banu Aus or Banu Aws (Arabic:?) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... The Banu Khazraj (Arabic:?) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Jahiliyyah (Arabic: جاهلية) is an Islamic concept of ignorance of divine guidance or the state of ignorance of the guidance from God[1] referring to the condition Arabs found themselves in pre-Islamic Arabian society prior to the revelation of the Quran. ...


The incident of Mubahala

Main articles: Mubahala and Hadith of Mubahala
See also: Ahl al-Bayt

According to hadith collections, in 631 an Arab Christian envoy from Najran (currently in northern Yemen and partly in Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus. After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's creation[35], Muhammad called them to mubahala (cursing), where each party should ask God to destroy the lying party and their families.[36] Muhammad, to prove to them that he is a prophet, brought his daughter Fatimah and his surviving grandchildren, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, and Ali ibn Abi Talib and came back to the Christians and said this is my family and covered himself and his family with a cloak. [37] Allameh Tabatabaei explains in Tafsir al-Mizan that the word "Our selves" in this verse [38] refers to Muhammad and Ali. Then he narrates Imam Ali al-Rida, eight Shia Imam, in discussion with Al-Ma'mun, Abbasid caliph, referred to this verse to prove the superiority of Muhammad's progeny over the rest of the Muslim community, and considered it as the proof for Ali's right for caliphate due to Allah made Ali like the self of Muhammad.[39] Mubahala (Arabic: مباهلة Cursing) or Li’an (Arabic: لعان) refers in Islamic tradition to invoking the curse of God on the erring party as a means to prove ones truthfulness. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The majority of Arab Christians (Arabic,مسيحيون عرب) live in the Middle East where, although Islam is undoubtedly the preponderant religion, significant religious minorities exist in a number of countries. ... Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Ghadir Khumm

The Investiture of Ali, at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration).
The Investiture of Ali, at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration).

As Muhammad was returning from his last pilgrimage in 632, he made statements about Ali that are interpreted very differently by Sunnis and Shias.[1] He halted the caravan at Ghadir Khumm, gathered the returning pilgrims for communal prayer and began to address them[40]: Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... The word Hadith refers to a saying of Muhammad. ... This is a sub-article to Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca and the Succession to Muhammad. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

"O people, I am a human being. I am about to receive a message from my Lord and I, in response to Allah's call, (would bid good-bye to you), but I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family.[41]." Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...

This quote is confirmed by both Shi’a and Sunni, but they interpret the quote differently.[42]


Some Sunni and Shi'a sources report that then he called Ali ibn Abi Talib to his sides, took his hand and raised it up declaring[43]

"For whoever I am a Mawla of, then Ali is his Mawla[44]." The word Mawla has two meanings. ...

The Shia's regard these statements as constituting the investiture of Ali as the successor of Muhammad and as the first Imam; by contrast, the Sunnis take them only as an expression of Muhammad's closeness to Ali and of his wish that Ali, as his cousin and son-in-law, inherit his family responsibilities upon his death. [45] Many Sufis also interpret the episode as the transfer of Muhammad's spiritual power and authority to Ali, whom they regard as the wali par excellence.[1][46] On the basis of this hadith, Ali later insisted on his religious authority superior to that of Abu Bakr and Umar.[47] The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


Succession to Muhammad

Part of a series on the
Succession
to Muhammad The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


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Shia Islam
This is a sub-article to Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca and the Succession to Muhammad. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The day after the the meeting at Saqifah, there was an assemby where a general poll of the people was taken and a general bayah of the community was given to Abu Bakr in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. ... Download high resolution version (450x674, 169 KB)Photo of painting of Ali ebne Abitalib. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Branches

Twelver · Ismaili · Zaidi Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a madhhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or occasionally, Fivers by Sunnis). ...

Beliefs & Practices

Succession of Ali
Imamate of the Family
Mourning of Muharram
Light of Aql The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ...

Ahl al-Bayt

Ahl al-Bayt
Muhammad
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Fatimah Zahra
Hasan · Husayn
Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... Fāţimah Zahrā’ also called Faatemah Az-Zahraa (Arabic: ) was the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his first wife Khadija. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

The Four Companions

The Four Companions
Salman al-Farsi
Miqdad ibn Aswad
Abu Dharr al-Ghifari
Ammar ibn Yasir
The Four Companions, also called the Four Pillars of the Sahaba is a Shia term that refers to the four Sahaba Shia belive stayed most loyal to Ali after the death of Muhammad: Miqdad Abu Dharr Salman al-Farsi Ammar ibn Yasir. ... According to Sunnis sources he did not give alligance to Abu Bakr, until Ali suposedly did so. ... venerated by Shia Muslims as one of the Four Companions, who were followers of Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ...

Holy Days

Eid ul-Fitr
Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Ghadeer
Ashura · Arba'een
Mawlid · Al-Mubahila Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) is second in the series of Eid festivals that Muslims celebrate. ... Eid al-Ghadeer is the anniversary of the Event of Ghadeer, an Islamic event on the 18th of the Islamic month of Dhul-Hijjah in which the Prophet Muhammad delivered his last sermon. ... The Day of Ashura ( transliteration: , Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram but not the Islamic month. ... Arbaeen (Arabic: ‎, means forty), or Chehlum, as it is known by Urdu-speaking Muslims, is a Shia religious holiday that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashurah, the commemoration of the martyrdom by beheading of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad which falls on... Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad. ...

Views

The Qur'an
View of Ali ibn Abu Talib
View of Fatimah Zahra
Sahaba · Mu'awiya I
Abu Bakr · Umar
This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view but it must be noted that the text of the Quran is exactly identical in both Shia and Sunni. ... This is a parallel sub-article to Shia and Ali This article is about the Shia view of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam. ... This is a sub-article of Fatima Zahra and Shia Islam. ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... The Shia have lost no opportunity to vilify Muˤāwiyya. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ...

History

Ghadir Khumm
First Fitna · Second Fitna
The Battle of Karbala
History of Shia Islam
This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam or Shi‘ism is the largest minority denomination based on the Islamic faith . ...

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See also: Succession to Muhammad, Saqifah, and Rashidun

After uniting the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life, Muhammad's death in 632 signalled disagreement over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.[48]While Ali and the rest of Muhammad's close family were washing his body for burial, at a gathering attended by a small group of Muslims at Saqifah, a companion of Muhammad named Abu Bakr was nominated for the leadership of the community. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. The choice of Abu Bakr disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali had been designated his successor by Muhammad himself. [49][9] The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Arabs are a semitic race. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...


Following his election to the caliphate, Abu Bakr and Umar with a few other companions headed to Fatimah's house to obtain homage from Ali and his supporters who had gathered there. Then Umar threatened to set the house on fire unless they came out and swore allegiance with Abu Bakr. [50] There isn't consensus among the sources about what happened next. Some sources say upon seeing them, Ali came out with his sword drawn but was disarmed by Umar and their companions. Fatimah, in support of her husband, started a commotion and threatened to "uncover her hair", at which Abu Bakr relented and withdrew.[51] Ali is reported to have repeatedly said that had there been forty men with him he would have resisted.[52] When Abu Bakr's selection to the caliphate was presented as a fait accompli, Ali withheld his oaths of allegiance until after the death of Fatimah. Ali did not actively assert his own right because he did not want to throw the nascent Muslim community into strife.[5] For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad Some Shia and Sunni sources narrated that during the Succession to Muhammad, when Abu Bakr sent a group of people headed by Khalid ibn Walid and Umar at Fatimahs house. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ...


This contentious issue led Muslims to later split into two groups, Sunni and Shi'a. Sunnis assert that even though Muhammad never appointed a successor, Abu Bakr was elected first caliph by the Muslim community. The Sunnis recognize the first four caliphs as Muhammad's rightful successors. Shi'as believe that Muhammad explicitly named his successor Ali at Ghadir Khumm and Muslim leadership belonged to him who had been determined by divine order.[53][9] Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


The two groups also disagree on Ali's attitude towards Abu Bakr, and the two caliphs who succeeded him: Umar and Uthman Ibn Affan. Sunnis tend to stress Ali's acceptance and support of their rule, while the Shi'a claim that he distanced himself from them, and that he was being kept from fulfilling the religious duty that Muhammad had appointed to him. Sunnis maintain that if Ali was the rightful successor as ordained by God Himself, then it would have been his duty as leader of the Muslim nation to make war with these people (Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman) until Ali established the decree. Shias contend that Ali did not fight Abu Bakr, Umar or Uthman, because firstly he did not have the military strength and if he decided to, it would have caused a civil war amongst the Muslims.[54] Ali also believed that he could fulfil his role of Imam'ate without this fighting .[55] For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ...


Ali himself was firmly convinced of his legitimacy for caliphate based on his close kinship with Muhammad, his intimate association and his knowledge of Islam and his merits in serving its cause. He told Abu Bakr that his delay in pledging allegiance (bay'ah) as caliph was based on his belief of his own prior title. Ali did not change his mind when he finally pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr and then to Umar and to Uthman but had done so for the sake of the unity of Islam, at a time when it was clear that the Muslims had turned away from him.[56][9] A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ...


According to historical reports, Ali maintained his right to the caliphate and said:

"By Allah the son of Abu Quhafah (Abu Bakr) dressed himself with it (the caliphate) and he certainly knew that my position in relation to it was the same as the position of the axis in relation to the hand-mill...I put a curtain against the caliphate and kept myself detached from it... I watched the plundering of my inheritance till the first one went his way but handed over the Caliphate to Ibn al-Khattab after himself.[57]

Inheritance

Main article: Fadak
See also: Hadith of Muhammad's inheritance

After Muhammad died his daughter, Fatimah, asked Abu Bakr to turn over their property, the lands of Fadak and Khaybar but he refused and told her that prophets didn't have any legacy and Fadak belonged to the Muslim community. Abu Bakr said to her, "Allah's Apostle said, we do not have heirs, whatever we leave is Sadaqa." Ali together with Umm Ayman testified to the fact that Muhammad granted it to Fatimah Zahra, when Abu Bakr requested Fatima to summon witnesses for her claim. Fatimah became angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude until she died.[58] Fadak (Arabic: فدك) was a tract of land in Khaybar, an oasis in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad Muhammads inheritance is well documented and controversial topic, both then and at the present. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Fadak (Arabic: فدك) was a tract of land in Khaybar, an oasis in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. ... Ruins of a Jewish Fortress at Khaybar Khaybar (خيبر) is the name of an oasis some 95 miles to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Sadaqa is voluntary Islamic charity as opposed to zakat, or obligatory charity. ...


After Fatima's death Ali again claimed her inheritance during Umar's era, but was denied with the same argument. Umar, the caliph who succeeded Abu Bakr, did restore the estates in Medina to `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib and Ali, as representatives of Muhammad's clan, the Banu Hashim. The properties in Khaybar and Fadak were retained as state property.[59] `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib () (c. ... Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ...


Life after Muhammad

See also: Origin and development of the Qur'an

Another part of Ali's life started in 632 after death of Muhammad and lasted until assassination of Uthman Ibn Affan, the third caliph in 656. During these years, Ali neither took part in any battle or conquest.[5] nor did he assume any executive position. He withdrew from political affairs, especially after the death of his wife, Fatima Zahra. He used his time to serve his family and worked as a farmer. Ali dug a lot of wells and gardens near Medina and endowed them for public use. These wells are known today as Abar Ali ("Ali's wells").[60] He also made gardens for his family and descendants. The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim view and the later being a more skeptic view. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...


Ali compiled a complete version of the Qur'an, mus'haf.[61] six months after the death of Muhammad. The volume was completed and carried by camel to show to other people of Medina. The order of this mus'haf differed from that which was gathered later during the Uthmanic era. This book was rejected by several people when he showed it to them. Despite this, Ali made no objection or resistance against standardized mus'haf.[62] This book is inherited by his descendant, i.e. Shia Imams. A Mushaf is a Arabic word that literarly means cover, as in a book cover. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... The study of the origins and development of the Qur’an can be said to fall into two major schools of thought, the first being a traditionalist Muslim view and the later being a more skeptic view. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ...


Ali and the Rashidun Caliphs

See also: Rashidun and The election of Uthman

Ali did not give his oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr until some time after the death of his wife, Fatimah.[5] Ali participated in the funeral of Abu Bakr but did not participate in the Ridda Wars.[63] The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... When `Umar was wounded by Abu Luluah and he saw that it was difficult for him to survive because of the deep wound, he formed a consultative committee and nominated for it `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan, `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Awf, az-Zubayr ibn al... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ...


He pledged allegiance to the second caliph Umar ibn Khattab and helped him as a trusted advisor. Caliph Umar particularly relied upon Ali as the Chief Judge of Medina. He also advised Umar to set Hijra as the begining of the Islamic calendar‎. Umar used Ali's suggestions in political issues as well as religious ones. [64] For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Hijra may refer to: Hijra (Hegira/Hijrah/Hejira) is an Arabic term referring to the migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate...


Ali was one of the electoral council to choose the third caliph and one of the two major candidates. According to Ibn Abi al-Hadid's Comments on the Peak of Eloquence Ali insisted on his prominence there, but most of the electors supported Uthman and Ali was reluctantly urged to accept him.[65] When `Umar was wounded by Abu Luluah and he saw that it was difficult for him to survive because of the deep wound, he formed a consultative committee and nominated for it `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan, `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Awf, az-Zubayr ibn al...


Siege of Uthman

Main article: Siege of Uthman

Uthman Ibn Affan, expressed generosity toward his kin, Banu Abd-Shams, who seemed to dominate him and his supposed arrogant mistreatment toward several of the earliest companions such as Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Abd-Allah ibn Mas'ud and Ammar ibn Yasir provoked outrage among some groups of people. Dissatisfaction and resistance openly arose since 650-651 CE throughout most of the empire.[66] The dissatisfaction with his regime and the governments appointed by him was not restricted to the provinces outside Arabia.[67] When Uthman's kin, especially Marwan, gained control over him, the noble companions including most of the the members of elector council, turned against him or at least withdrew their support putting pressure on the caliph to mend his ways and reduce the influence of his assertive kin.[68] The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Banu Abd Shams (Arabic: بنو عبد شمس) refers to a clan within the Meccan Quraishi tribe. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. ... Abd-Allah ibn Masud (Arabic: ‎) (d. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... When `Umar was wounded by Abu Luluah and he saw that it was difficult for him to survive because of the deep wound, he formed a consultative committee and nominated for it `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan, `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Awf, az-Zubayr ibn al...


Finally, dissatisfaction led to rebellion in Egypt, Kufa and Basra. At the start of the rebellion, people demanded that the exiled be returned to their homes, the deprived be provided sustenance, the men of strength and integrity be appointed as governors, and so on.[69] They requested Ali to speak to Uthman on their behalf and to admonish him for their sake.[5] Ali told Uthman "The people are behind me and they have made me an ambassador between you and themselves." He forewarned Uthman that he should change his manner immediately or he would be killed. Ali told him "I swear to you by Allah that you should not be that Imam of the people who will be killed because it has been said that, 'An imam of this people will be killed after which killing and fighting will be made open for them till the Day of Judgment, and he will confuse their matters and spread troubles over them. As a result, they will not discern truth from wrong.'"[70] Later, when Egyptian rebels gathered near Medina, Uthman asked Ali to speak with them. The delegates of Muhajirun led by Ali beside Ansari delegates led by Muhammad Ibn Maslamah met them and persuade them to return, by promising them in the name of the caliph, redress for all their grievances and agreeing to act as guarantors. Due to their mediation and Uthman's commitment, the rebellion settled down but then rose up again. Marwan persuaded Uthman to change his ways again. Ali warned Uthman that Marwan wants to ruin him. Gradually the relation between Uthman and Ali became worse.[71] Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) are the early Muslims who followed Muhammad in the Migration from Mecca to Medina. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ... Muhammad Ibn Maslamah (589 - 666), also known as Muhammad bin Maslama Ansari, was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. ...


When Egyptian rebels returned to Medina, outraged by the official letter ordering the punishment of their leaders, Ali as the guarantor of Uthman's promises asked him to speak with the people directly. Uthman denied any knowledge about the letter and Ali and Muhammad Ibn Maslamah attested. At this time, however, the choices offered by the rebels amounted to resignation or abdication of Uthman and selection of another caliph. Ali left them when turmoil broke out. Ali seems to have broken with Uthman in despair over his own ability to break the disastrous influence of Marwan on the caliph. Ali intervened only when informed that the rebels were preventing the delivery of water to the besieged caliph. [72] He tried to mitigate the severity of the siege by his insistence that Uthman should be allowed water.[5] There are different reports about Ali's role while rebels besieged his palace. Some historians, like Leone Caetani, accuse him as the chief culprit in the murder of the caliph, some others such as Madelung say Ali did not support Uthman while others report that Ali even sent his own sons to protect Uthman's house when he was in danger of being attacked. [73] [1] Leone Caetani (September 12, 1869 - December 25, 1935) was an Italian. ...


There is controversy among historians about the relationship between Ali and Uthman. Although pledging allegiance to Uthman, Ali disagreed with some of his policies. In particular, he clashed with Uthman on the question of religious law. He insisted that religious punishment had to done in several cases such as Ubayd Allah ibn Umar and Walid ibn Uqba. In 650 during pilgrimage, he confronted Uthman with reproaches for his change of the prayer ritual. When Uthman declared that he would take whatever he needed from the fey', Ali exclaimed that in that case the caliph would e prevented by force. Ali endeavored to protect companions from maltreatment by the caliph such as Ibn Mas'ud. [74] Therefore, some historians consider Ali as one the leading members of Uthman's opposition, if not the main one. Because he could clearly be expected to be the prime beneficiary of the overthrow of Uthman. But Madelung rejects their judgment due to the fact that Ali did not have the Quraysh's support to be elected as a caliph. According to him, there is even no evidence that Ali had close relations with rebels who supported his caliphate or directed their actions. [75] Some other sources says Ali had acted as a restraining influence on Uthman without directly opposing him.[5] However Madelung narrates Marwan told Zayn al-Abidin, the grandson of Ali, that For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... Walid ibn Uqba (Arabic: ) was one of the companions of Muhammad. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Abd-Allah ibn Masud (Arabic: ‎) (d. ... Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung was born on 26 December 1930 in Stuttgart, Germany, where he completed his early education at Eberhard Ludwig Gymnasium. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ...

No one [among the Islamic nobility] was more temperate toward our master than your master.[76]

Caliphate

See also: Rashidun Empire and Ali caliphate

The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ...

Election as Caliph

Ali was caliph between 656 and 661 CE, during one of the more turbulent periods in Muslim history, which also coincided with the First Fitna. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ...


Uthman's assassination meant that rebels had to select a new caliph. This met with difficulties, the rebels dividing into several groups comprising the Muhajirun, Ansar, Egyptians, Kufans and Basntes. There were three candidates Ali, Talhah and Al-Zubayr. First they referred to Ali and asked him to accept the caliphate. Some of Muhammad's companions tried to persuade him to accept the office,[57][77][78] but he refused and suggested to be a counselor not a chief.[79] Muhajirun (Arabic: المهاجرون; The Emigrants) are the early Muslims who followed Muhammad in the Migration from Mecca to Medina. ... Ansar (Arabic: الأنصار, meaning aiders, or patrons) refer to a class of warriors who are renouned for there arsenal of weapons and the speed and mobility of there arabian horse. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ... Talhah ibn Ubayd-Allah (d. ... Abu ‘Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (Arabic: ‎) was a Sahaba, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...


Talhah, al-Zubayr and some other companions refused the rebels' offer of caliphate. Therefore they threatened that, unless the people of Medina choose a caliph within one day, they would be forced to take some drastic action. In order to resolve the deadlock, the Muslims gathered in the Mosque of the Prophet on June 18, 656 CE (19th Dhu al-Hijjah 35AH.) to choose the caliph. Ali refused to accept the caliphate by the fact that the people who pressed him hardest were the rebels, and he therefore declined at first. However, when the notable companions of Muhammad, as well as the people who resided in Medina urged him to accept, he finally agreed. According to Abu Mekhnaf's narration, Talhah was the first prominent companion who gave his pledge, but other narrations claim they did not do so or someone forced them. In addition, Talhah and al-Zubayr later claimed they did so reluctantly. Regardless, Ali refused these claims and stated that they recognized him as caliph voluntarily. Wilferd Madelung believes that force did not urge people to give their pledge and they pledged publicly in the mosque.[80][81][6] Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet ( Arabic: ) [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Abi Mekhnaf (Yahya ibn Said ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) () was a Muslim historian from the 8th century. ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ...


While the overwhelming majority of people who lived in Medina as well as rebels gave their pledge, some major figures did not do so. Umayyads, kins of Uthman, escaped to the Levant or remained in their houses and later refused Ali's legitimacy. Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas was absent and Abdullah ibn Umar abstained from offering his allegiance, but both of them assured Ali that they wouldn't act against him.[82][83] Another prominent figure in Mecca at that time, and who later opposed Ali, was Muhammad's widow A'isha. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Sa`ad ibn Abī Waqqās (Arabic: ‎ ) was an early convert to Islam from the Banū Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe and important companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr, Ayşe, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha (Arabic: ‎ `āisha, she who lives) was a wife of Muhammad. ...


Reign as Caliph

Domains of Rashidun empire under four caliphs. The divided phase relates to Ali caliphate.      Strongholds of Rashidun Caliphate      Vassal states of Rashidun Caliphate      Region under the control of Muawiyah I during civil war 656-661      Region under under the control of Amr ibn al-As During civil war 658-661

Ali told people that Muslim polity had come to be plagued by dissension and discord; he wanted to purge Islam of all evil. Ali advised people to behave as true Muslims, warning all concerned that he would tolerate no sedition and all found guilty of subversive activities would be dealt with harshly. [84] The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Mu‘āwÄ«yah ibn AbÄ« Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ...


Ali soon found that he was helpless and the prisoner of the people who did not obey him. The caliphate was a gift of the rebels and Ali did not have enough force to control or punish them.[85] While A'isha, Talhah, Al-Zubayr and Umayyad especially Muawiyah I wanted to take revenge for Uthman's death and punish the rioters who had killed him. However some historians believe that they use this issue to seek their political ambitions due to they found Ali's caliphate against their own benefit.[5][7][86] Aisha bint Abu Bakr, Ayşe, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha (Arabic: ‎ `āisha, she who lives) was a wife of Muhammad. ... Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ...


Soon after Ali became caliph, he dismissed provincial governors who had been appointed by Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides. He acted against the counsel of Mughrah ibn Shobah and Ibn Abbas, who had advised him to proceed cautiously. Madelung says Ali was deeply convinced of his right and his religious mission, unwilling to compromise his principles for the sake of political expediencey, ready to fight against overwhelming odds.[87] Muawiyah, kinsman of Uthman and governor of Levant refused to submit to Ali's orders - the only governor to do this.[5][6] Abdullah ibn Abbas was a cousin of the prophet Muhammad. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


After the Battle of Bassorah, Ali transferred his capital from Medina to Kufa, the Muslim garrison city in Iraq. Kufa was in the middle of Islamic land and had strategic position.[88][6] Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces...


Ali resumed the land granted by Uthman and swore to resume anything the elites had taken before him. He opposed the centralization of capital control over provincial revenues, favoring an equal distribution of taxes and booty among the Muslims again. He distributed the entire revenue of the treasury among Muslims. Ali did not give anybody something more, even if he would his brother, Aqil ibn Abi Talib[5][89] This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Bayt al-mal is an Arabic term that is translated as House of money. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


First Fitna

See also: First Fitna
The Battle of Siffin, illustration from a 19th century manuscript by Muhammad Rafi Bazil. There are Persian poems on the above and bottom of the picture.

The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of Uthman, continued during the caliphate of Ali, and was ended by Muawiyah's assumption of the caliphate. This civil war (often called the Fitna) is regretted as the end of the early unity of the Islamic ummah (nation). Ali was first opposed by a faction led by Talhah, Al-Zubayr and Muhammad's wife, Aisha bint Abu Bakr. This group, known as "disobedients" (Nakithin) by their enemies, gathered in Mecca then moved to Basra with the expectation of finding the necessary forces and resources to mobilize people in what is now Iraq. The rebels occupied Basra, killing many people. They refused Ali's offer of obedience and pledge of allegiance. The two sides met at the Battle of Bassorah (Battle of the Camel) in 656, where Ali emerged victorious.[90] The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... A battle between Ali and the khawarij See also Ibadi External links Shia http://playandlearn. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 318 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (408 × 768 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Battle of Siffin, from an illustration in a 19th century manuscript by Muhammad Rafi Bazil. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 318 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (408 × 768 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Battle of Siffin, from an illustration in a 19th century manuscript by Muhammad Rafi Bazil. ... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... Farsi redirects here. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces...


Ali appointed Ibn Abbas governor of Basra and moved his capital to Kufa. Later he was challenged by Muawiyah I, the governor of Levant and the cousin of Uthman, who refused Ali's demands for allegiance and called for revenge for Uthman. Ali opened negotiations hoping to regain his allegiance, but Muawiyah insisted on Levant autonomy under his rule. Muawiyah replied by mobilizing his Levantine supporters and refusing to pay homage to Ali on the pretext that his contingent had not participated in his election. The two armies encamped themselves at Siffin for more than one hundred days, most of the time being spent in negotiations. Although, Ali exchanged several letters with Muawiyah, he was unable to dismiss the latter, nor persuade him to pledge allegiance. Skirmishes between the parties led to the Battle of Siffin in 657. After a week of combat was followed by a violent battle known as laylat al-harir (the night of clamor), Muawiyah's army were on the point of being routed when Amr ibn al-Aas advised Muawiyah to have his soldiers hoist mus'haf (either parchments inscribed with verses of the Qur'an, or complete copies of it) on their spearheads in order to cause disagreement and confusion in Ali's army.[5][91] Ali saw through the stratagem, but only a minority wanted to pursue the fight.[9] Abdullah ibn Abbas was a cousin of the prophet Muhammad. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Mu‘āwÄ«yah ibn AbÄ« Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... Combatants Muawiyah I Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna, or First Muslim civil war, with the main... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... Amr ibn al-Ä€s (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ... A Mushaf is a Arabic word that literarly means cover, as in a book cover. ...


The two armies finally agreed to settle the matter of who should be Caliph by arbitration. The refusal of the largest bloc in Ali's army to fight was the decisive factor in his acceptance of the arbitration. The question as to whether the arbiter would represent Ali or the Kufans caused a further split in Ali's army. Ash'ath ibn Qays and some others rejected Ali's nominees, `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas and Malik al-Ashtar, and insisted on Abu Musa Ash'ari, who was opposed by Ali, since he had earlier prevented people from supporting him. Finally, Ali was urged to accept Abu Musa. Some of Ali's supporters, later were known as Kharijites (schismatics), opposed this decision and rebelled and Ali had to fight with them in the Battle of Nahrawan. The arbitration resulted in the dissolution of Ali's coalition and some have opined that this was Muawiyah's intention.[5][92] Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Abd-Allah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس ) was a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... Abu-Musa Abd-Allah ibn Qays al-Ash`ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ashari (Arabic: ابوموسی) (d. ... Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out [1]) is a general term embracing a variety of Islamic sects which, while initially accepting the caliphate of Ali, later rejected him. ... The schisma, also spelled skhisma, is the ratio between a Pythagorean comma and a syntonic comma and equals 32805/32768, which is 1. ... A battle between Ali and the khawarij See also Ibadi External links Shia http://playandlearn. ...


Muawiyah's army invaded and plundered cities of Iraq, which Ali's governors could not prevent and people did not support him to fight with them. Muawiyah overpowered Egypt, Hijaz, Yemen and other areas.[93] Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ...


This civil war created permanent divisions within the Muslim community regarding who had the legitimate right to occupy the caliphate.[94]


Death

On the 19th of Ramadan, while Ali was praying in the mosque of Kufa, a Kharijite Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam assassinated him with a strike of his poison-coated sword. Ali, wounded by the poisonous sword, lived for two days and died in Kufa on the 21st of Ramadan in 661 CE.[95] Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam al-Sarimi was the Khawārij assassin of Ali ibn Abu Talib[1]. ^ http://www. ...


Ali ordered his sons not to attack the Kharijites, since the assassination was performed by a single member of the group. They had to take vengeance against only Ibn Muljam.[96] Thus, Hasan fulfilled Qisas and killed ibn Muljam.[97] This is a sub-article of Islamic criminal jurisprudence and Blood money (term). ...


Burial

Rawze-e-Sharif, the Blue Mosque, in Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan - Where a minority of Muslims believe Ali ibn Abi Talib is buried
Rawze-e-Sharif, the Blue Mosque, in Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan - Where a minority of Muslims believe Ali ibn Abi Talib is buried

According to Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Ali did not want his grave to be desecrated by his enemies and consequently asked his friends and family to bury him secretly. This secret gravesite was revealed later during the Abbasid caliphate by Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, his descendant and the sixth Shia Imam.[98] Most Shi'as accept that Ali is buried at the Tomb of Imam Ali in the Imam Ali Mosque at what is now the city of Najaf, which grew around the mosque and shrine called Masjid Ali.[99][100] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1080x720, 132 KB) The historic blue mosque in Mazar-e Sharif Afghanistan File links The following pages link to this file: Mazar-e Sharif Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1080x720, 132 KB) The historic blue mosque in Mazar-e Sharif Afghanistan File links The following pages link to this file: Mazar-e Sharif Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... The Blue Mosque in Mazar-e-Sharif Rawze Sharif, also known as the Blue Mosque is the most beautiful and proportional mosque in Afghanistan, and one of the most beautiful in the world. ... Mazari Sharif, also known as Mazar-i Sharif or Mazār-e SharÄ«f (Persian: ‎ ), is the fourth largest city of Afghanistan, with population of 300,600 people (2006 official estimate). ... Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan al-Ukbari al-Baghdadi known as al-Shaykh al-Mufid and Ibn al-Muallim for his expertise in philosophical theology (c. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Jafar al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق) (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, is considered the sixth Shia imam by Ja’fari Shia Muslims & the fifth Shia imam by Shia Ismaili Muslims. ... Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are generally recognized as the three most important cities in Islam according to interpretations of scriptures in the Quran and Hadith. ... Exterior view of Imam Ali Shrine The Imam Ali Holy Shrine (Arabic: حرم الإمام علي), also known as Meshed Ali or the Tomb of Ali, is a mosque located in Najaf, Iraq. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ...


However another story, usually maintained by some Afghans, notes that his body was taken and buried in the Afghan city of Mazar-E-Sharif at the famous Blue Mosque or Rawze-e-Sharif.[101] Mazār-e Sharīf, also known as Mazar-e-Sharif, Mazar-i Sharif and Mazar-i-Sharif (in Persian مزار شریف), is a city in northern Afghanistan and the capital of Balkh province. ... The Blue Mosque in Mazar-e-Sharif Rawze Sharif, also known as the Blue Mosque is the most beautiful and proportional mosque in Afghanistan, and one of the most beautiful in the world. ...


Aftermath

See also: Umayyad dynasty and Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali

After Ali's death, Kufi Muslims pledged allegiance to his eldest son Hasan without dispute, as Ali on many occasions had declared that just Ahl al-Bayt of Muhammad were entitled to rule the Muslim community.[102] At this time, Muawiyah held both Levant and Egypt and, as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire, had declared himself caliph and marched his army into Iraq, the seat of Hasan's caliphate. War ensued during which Muawiyah gradually subverted the generals and commanders of Hasan's army with large sums of money and deceiving promises until the army rebelled against him. Finally, Hasan was forced to make peace and to yield the caliphate to Muawiyah. In this way Muawiyah captured the Islamic caliphate and in every way possible placed the severest pressure upon Ali's family and his Shi'a. Regular public cursing of Imam Ali in the congregational prayers remained a vital institution which was not abolished until 60 years later by Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz. Muawiyah also established the Umayyad caliphate which was a centralized monarchy. [103] [6] The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... There was an Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali, that is said to have started with Marwan ibn al-Hakam, a practice put to end by Umar II. This is tradition is described in sources such as Sahih Muslim and is prominently mentioned by Shia when retelling the history of... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


Madelung writes: Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung was born on 26 December 1930 in Stuttgart, Germany, where he completed his early education at Eberhard Ludwig Gymnasium. ...

In face of the fake Umayyad claim to legitimate sovereignty in Islam as God's Vice-regents on earth, and in view of Umayyad treachery, arbitrary and divisive government, and vindictive retribution, they came to appreciate his [Ali's] honesty, his unbending devotion to the reign of Islam, his deep personal loyalties, his equal treatment of all his supporters, and his generosity in forgiving his defeated enemies.[104] The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...

Knowledge

See also: Nahj al-Balagha
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Ali

Ali is respected not only as a warrior and leader, but as a writer and religious authority. Numerous range of disciplines from theology and exegesis to calligraphy and numerology, from law and mysticism to Arabic grammar and Rhetoric regarded as having been first adumbrated by Ali. [100] It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... Contemporary Western Calligraphy. ... Look up numerology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ...


Shia and Sufis believe that Muhammad told about him "I'm the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate..."[100][105][106][107] Muslims regard Ali as a major authority on Islam. [6]


As Henry Corbin narrates, Ali himself gives this testimony: Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, France. ...

Not a single verse of the Qur'an descended upon (was revealed to) the Messenger of God which he did not proceed to dictate to me and make me recite. I would write it with my own hand, and he would instruct me as to its tafsir (the literal explanation) and the ta'wil (the spiritual exegesis), the nasikh (the verse which abrogates) and the mansukh (the abrogated verse), the muhkam and the mutashabih (the fixed and the ambiguous), the particular and the general...[108] Ayah ( , plural Ayat ) is the Arabic word for sign or miracle. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Wahy is the Arabic word for revelation. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Qiraat, in the context of Islam, means literally the readings, that is the method of recitation. ... ... Naskh, an Arabic language word usually translated as abrogation and alternately appearing as the phrase al-nāsikh wal-mansūkh (the abrogating and abrogated [verses]), is a technical term for a major genre of Islamic legal exegesis directed at the problem of seemingly contradictory material within or between the...

In later Islamic philosophy, especially in the teachings of Mulla Sadra and his followers, like Allameh Tabatabaei, Ali's sayings and sermons were increasingly regarded as central sources of metaphysical knowledge, or divine philosophy. Members of Sadra's school regard Ali as the supreme metaphysician of Islam.[1] According to Henry Corbin, the Nahj al-Balagha may be regarded as one of the most important sources of doctrines professed by Shia thinkers especially after 1500AD.[109] Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ...


Ali was also a great scholar of Arabic literature and pioneered in the field of grammar and rhetoric. His speeches, sermons and letters served for generations afterward as models of literary expression.[6] Numerous short sayings of Ali have become part of general Islamic culture and are quoted as aphorisms and proverbs in daily life. They have also become the basis of literary works or have been integrated into poetic verse in many languages. Already in the 8th century, literary authorities such as 'Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya al-'Amiri pointed to the unparalleled eloquence of Ali's sermons and sayings, as did al-Jahiz in the following century.[1] Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ...


Even workers in the Divan of Umayyad recited Ali's sermons to improve their eloquence.[110] Of course, Peak of Eloquence (Nahj al-Balagha) is an extract of Ali's quotations from a literal viewpoint as its compiler mentioned in the preface. While there are many other quotations, prayers (Du'as), sermons and letters in other literal, historic and religious books.[111] This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... Dua is an Arabic term which means to call out to summon. Muslims use this term and call out to Allah. ...


In addition, some hidden or occult sciences such as jafr,Islamic numerology, the science of the symbolic significance of the letters of the Arabic alphabet, are said to have been established by Ali.[1] Look up numerology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ...


Works related

The compilation of sermons, lectures and quotations attributed to Ali are compiled in the form of several books.

  • Nahj al-Balagha (Way of Eloquence) contains eloquent sermons, letters and quotations attributed to Ali which is compiled by ash-Sharif ar-Radi. This book has a prominent position in Arabic literature. It is also considered as an important intellectual, political and religious work in Islam.[112][113][1] Masadir Nahj al-Balagha wa asaniduh written by al-Sayyid `Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni al-Khatib introduces some of these sources.[114] Also Nahj al-sa'adah fi mustadrak Nahj al-balaghah by Muhammad Baqir al-Mahmudi represents all of Ali's extant speeches, sermons, decrees, epistles, prayers, and sayings have been collected. It includes the Nahj al-balagha and other discourses which were not incorporated by ash-Sharif ar-Radi or were not available to him. Apparently, except for some of the aphorisms, the original sources of all the contents of the Nahj al-balagha have been determined.[112] There are several Comments on the Peak of Eloquence by Sunnis and Shias such as Comments of Ibn Abu al-Hadid and comments of Muhammad Abduh.
  • Divan-i Ali ibn Abi Talib (poems of Ali ibn Abi Talib)[115]
  • Ghurar al-Hikam wa Durar al-Kalim (Exalted aphorisms and Pearls of Speach) which is compiled by Abd al-Wahid Amidi(d. 1116) consists of over ten thounsads short sayings of Ali [116]
  • Nuzhat al-Absar va Mahasin al-Asar, Ali's sermons which has compiled by Ali ibn Muhammad Tabari Mamtiri[117]

It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Comments on the Peak of Eloquence (book by Abd al-Hamid) Sharh Nahj al-balaghah : al-muqtataf min Bihar al-anwar by Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taqi Majlisi; ‘Ali Ansariyan; Murtadá Haj‘ali Fard [1] Peak of Eloquence with comments (book by Muhammad Abduh) Peak of Eloquence with comments (Habib... This is about the book by Abd al-Hamid, for other uses, see Comments on the Peak of Eloquence or Sharh Nahj al-Balgha. ... This is about the book by Muhammad Abduh. ...

Descendants

Ali had several wives, Fatimah being the most beloved. He had four children by Fatimah, Hasan ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali, Zaynab bint Ali[1] and Umm Kulthum bint Ali. His other well-known sons were al-Abbas ibn Ali born to Fatima binte Hizam (Um al-Banin) and Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah.[118] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alavi (Arabic: علوي) is a Muslim family name denoting descent from Hadrat Ali cousin of Prophet Muhammad. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Zaynabs name in Arabic Calligraphy Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي ) (Urdu: زينب بنت على ) was the daughter of the 4th Caliph, the first Shia imam, Ali, and granddaughter of Muhammad. ... Umm Kulthum bint Ali (Arabic: أم كلثوم بنت على ) was the fourth child of Ali ibn Abu Talib (the first Shi’a Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) and Fatima Zahra (the daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad). ... Al-Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (fourth of Shabaan 26th A.H., at Medina - tenth of Muharrum 61 A.H., at Karbala) was the son of the fourth sunni Caliph and the first Shiah Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Banin. ... Fatima bintr Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Ummul Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower after the death of his first wife Fatima bint Muhammad (S). ... Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was the son of the first Shi’a Imam (Ali ibn Abu Talib) but he was called Ibn Hanafiyyah after his mother. ...


Hasan, born in 625 AD, was the second Shia Imam and he also occupied the outward function of caliph for about six months. In the year 50 A.H., he was poisoned and killed by a member of his own household who, as has been accounted by historians, had been motivated by Mu'awiyah.[119]


Husayn, born in 626 AD, was the third Shia Imam. He lived under severe conditions of suppression and persecution by Mu'awiyah. On the tenth day of Muharram, of the year 680, he lined up before the army of caliph with his small band of follower and nearly all of them were killed in the Battle of Karbala. The anniversary of his death is called the Day of Ashura and it is a day of mourning and religious observance for Shi'a Muslims.[120] In this battle some of Ali's other sons were killed. Al-Tabari has mentioned their names in his history. Al-Abbas, the holder of Husayn's standard, Ja'far, Abdallah and Uthman, the four sons born to Fatima binte Hizam. Muhammad and Abu Bakr. The death of the last one is doubtful.[121] Some historians have added the names of Ali's others sons who were killed in Karbala, including Ibrahim, Umar and Abdallah ibn al-Asqar.[122][123] Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... The Day of Ashura ( transliteration: , Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram but not the Islamic month. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Al-Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (fourth of Shabaan 26th A.H., at Medina - tenth of Muharrum 61 A.H., at Karbala) was the son of the fourth sunni Caliph and the first Shiah Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Banin. ... Fatima bintr Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Ummul Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower after the death of his first wife Fatima bint Muhammad (S). ...


His daughter Zaynab — who was in Karbala — was captured by Yazid's army and later played a great role in revealing what happened to Husayn and his followers.[124]


Ali's descendants by Fatimah are known as sharifs, sayeds or sayyids. These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'as place much more emphasis and value on the distinction.[1] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sayyid. ... For the Lost character, please see Sayid Jarrah Sayyid () (plural Saadah) is an honorific title that is given to males accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, who were the sons of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in...


Views

Muslim view

Main article: Ali in Muslim culture
19th century Iranian painting depicting Imam Ali.

Except for Muhammad, there is no one in Islamic history about whom as much has been written in Islamic languages as Ali.[1] Ali is revered and honored by all Muslims. Having been one of the first Muslims and foremost Ulema (Islamic scholars), he was extremely knowledgeable in matters of religious belief and Islamic jurisprudence, as well as in the history of the Muslim community. He was known for his bravery and courage. Muslims honor Muhammad, Ali, and other pious Muslims and add pious interjections after their names. Image File history File linksMetadata Imam_ALI.jpg‎ me, my pictures taken by me, none, this is my own picture from my pictures being used here! I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Imam_ALI.jpg‎ me, my pictures taken by me, none, this is my own picture from my pictures being used here! I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...


Sunni

Main article: Sunni view of Ali

The Sunni Muslims regard Ali as one of the Ahl al-Bayt and the last of the Rashidun caliphs and one of the most influential and respected figures in Islam. Ali is held with the utmost respect along with Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman Ibn Affan.[6] Sunnis hold him in high respect as one of the Ahl al-Bayt and the last of the Four Righteously Guided Caliphs. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ...


Shia

Main article: Shi'a view of Ali

The Shias regards Ali as the most important figure after Muhammad. According to them, Muhammad in his life time suggested on various occasions, that Ali should be the leader of Muslims after his demise like Hadith of the pond of Khumm, Hadith of the two weighty things, Hadith of the pen and paper, Hadith of the Twelve Successors and so on. This is a parallel sub-article to Shia and Ali This article is about the Shia view of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... The word Hadith refers to a saying of Muhammad. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad. ... It has been suggested that 12 Princes be merged into this article or section. ...


According to this view, Ali as the successor of Muhammad not only rules over the community in justice but also interprets the Sharia Law and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was free from error and sin (infallible) and he was appointed by God by divine decree (nass) through Muhammad.[125] Ali is known as "perfect man" (al-insan al-kamil) similar to Muhammad according to Shia viewpoint.[126] Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... An esoteric interpretation of the Qur’an is an interpretation of the Qur’an which includes attribution of esoteric or mystic meanings to the text by the interpretater and in this aspect its method is different from the conventional exegesis of the Qur’an called tafsir. ... Infallibility is the ability to be free from error (obtain certainty). ... The word Nass refers, variously, to a people of northern British Columbia: Nisgaa the Tsimshianic language of the Nisgaa people: Nisgaa language a river in northern British Columbia: Nass River Category: ... In Islam, Muhammad is known as uswa hasana, al-insan al-kamil, par excellence. ...


Shia pilgrims usually go to Mashad Ali in Najaf for Ziyarat, pray there and read "Ziyarat Amin Allah"[127] or other Ziyaratnames.[128] Under the Safavid Empire, his grave became the focus of much devoted attention, exemplified in the pilgrimage made by Shah Ismail I(d. 1524) to Najaf and Karbala.[9] Aisha was never a bitter enemy of Ali. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... Ziyarat is a pilgrimage to sites associated with the prophet Muhammad, his companions, or other venerated figures in Islamic history, such as Shia imams or Sufi saints. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... This article needs cleanup. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ...


Sufi

Almost all Sufi orders trace their lineage to Muhammad through Ali, an exception being Naqshbandi, who go through Abu Bakr. Even in this order, there is Ja'far al-Sadiq, the great great grandson of Ali. Sufis, whether Sunni or Shi'ite, believe that Ali inherited from Muhammad the saintly power wilayah that makes the spiritual journey to God possible.[1] Imam Ali represents the essence of the teachings of the School of Islamic Sufism. Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Naqshbandi (Naqshbandiyya) is one of the major Sufi orders (tariqa) of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... The term Sulook or Suluk when related to the Islam and sufism means to walk a (spiritual) path (to God). ...


Sufis recite Manqabat Ali in the praise of Ali (Maula Ali), after Hamd and Naat in their Qawwali. A manqabat is a Qawwali or Sufi devotional song, in praise of Ameer - ul - Momineen Hazrat Ali (AS). ... A hamd (حمد) is a poem or song in praise of God. ... A Naat (Persian: نعت ) is poetry that specifically praises Muhammad. ... Qawwali (Urdu: قوٌالی, Hindi: क़वाली) is the devotional music of the Chishti Sufis of the Indian Subcontinent. ...


As a deity

Main article: Ghulat

Some groups believed that Ali was a deity in his own right or he was God incarnate. They are known collectively as 'Nusairi' and are described as ghulat (exaggerators) by the vast majority of Islamic scholars. These groups have, in traditional Islamic thought, left Islam due to their exaggeration of a human being's praiseworthy traits. Ali is recorded as having clearly forbidden those who sought to worship him in his own lifetime.[129] Ghulat (Arabic: غلاة extremists) is the adjectival form of Ghuluww (Arabic: غلو exagerators). ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ...


Non-Muslim view

Main article: Non-Muslim view of Ali

Some of the non-Muslim scholars such as Edward Gibbon[130] and Sir William Muir[131] have praised Ali while some others, such as Lammens[132], have held a negative view of Ali. Some non-Muslim scholars reject all hadith as fabrications, which colors their views. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Sir William Muir (April 27, 1819 - 1905), was a Scottish Orientalist. ... Henri Lammens (1862-1937), was a Belgian born well-known Jesuit Orientalist. ...


Historiography of Ali's life

See also: Historiography of early Islam

The primary sources for scholarship on the life of Ali are the Qur'an and the Hadith, as well as other texts of early Islamic history. The extensive secondary sources include, in addition to works by Sunni and Shia Muslims, writings by Christian Arabs, Hindus, and other non-Muslims from the Middle East and Asia and a few works by modern Western scholars. However, many of the early Islamic sources are colored to some extent by a positive or negative bias towards Ali.[1] The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... A primary source is any piece of information that is used for constructing history as an artifact of its times. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Secondary sources are texts based on primary sources, and involve generalization, analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation. ... Christian Arabs are found mainly in Lebanon, with significant other populations in Iraq (e. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...


There had been a common tendency among the earlier western scholars against these narrations and reports gathered in later periods due to their tendency towards later Sunni and Shia partisan positions; such scholars regarding them as later fabrications. This leads them to regard certain reported events as inauthentic or irrelevant. Leone Caetani considered the attribution of historical reports to Ibn Abbas and Aysha as mostly fictitious while proffering accounts reported without isnad by the early compilers of history like Ibn Ishaq. Wilferd Madelung has rejected the stance of indiscriminately dismissing everything not included in "early sources" and in this approach tendentious alone is no evidence for late origin. According to him, Caetani's approach is inconsistent. Madelung and some later historians do not reject the narrations which have been complied in later periods and try to judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures [133] Leone Caetani (September 12, 1869 - December 25, 1935) was an Italian. ... Abdullah ibn Abbas was a cousin of the prophet Muhammad. ... Aisha or Ayesha (Arabic عائشه for living) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, or simply Ibn Ishaq (Arabic: , meaning the son of Isaac) (died 767, or 761 (Robinson 2003, p. ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung was born on 26 December 1930 in Stuttgart, Germany, where he completed his early education at Eberhard Ludwig Gymnasium. ...


Until the rise of the Abbasid Dynasty, few books were written and most of the reports had been oral. The most notable work of this period is The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays which is written by Sulaym ibn Qays(d.694-714), a companion of Ali.[134] When paper was introduced to Muslim society, numerous monographs were written during 750 and 950 AD. According to Robinson, at least twenty-one separate monographs have been composed on the Battle of Siffin. Abi Mikhnaf (d. 774) is one of the most renowned writers of this period who tried to gather all of the reports. 9th and 10th century historians collected, selected and arranged the available narrations. However, most of these monographs do not exist anymore except for a few which have been used in later works such as History of the Prophets and Kings by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d.932).[135] Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Book of Sulaym ibn Qays is a Hadith collections, collected by Sulaym ibn Qays who entrusted it to Aban ibn abi-Ayyash. ... Sulaym Ibn Qays was one of the Companions of Ali. ... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... Abi Mekhnaf (Yahya ibn Said ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) () was a Muslim historian from the 8th century. ... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian...


Shia of Iraq actively participated in writing monographs but most of those works have been lost. On the other hand, in the 8th and 9th century Ali's descendants such as Muhammad al Baqir and Jafar as Sadiq narrated his quotations and reports which have been gathered in Shia hadith books. The later Shia works written after the 10th century AD are about biographies of The Fourteen Infallibles and Twelve Imams. The earliest surviving work and one of the most important works in this field is Kitab al-Irshad by Shaykh Mufid (d. 1022). The author has dedicated the first part of his book to a detailed account of Ali. There are also some books known as Manāqib which describe Ali's character from a religious viewpoint. Such works also constitute a kind of historiography.[136] Imam Muhammad al Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayn ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan al-Ukbari al-Baghdadi known as al-Shaykh al-Mufid and Ibn al-Muallim for his expertise in philosophical theology (~948-1022 CE) was an eminent Twelver Shiite theologian. ...


See also

Islam Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Religions Alawism Scriptures Quran, Kitab al Majmu Languages Arabic, Turkish The Alawites are a Middle Eastern sect of Shiite Islam[2][3] prominent in Syria. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler Kurdish: ) are a religious, sub-ethnic and cultural community in Turkey numbering in the millions. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Here is a list of famous Muslim reports: // Hadith of the pond of Khumm — Shia and Sunni Mutawatir Hadith of the two weighty things — Shia and Sunni Mutawatir Hadith of Persians and belief — Shia and Sunni Sahih Hadith of the Twelve Successors — Shia and Sunni Sahih... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Nasr, Seyyed Hossein "Ali". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  2. ^ Ahmed (2005), p.234
  3. ^ Madelung (1997), p. 311
  4. ^ Ahmed (2005), p.234
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Ali ibn Abitalib". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved on 2007-10-25. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sunni view of Ali
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tabatabae (1979), p. 191
  8. ^ Ashraf, (2005) p.14
  9. ^ a b c d e f Diana, Steigerwald "Ali ibn Abi Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0028656040. 
  10. ^ See:
    • Ashraf, (2005) pp. 119-120
    • Madelung (1997), pp. 141-145
  11. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.47
    • Holt (1970), pp.70 - 72
    • Tabatabaei (1979), pp.50 - 57 and 192
  12. ^ Madelung (1997), 309-310
  13. ^ Ashraf (2005), p. 5.
  14. ^ Ashraf (2005), p. 6-7.
  15. ^ See:
  16. ^ *Ashraf (2005), p.7.
  17. ^ Ashraf (2005), p. 14.
  18. ^ Watt (1953), p.xii
  19. ^ Watt (1953), p. 86
  20. ^ Qur'an 26:214
  21. ^ See:
    • Tabatabae (1979), p.39.
    • Ashraf (2005), p. 15.
  22. ^ Ashraf (2005), p. 16-26.
  23. ^ Ashraf (2005), pp.28-29
  24. ^ Qur'an 2:207
  25. ^ Tabatabae, Tafsir Al-Mizan
  26. ^ a b c Fatima Bint Muhammad
  27. ^ Ashraf (2005) pp.28-118
  28. ^ Qur'an 33:33
  29. ^ Madelung, 1997, pp. 14 and 15
  30. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 031, Number 5955
  31. ^ See:
    • Ashraf (2005), p.36
    • Merrick (2005), p.247
  32. ^ Khatab, Amal (May 1, 1996). Battles of Badr and Uhud. Ta-Ha Publishers. ISBN 1-897940-39-4. 
  33. ^ Ibn Al Atheer, In his Biography, vol 2 p 107 "لا فتی الا علي لا سيف الا ذوالفقار"
  34. ^ See:
    • Ashraf (2005), pp. 66-68
    • Zeitlin (2007), p. 134
  35. ^ Qur'an 3:59
  36. ^ Qur'an 3:61
  37. ^ See:* Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end of tradition #32
    • Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654
    • Madelung, 1997, pp. 15 and 16
  38. ^ Qur'an 3:61
  39. ^ Tabatabaei, Tafsir al-Mizan, v.6, Al Imran, verses 61-63
  40. ^ * Dakake (2008), pp.34 and 39
  41. ^ See:
    • Dakake (2008), pp.39 and 40
    • Sahih Muslim 031.5920 The Book Pertaining to the Merits of the Companions (Allah Be Pleased With Them) of the Holy Prophet (May Peace Be Upon Him) (Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah)
  42. ^ Dakake (2008), pp.39 and 40
  43. ^ Dakake (2008), p. 34, 36 and 37
  44. ^ See: "من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه"
  45. ^ See:
    • Dakake (2008), pp.43-48
    • Tabatabae (1979), page 40
  46. ^ Dakake (2008), pp.33-35
  47. ^ Madelong, 1997 p.253
  48. ^ Lapidus (2002), p.31 and 32
  49. ^ See:
    • Holt (1970), p.57
    • Madelung (1996), pp.26-27, 30-43 and 356-360
  50. ^ Madelung, 1997, p. 43
  51. ^ "Fatima", Encyclopedia of Islam. Brill Online.
  52. ^ Madelung, 1997, p. 43
  53. ^ "Sunnite". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-04-11. 
  54. ^ Sahih Bukhari 5.57.50
  55. ^ Chirri (1982)
  56. ^ See:
    • Madelung (1996), p.141
    • Ashraf (2005), 99 and 100
  57. ^ a b
  58. ^ See:
  59. ^
  60. ^ History of Mecca, Medina and all other Ziyarats
  61. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Qur'an". Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 2007-11-4. 
  62. ^ See:*Tabatabaee, 1987, chapter 5
    • Observations on Early Qur'an Manuscripts in San'a
    • The Qur'an as Text, ed. Wild, Brill, 1996 ISBN 90-04-10344-9
  63. ^ See:
  64. ^ See
  65. ^ See:
    • Madelung 1997 p. 70 - 72
    • Dakake (2008), p.41
  66. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 87 and 88
  67. ^ Madelung (1997), p. 90
  68. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 92-107
  69. ^ * Madelung (1997), p. 129
  70. ^ See:
    • al-Tabari (1990), v.XV pp.141 and 142
    • Madelung (1997), pp. 111 and 114
  71. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 111-112
  72. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 112, 113 and 130
  73. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 107 and 134
  74. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 109 and 110
  75. ^ See:
    • Holt (1970), pp. 67 - 68
    • Madelung (1997), pp. 107 and 111
  76. ^ Madelung (1997), p.334
  77. ^ Ashraf (2005), p. 119
  78. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 141-143
  79. ^ Hamidullah (1988), p.126
  80. ^ Ashraf (2005), pp. 119-120
  81. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 141-145
  82. ^ Ashraf (2005), pp. 119-120
  83. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 141-145
  84. ^ Ashraf (2005), p. 121
  85. ^ Ashraf (2005), p. 121
  86. ^ See:
    • Madelung (1997), pp.147 and 148
  87. ^ See:
    • Madelung (1997), pp.148 and 149
  88. ^ 'Ali
  89. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p. 46
    • Madelung (1997), pp. 150 and 264
  90. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.47
    • Holt (1970), p.70 - 72
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.50 - 53
  91. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p. 47;
    • Holt (1970), p. 70 - 72;
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p. 53 - 54;
  92. ^ See:
    • Madelung (1997), pp. 241 - 259;
    • Lapidus (2002), p. 47;
    • Holt (1970), pp. 70 - 72;
    • Tabatabaei (1979), pp. 53 - 54;
  93. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 267-269 and 293-307
  94. ^ See:
    • Lapidus (2002), p.47
    • Holt (1970), p.72
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.57
  95. ^ Tabatabae (1979), page 192
  96. ^ Kelsay (1993), p. 92
  97. ^ Madelung (1997), p.309
  98. ^ Al-Mufid (1986)
  99. ^ Redha, Mohammad; Mohammad Agha (1999). Imam Ali Ibn Abi Taleb (Imam Ali the Fourth Caliph, 1/1 Volume). Dar Al Kotob Al ilmiyah. ISBN 2-7451-2532-X. 
  100. ^ a b c ShahKazemi, Reza (2006). "'Ali ibn Abi Talib". Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415966914. Retrieved on 2008-4-02. , Pages 36 and 37
  101. ^ Balkh and Mazar-e-Sharif
  102. ^ Madlong (1997), pp. 313 - 314
  103. ^
    • Lapidus (2002), p.47
    • Holt (1970), p.72
    • Tabatabaei (1979), p.195
    • Madelung (1997), p.334
  104. ^ Madelung (1997), pp.309-310
  105. ^ See:
    • «حدیث متواتر عن النبی نقله العامة و الخاصة»
    شیخ آغابزرگ تهرانی، تاریخ حصر الاجتهاد، تحقیق محمد علی انصاری، قم، موسسة الامام المهدی، 1401 ه ، ص 53.* 10. حاكم نیشابوری، المستدرك علی الصحیحین، تحقیق دكتر یوسف مرعشلی، بیروت، دار المعرفه، 1406ه ، ج 3، ص 126.
    • «رواه احمد من ثمانیة طرق و ابراهیم الثقفی من سبعة الطرق و ابنبطه من ستة طرق و القاضی الجعانی من خمسة طرق و ابنشاهین من اربعة طرق و الخطیب التاریخی من ثلاثة طرق و یحیی بن معین من طریقین و قد رواه السمعانی و القاضی الماوردی و ابومنصور السکری و ابوالصلت الهروی و عبدالرزاق و شریک عن ابنعباس و مجاهد و جابر»
    ابن شهر آشوب، مناقب آل ابی طالب، تحقیق گروهی از اساتید نجف، مطبعه الحیدریه، 1376 ه ، ج 11، ص 314.
  106. ^ School of Islamic Sufism
  107. ^ World of Tasawwuf
  108. ^ Corbin (1993), p.46
  109. ^ Corbin (1993), p. 35
  110. ^ "حفظت سبعين خطبة من خطب الاصلع ففاضت ثم فاضت ) ويعني بالاصلع أمير المؤمنين عليا عليه السلام"مقدمة في مصادر نهج البلاغة
  111. ^ See:
    • Sources of Nahj Al-Balagha
    • Other sources of Ali's quotations
  112. ^ a b Mutahhari, 1997 The Glimpses of Nahj al Balaghah Part I - Introduction
  113. ^ Shah-Kazemi (2006), p.3
  114. ^ Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought and Culture, Vol. VII, No. 1 issue of Al-Tawhid
  115. ^ Collection of Ali's poems (I Arabic)
  116. ^ Shah-Kazemi (2006), p.4
  117. ^ پیدا شدن مجموعه نفیس کلمات امام علی(ع) در واتیكان : «نزهه الأبصار و محاسن الآثار» عنوان کتابی است از ابوالحسن علی بن محمد بن مهدی طبری مامطیری، که دربر دارنده کلمات مولای متقیان امام علی‌بن‌ابیطالب (ع) است و پیشینه ای بیش از نهج‌البلاغه شریف رضی (ره) دارد
  118. ^ Stearns (2001), p.1178
  119. ^ Tabatabae (1979), page 194
  120. ^ Tabatabae (1979), page 196 - 201
  121. ^ Tabari (1990) vol.XIX pp. 178-179
  122. ^ The Sanctified Household
  123. ^ List of Martyrs of Karbala by Khansari "فرزندان اميراالمؤمنين(ع): 1-ابوبكربن علي(شهادت او مشكوك است). 2-جعفربن علي. 3-عباس بن علي(ابولفضل) 4-عبدالله بن علي. 5-عبدالله بن علي العباس بن علي. 6-عبدالله بن الاصغر. 7-عثمان بن علي. 8-عمر بن علي. 9-محمد الاصغر بن علي. 10-محمدبن العباس بن علي."
  124. ^ "Zaynab Bint ʿAlĪ". Encyclopedia of Religion. (2004). Gale Group. Retrieved on 2008-04-10. 
  125. ^ Nasr, Shi'ite Islam, preface, p. 10
  126. ^ Motahhari, Perfect man, Chapter 1
  127. ^ Trust, p. 695
  128. ^ Trust, p. 681
  129. ^ See:
    • Peters (2003), pp.320 and 321
    • Halm (2004), pp. 154- 159
  130. ^ The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, London, 1911, (originally published 1776-88) volume 5, pp. 381-2]
  131. ^ The Life of Mahomet, London, 1877, p. 250
  132. ^ Henri Lammens, Fatima and the Daughters of Muhammad, Rome and paris: Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici, 1912. Translation by Ibn Warraq.
  133. ^ Madelung (1997), pp.xi, 19 and 20
  134. ^ See:
    • Dakake (2007), p.270
    • Landolt (2005), p.59
  135. ^ See:
    • Robinson (2003), pp.28 and 34
  136. ^ Jafarian, Rasul; Translated by Delārām Furādī, Publisher:Message of Thaqalayn

Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba, Abū Muhammad al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī (213-276) was viewd by sunnis as a hadīth Master, foremost philologist, linguist, and man of letters. ... Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizvi was an Shia twelver Islamic scholar. ... Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba, Abū Muhammad al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī (213-276) was viewd by sunnis as a hadīth Master, foremost philologist, linguist, and man of letters. ... Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba, Abū Muhammad al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī (213-276) was viewd by sunnis as a hadīth Master, foremost philologist, linguist, and man of letters. ... For other uses, see Al-Bukhari (name) Popularly known as just Bukhari, Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari (810-870), he was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry,[1] most known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni regard as the most authentic (Arabic... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Masudi (أبو الحسن ، علي بن الحسين المسعودي) (?, Baghdad , Iraq - 956, Cairo, Egypt), was an Arab historian, known as the “Herodotus of the Arabs. ... Izz al-Din `Abd al-Hamid ibn Hibat-Allah ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Mu`tazili (d. ... This article is about the book. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Henri Lammens (1862-1937) was a prominent Belgian-born Jesuit and Orientalist. ... Fatima and the Daughters of Muhammad is a book written by Henri Lammens, Rome and Paris: Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblici, 1912 The book is mentioned in The Quest for the Historical Muhammad by Ibn Warraq. ... Ibn Warraq is the pen name of an author of several books on Islam. ...

References

Books
  • Al-Bukhari, Muhammad. Sahih Bukhari, Book 4, 5, 8. 
  • Ali ibn Abi Talib (1984). Nahj al-Balagha (Peak of Eloquence), compiled by ash-Sharif ar-Radi. Alhoda UK. ISBN 0940368439. 
  • Ali ibn al-Athir. In his Biography, vol 2. 
  • Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid (1986). Kitab Al-Irshad: The Book of Guidance into the Lives of the Twelve Imams. Routledge Kegan & Paul. 0710301510. 
  • Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (1990). History of the Prophets and Kings , translation and commentary issued by R. Stephen Humphreys. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791401545.  (volume XV.)
  • Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (1990). History of the Prophets and Kings , translation and commentary issued by I. K. A. Howard. SUNY Press. ISBN 0395652375.  (volume XIX.)
  • Ashraf, Shahid (2005). Encyclopedia of Holy Prophet and Companions. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. ISBN 8126119403. 
  • Chirri, Mohammad (1982). The Brother of the Prophet Mohammad. Islamic Center of America, Detroit, MI. Alibris. ISBN 8126171834. 
  • Corbin, Henry (1993 (original French 1964)). History of Islamic Philosophy, Translated by Liadain Sherrard, Philip Sherrard. London; Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 0710304161. 
  • Dakake, Maria Massi (2008). The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam. SUNY Press. ISBN 0791470334. 
  • Halm, Halm (2004). Shi'ism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748618880. 
  • Hamidullah, Muhammad (1988). The Prophet's Establishing a State and His Succession. University of California. ISBN: 9698016228. 
  • Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis, Ann Katherine and Swynford Lambton (1970). Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291356. 
  • Ibn Taymiyyah, Taqi ad-Din Ahmad. Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah. (In Arabic)
  • Kelsay, Jhon (1993). Islam and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0664253024. 
  • Khatab, Amal (1996). Battles of Badr and Uhud. Ta-Ha Publishers. ISBN 1-897940-39-4. 
  • Landolt, Hermann; Todd Lawson (2005). Reason and Inspiration in Islam: Theology, Philosophy and Mysticism in Muslim Thought. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1850434700. 
  • Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies, 2nd, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521779333. 
  • Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960. 
  • Merrick, James L. (2005). The Life and Religion of Mohammed as Contained in the Sheeah Traditions. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417955368. 
  • Motahhari, Morteza. Ensane Kamel (Perfect Man), translated by Aladdin Pazargadi, edited by Shah Tariq Kamal. Foreign Department Of Bonyad Be'that. 
  • Motahhari, Morteza (1997). Glimpses of the Nahj Al-Balaghah, translated by Ali Quli Qara'i. Islamic Culture and Relations Organizati. 978-9644720710. 
  • Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. Sahih Muslim, Book 19, 31. 
  • Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad Kazim Qazwini (1992). Fatima the Gracious. Ansariyan Publications. ISBN B000BWQ7N6. 
  • Peters, F. E. (2003). The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691114617. 
  • Robinson, Chase F. (2003). Islamic Historiography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521629365. 
  • Redha, Mohammad; Mohammad Agha (1999). Imam Ali Ibn Abi Taleb (Imam Ali the Fourth Caliph, 1/1 Volume). Dar Al Kotob Al ilmiyah. ISBN 2-7451-2532-X. 
  • Shah-Kazemi, Reza (2006). Justice and Remembrance: Introducing the Spirituality of Imam Ali. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1845115260. 
  • Stearns, Peter N.; William Leonard Langer (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0395652375. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn (1987). The Qur'an in Islam: Its Impact and Influence on the Life of Muslims. Zahra. ISBN 0710302657. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn. Tafsir al-Mizan. 
  • Qommi, Abbas; PearMahumed Ebrahim Trust (translator). The Prayer's AlManac, English version of Mafatih al-Jinan. 
  • Watt, William Montgomery (1953). Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford University Press. 
  • Zeitlin, Irving M. (2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. ISBN 0745639984. 
Encyclopedia
  • Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. (2004). Brill. E-ISSN 1573-3912. 
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. 
  • Martin, Richard C. Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0028656040. 
  • Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1568590504. 
  • Ahmed, M. Mukarram; Muzaffar Husain Syed (2005). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. ISBN 8126123397. 
  • Meri, Josef W.; Jere L. Bacharach (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415966914. 
  • Jones, Lindsay (2004). Encyclopedia of Religion. Gale Group. ISBN 9780028657332. 

For other uses, see Al-Bukhari (name) Popularly known as just Bukhari, Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari (810-870), he was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry,[1] most known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni regard as the most authentic (Arabic... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali izz al-Din ibn al-Athir (May 12 1160–1233) was an Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan al-Ukbari al-Baghdadi known as al-Shaykh al-Mufid and Ibn al-Muallim for his expertise in philosophical theology (c. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Henry Corbin (14 April 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris, France. ... For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah (The Pathway of as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah) is a four volume work by Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiya. ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (lived 810-70), Muslim Author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam, Sahih Muslim, Muslims authentic (collection). He is largely known as simply Al-Muslim. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, á¹£aḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Muhammad at Mecca is a book about Islam writen by the non-Muslim Islamic scholar William Montgomery Watt. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia University started in 1974 at its Center for Iranian (Persian) Studies with the goal to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ...

Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Ali
  • Abdul Rauf, Muhammad; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1996). Imam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib: The First Intellectual Muslim Thinker. Al Saadawi Publications. ISBN 1881963497. 
  • Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (1987 to 1996). History of the Prophets and Kings , translation and commentary issued in multiple volumes. SUNY Press.  volumes 6-17 are relevant.
  • Chirri, Mohammad (1982). The Brother of the Prophet Mohammad. Islamic Center of America, Detroit, MI. Alibris. ISBN 8126171834. 
  • Motahhari, Murtaza (1981). Polarization Around the Character of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. World Organization for Islamic Services, Tehran. 
  • Cleary, Thomas (1996). Living and Dying with Grace: Counsels of Hadrat Ali. Shambhala Publications, Incorporated. 1570622116. 
  • Gordagh, George (1956). Ali, The Voice of Human Justice. ISBN 0-941724-24-7. (in Arabic)
  • Kattani, Sulayman (1983). Imam 'Ali: Source of Light, Wisdom and Might , translation by I.K.A. Howard. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 0950698660. 
  • Lakhani, M. Ali.; Reza Shah-Kazemi and Leonard Lewisohn (2007). The Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam: The Teachings of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Contributor Dr Seyyed Hossein Nasr. World Wisdom, Inc. 1933316268. 

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ...

External links

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ...

Some of the Ali's most famous sermons and letters

Sunni biography

  • Biography from USC's MSA website
  • Ali ibn Abi Talib

Shi'a biography

  • The Life of the Commander of the Faithful Ali b. Abu Talib by Shaykh Mufid in Kitab al-Irshad
  • Website devoted to the Life of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib
  • Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali
Cadet branch of the Banu Quraish
Born: March 17 599 Died: February 28 661
Shī‘a Islam titles
Preceded by
Muhammad
Imam
632661
Succeeded by
Hasan ibn Ali
Disputed by Nizari
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Uthman
Rashidun Caliph
656661
Succeeded by
Hasan ibn Ali

Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan al-Ukbari al-Baghdadi known as al-Shaykh al-Mufid and Ibn al-Muallim for his expertise in philosophical theology (~948-1022 CE) was an eminent Twelver Shiite theologian. ... BanÅ« Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Banu Quraish was the dominant tribe of Mecca. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... Main article: Ismaili The NizārÄ«yya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the IsmāīlÄ« (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of IsmāīlÄ« Muslims. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Abbad ibn Bishr (c. ... `Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib () (c. ... Abd-Allah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس ) was a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. ... `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Asad (Arabic: ‎ ) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Abd-Allah ibn Masud (Arabic: ‎) (d. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Abd-Allah ibn Sailam was a Companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy was a chief of the Arab tribe Banu al-Khazraj at Medina and an opponent of Muhammed, who had undermined Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiys influence in that city. ... Abd Allah al-Zubayr or Ibn Zubayr or Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr (624 - 692) (Arabic: عبد الله بن الزبير) was the son of Zubair, who was the nephew of Khadija, and Asma bint Abu Bakr. ... Abd al-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr was the eldest son of Abu Bakr, the first Sunni caliph. ... Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi was a close Sahaba (companion) of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Abdullah ibn Jafar was the son of Jafar ibn Abu Talib and the nephew of Ali. ... Al-Husayn ibn Sailam (Abdullah ibn Sailam) was a Jewish rabbi in Yathrib who was widely respected and honoured by the people of the city even by those who were not Jewish. ... Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (587 - 668) - born Khalid ibn Zayd ibn Kulayb in Yathrib - hailed from the tribe of Banu Najjar and was a close companion (Arabic: الصحابه, sahaba) of the Prophet Muhammed. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. ... Abu Dujana Simak bin Kharasha was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad Master of Ammar ibn Yasir and his parents See also Family tree of Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah Sahaba External links http://members. ... `Abd al-Rahman ibn Sakhr Al-Azdi (Arabic: ‎) (d. ... Sakhr ibn Harb, (Arabic: صخر بن حرب ) more commonly known as Abu Sufyan, was a leading man of the Quraish of Mecca and a staunch opponent of Muhammad but later adopted Islam. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith is the son of Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib See also Family tree of Abu Sufyan ibn al-Harith Sahaba External links http://web. ... AbÅ« Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-MutÌ£tÌ£alib (Arabic: )(b. ... AbÅ« Ubaidah Ä€mir ibn Abdullāh ibn al-Jarrāḥ (Arabic: ابو عبيده عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح), more commonly known as AbÅ« Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrāḥ, was one of the ten companions of Muhammad popularly known to have been promised Paradise by the Prophet himself. ... Abu al-Aas ibn al-Rabiah was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad belonging to the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish. ... Abu al-Dardaa was a Companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Abu Hudhayfah ibn Utbah full name Abu Hudhaifah bin `Utbah bin Rabi`ah bin `Abd Shams bin `Abd Manaf) (died 633) was a sahaba of Muhammad. ... Abd-Allah ibn Qays, better known as Abu Musa al-Ashari (Arabic: ابوموسی) (d. ... Abu-Said al-Khudri is one of the narrators of hadith most frequently quoted by the Sunnis. ... Akib ibn Usaid, a sahaba of Muhammad, was the first governor of Makkah. ... Al-Alaa Al-Hadrami (Arabic: العلاء بن الحضرمي) was an envoy sent by Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century AD, to spread the message of Islam to the region that is now Bahrain and Qatar. ... Al-Baraa ibn Malik al-Ansari was an eminent companion of the Prophet Muhammad and brother of Anas ibn Malik, the personal aide of the Prophet. ... Al Nahdiah and her daughter who became Muslims were the slaves of a lady of Bani Abdul Dar. ... Aminah bint Wahab (Arabic: آمنة بنت وهب) was Muhammads mother and was married to Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ... An-Numan ibn Muqarrin was one of the Prophet Muhammad’s companions. ... Anas bin Malik ibn Nadar al-Khazraji (c. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ ) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Bilal (Name): Means wetting, moistening in Arabic. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad brother of Abdullah ibn Abbas See also Family tree of Fadl ibn Abbas Sahaba External links http://www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fatima bint Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Umm Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower. ... Fayruz al-Daylami was a Companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Habibah binte Ubayd-Allah is the daughter of Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh and Ramlah binte Abi-Sufyan. ... Halima Sadia was the bedouin wet nurse of the prophet Mohammad. ... Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (Arabic: حمزه بن عبدالمطلب) was the uncle of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Hatib ibn Abi Baitah was sent by Muhammad with a letter to Muqawqis, the vicegerent of Egypt. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad Hisham bin Al-‘Ass, was a brave righteous venerable Companion, who embraced Islam in Mecca and immigrated to Abyssinia. ... Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman (d. ... Hujr ibn Adi was a supporter of Ali, he and his companions were killed by Muawiya I for refusing to Curse Ali. ... now. ... Julaybib was a martyr and one of the less known companions of the Prophet Muhammad in the early Muslim community. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad Khabbab ibn al-Aratt was a boy from Najd, from the tribe of Banu Tamim. ... Khālid ibn Sa`Ä«d ibn al-As (Arabic: ‎ ) was a companion to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... This is a Sahaba of Muhammad. ... Kumayl bin Ziyad an-Nakhai was a confidant amongst the companions of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Caliph and first Shia Imam. ... Khuzaima ibn Thabit Dhush-Shahadatain al-Ansari was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Layla bint al-Minhal (also Laila) (Arabic: ليلى بنت المنهال) was a sahaba of Muhammad Layla was the daughter of Al Minhal and was later also known as Umm Tamim. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad Lubaba bint al-Harith is the mother of Abdullah ibn Abbas and Fadl ibn Abbas, wife of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, and sister of Maymuna bint al-Harith. ... Lubaynah. ... Malik bin Deenar or Malik Ibn Dinar was a Tabi‘in. ... Umar ibn al-Khattabs freedman. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Malik bin Nuwaira was a chief of the Bani Yarbu, a large section of the powerful tribe of Bani Tamim which inhabited the north-eastern region of Arabia, above Bahrain. ... Mus`ab ibn `Umair (Arabic: مصعب بن عمير) was a Sahabi (companion) of Prophet Muhammad. ... venerated by Shia Muslims as one of the Four Companions, who were followers of Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Mugheera ibn Shuba or Mughira ibn Shuba (Arabic: المغيرة بن شعبة بن أبي عامر بن مسعود الثقفي) was one of the more prominent Companions of Muhammad and belonged to the tribe of Thaqif of Taif. ... Muhammad Ibn Maslamah (589 - 666), also known as Muhammad bin Maslama Ansari, was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (631–658) was the son of Islams first caliph, Abu Bakr and Asma bint Umais. ... Muhammad Ibn Maslamah (589 - 666), also known as Muhammad bin Maslama Ansari, was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid was one of the Non-Muslim who interacted with Muhammad. ... Qatadah (Surnamed Abdul Khateb) was a Companion (Sahaba) of the Prophet Muhammad (d. ... Rabah ibn Umayah was a companion (Arabic: Sahaba) of Prophet Muhammad(PBUH). ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad from Muhammads last speach: [Behold! Everything that is jahiliyyah’s3 is trampled under my feet].4 All usury is abolished, but you retain your capital. ... Sa`ad ibn ar-RabÄ«` (Arabic: ‎ ) was a sahaba (companion) of Muhammad. ... Sa`ad ibn AbÄ« Waqqās (Arabic: ‎ ) was an early convert to Islam from the BanÅ« Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe and important companions of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Saffiyah binte ‘Abd al-MutÌ£tÌ£alib was a Sahaba and a prominent person in Islamic history. ... Said ibn Aamir al-Jumahi was a companion of Muhammad and Governor of Homs in Syria during the caliphate of Umar. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Salman the Persian (Arabic سلمان الفارسي Salman Farisi, Persian Salman e Farsi) was one of the Prophet Muhammads companions. ... Suhayb ar-Rumi (born c. ... Ubaydah ibn al-Harith (Arabic: عبيده بن الحارث) is the son of Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib and one of the sahaba of Muhammad Obaidah ibn al-Harith ibn Abdul-Muttalib, was the first Muslim to be martyred in battle. ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad She is the daghter of Zainab bint Muhammad. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Umm Kulthum bint Ali (Arabic: أم كلثوم بنت على ) was the fourth child of Ali ibn Abu Talib (the first Shi’a Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) and Fatima Zahra (the daughter of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad). ... Umm Kulthum bint Jarwila Khuzima (Arabic: ‎) was a sahaba of Muhammad. ... Umm Shareek a lady who accepted Islam was made to stand under the hot sun for three days, and was not allowed to drink water. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Urwah ibn Masud was a Thaqifi chieftain of Taif who became a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Usama ibn Zayd (also spelled Osama)(Arabic: ) was the son of Zayd ibn Harithah, Muhammads freed slave, adopted son and one of the first Muslims. ... Utbah ibn Ghazwan (d. ... Uthman ibn Hunaif Dhush-Shahadatain was one of the companions of Muhammad. ... Wahab ibn `Abd al-Manaf (Arabic: وهب بن عبد مناف) is among the Sahabas ancestors. ... This is a Sahaba of Muhammad When Zaid was older, he retold the hadith of the two weighty things, during the Banu Umayyad rule. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zayd ibn Thabit was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Zaynabs name in Arabic Calligraphy Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي ) (Urdu: زينب بنت على ) was the daughter of the 4th Caliph, the first Shia imam, Ali, and granddaughter of Muhammad. ... Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. ... Khuzaima ibn Thabit Dhush-Shahadatain al-Ansari (Arabic: ‎) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... venerated by Shia Muslims as one of the Four Companions, who were followers of Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... Salman the Persian (Arabic سلمان الفارسي Salman Farisi, Persian Salman e Farsi) was one of the Prophet Muhammads companions. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... Kumayl bin Ziyad an-Nakhai was a confidant amongst the companions of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Caliph and first Shia Imam. ... Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr (631–658) was the son of Islams first caliph, Abu Bakr and Asma bint Umais. ... Meesam Tammar was a slave belonging to a woman of Banu Asad. ... This January 2007 does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hujr ibn Adi was a supporter of Ali, he and his companions were killed by Muawiya I for refusing to Curse Ali. ... Owais Qarni was one of the Sahaba. ... Abd-Allah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس ) was a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Abu al-Aswad Al-Duali (Arabic:أبو الأسود الدؤلي) (c. ... Uthman ibn Hunaif Dhush-Shahadatain was one of the companions of Muhammad. ... Sulaym Ibn Qays was one of the Companions of Ali. ... Umm Salamah was a wife of the Prophet Muhammad. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Cordoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islam - percentage by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Sharia is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ...


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IBHOF / Muhammad Ali (531 words)
Ali was both arrogant and charismatic and generated a wide range of emotions from those who loved him and hated him.
Ali regained the heavyweight crown in 1974 much the way he initially captured the title, by slaying a giant.
Ali successfully defended the title against a host of contenders, including the final fights of his trilogies with Frazier and Ken Norton.
The American Law Institute (242 words)
ALI, through a careful and deliberative process, drafts and then publishes various Restatements of the Law, model codes, and legal studies to promote the clarification and simplification of the law and its better adaptation to social needs, to secure the better administration of justice, and to encourage and carry on scholarly and scientific legal work.
ALI members are invited to share their views on issues relating to capital punishment.
Cosponsored by ALI and the European Corporate Governance Institute, this conference was held on Tuesday, October 9 at the SEC in Washington, D.C. The program featured an examination of the relationship between the effective regulation and the performance of capital markets.
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