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Encyclopedia > Alhambra Decree
A signed copy of the Edict of Expulsion

The Alhambra Decree was issued on March 31, 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, married in 1469), following the final triumph over the Moors after the fall of Granada. The decree ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Spain and its territories and possessions by July 31, 1492. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Copy of the spanish edict of expulsion File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Copy of the spanish edict of expulsion File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella I (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... July 31 is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ...


It is as a result of this expulsion that the Sephardim (Spanish Jews) dispersed throughout the Maghreb and south-eastern Europe, intermingling in many places with the Mizrachi (Eastern Jews) communities. Sephardim (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Sfaradim, Tiberian Hebrew ) are a subgroup of Jews, generally defined in contrast to Ashkenazim and/or . ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the expulsion of the Jewish people out of the Roman province of Judea. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa. ...


Hundreds of thousands of Jews eventually left Spain after the decree was issued, though many thousand more chose to convert to Christianity and remain in Spain. However, many of these converts were later targeted as "New Christians" (or "conversos," "marranos") when the Spanish Inquisition came in to full effect. Many (perhaps more than half) went to Portugal, where their presence, under Spanish pressure, would later be forbidden as well (see Portuguese Inquisition). The Jewish community in Portugal (perhaps then some 10% of that country's population[citation needed]) were then declared Christians by Royal decree unless they left, but since their departure was severely hindered by the King (who needed their expertise for Portugal's overseas enterprises), the vast majority was forced to stay as nominal Christians. Jews were banished from Portugal in 1496. ... Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... The term marrano refers to the Sephardim, Jews from the Iberian peninsula, who were forced to adopt the identity of Christians, either through coercion as consequence of the cruel persecution of Jews by the Spanish Inquisition, or for forms sake, and became Catholic converts. ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ...


These "New Christians" were eventually forced to either leave the countries, face the death penalty, or convert to Catholicism and intermarry with the local populace by the dual Inquisitions. They would comprise a significant and self-aware minority in Spain and Portugal (as "crypto-Jews") until legal discrimination against them was removed at the turn of the 19th century. Many of them, however, left the Iberian peninsula altogether and settled in North Africa or elsewhere in Europe, most notably in the Netherlands and England (see Sephardic Jews in the Netherlands, History of the Marranos in England). Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... // History As a result of the Inquisition, many Sephardim (so-called Spanish Jews) left the Iberian peninsula at the end of the 15th century and throughout the 16th century, in search for religious freedom. ... History of Marranos in England: (This page is part of the History of the Jews in England) // Arrival of Maranos Toward the middle of the seventeenth century a considerable number of Marrano merchants settled in London and formed there a secret congregation, at the head of which was Antonio Fernandez...


Don Isaac Abravanel and the Alhambra decree

Legend does claim that Don Isaac Abravanel, who had previously ransomed 480 Jewish Moriscos of Malaga from the Catholic monarchs by a payment of 20,000 doubloons, now offered them 600,000 ducats for the revocation of the edict. It is said also that Ferdinand hesitated, but was prevented from accepting the offer by Torquemada, the grand inquisitor, who dashed into the royal presence and, throwing a crucifix down before the king and queen, asked whether, like Judas, they would betray their Lord for money. This article or section should be merged with Don Isaac Abravanel. ... The term doubloon (from Spanish doblón, meaning double) refers to a gold coin minted in Spain, Mexico, Peru, or Nueva Granada. ... The ducat (IPA: ) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Its weight is 3. ... Grand Inquisitor Torquemada Tomás de Torquemada (1420 - September 16, 1498) was a fifteenth century Spanish Dominican, and an Inquisitor General. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see...


The 1988 novel The Alhambra Decree by David Raphael contains a fictionalized response to the Alhambra decree attributed to Rabbi Don Isaac Abrabanel. It is commonly (and mistakenly) cited as genuine [1]. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Don Isaac ben Judah or Yitzchak ben Yehuda Abravanel (Hebrew: יצחק בן יהודה אברבנאל) was a Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier. ...


The Alhambra Decree (trans.)

The Kings Ferdinand and Isabella, by the grace of God, King and Queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon and other dominions of the crown - to the prince Juan, to dukes, marquees, counts, the holy orders, priors, knight commanders, lords of the castles, cavaliers, and to all Jews, men and women of whatever age, and to anyone else this letter may concern - that health and grace be unto them.


It is well known that in our dominion, there are certain bad Christians that became 'Judaized' and committed apostasy against our Holy Catholic faith, much of it the cause of interactions between Jews and Christians. Therefore, in the year 1480, we ordered that the Jews be separated from the cities and towns in our domains and that they be given separate sectors, hoping that with such separation the situation would be remedied, and we ordered that the Inquisition be established in such domains; and at the end of twelve years it has worked and the Inquisition has found many guilty persons. Furthermore we are informed by the Inquisition and others of the great harm that persists to the Christians as they interact with the Jews, and in turn these Jews try by all manners to subvert our Holy Catholic faith and are trying to prevent faithful Christians to grow close to their beliefs.


These Jews have instructed these Christians in the ceremonies and observances of their laws, circumcising their children, and giving them books with which to pray, and declaring unto them the days of fasting, and meeting with them to teach them the histories of their laws, notifying them when to expect the celebration of Passover and how to observe it, giving them the unleavened bread and ceremonially prepared meats, and instructing them in things from which they must abstain, both with regard to food items and other things requiring observance of the laws of Moses, making them fully understand that there is no other law or truth outside of this. And this is made clear based on the confessions from such Jews as well as those perverted by them that it has resulted in great damage and detriment of our Holy Catholic faith.


And since we knew the true remedy of such damages and difficulties lay in the interfering of all communications between the said Jews and the Christians and sending them forth from all our dominions, we sought to content ourselves with ordering the said Jews from all the cities and villages and places of Andalusia where it appeared that they had done the most damage, and believing that this would suffice so that those and other cities and villages and places in our reigns and holdings would be effective and would cease to commit the aforesaid. And because we have been informed that neither this, neither is the case nor the justices done for some of the said Jews found very culpable in the said crimes and transgressions against our Holy Catholic faith have been a complete remedy to obviate and to correct such opprobrium and offense. And to the Christian faith and religion it appears every day that the said Jews increase in continuing their evil and harmful purposes wherever they reside and converse; and because there is no place left whereby to more offend our holy faith, as much as those which God has protected to this day as in those already affected, it is left for this Holy Mother Church to mend and reduce the matter to its previous state, due to the frailty of the human being, it could occur that we could succumb to the diabolical temptation that continually combats us, therefore, if this be the principal cause, the said Jews if not converted must be expelled from the kingdom. Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ...


Because when a grave and detestable crime is committed by some members of a given group it is reasonable that the group be dissolved or annihilated, and the minors by the majors will be punished one by the other; and those who permit the good and honest in the cities and the villages, and by their contact may harm others, must be expelled from the group of peoples, and despite minor reasons, will be harmful to the Republic, and all the more so for the majority of these crimes, would be dangerous and contagious. Therefore, the Council of eminent men and cavaliers of our reign and of other persons of knowledge and conscience of our Supreme Council, and after much deliberation, it is agreed and resolved that all Jews and Jewesses be ordered to leave our kingdoms and that they not be allowed to ever return.


We further order in this edict that all Jews and Jewesses of whatever age that reside in our domain and territories leave with their sons and daughters, servants and relatives large or small, of all ages, by the end of July of this year, and that they dare not return to our lands and that they do not take a step across, such that if any Jew who does not accept this edict is found in our kingdom and domains or returns will be sentenced to death and confiscation of all their belongings.


We further order that no person in our kingdom, notwithstanding social status, including nobles, that hide or keep or defend any Jew or Jewess, be it publicly or secretly, from the end of July and following months, in their homes or elsewhere in our reign, risking as punishment loss of all their fiefs and fortresses, privileges and hereditary rights.


So be it that the Jews may dispose of their households and belongings in the given time period, for the present we provide our compromise of protection and security so that by the end of the month of July they may sell and exchange their belongings and furniture and any other item, and dispose of them freely per their assessment, that during said time no one is to do them harm or injury or injustice to their persons or to their goods, which would be unjustified, and those who would transgress this shall incur the punishment that befalls those who violate our royal security.


We grant and give permission to the above mentioned Jews and Jewesses to take with them and out of our reigns their goods and belongings, by sea or by land, excepting gold and silver or minted money or any other item prohibited by the laws of the kingdom.


Therefore, we order all councils, magistrates, cavaliers, shield-bearers, officials, good men of the city of Burgos and of other cities and villages of our kingdom and dominions, and all our vassals and subjects, that they observe and comply with this letter and all that is contained in it, and that they give all the type of help and favor necessary for its execution, subject to punishment by our sovereign grace and by confiscation of all their goods and offices for our royal house. And so that this may come to the notice of all, and that no one may pretend ignorance, we order that this edict be proclaimed in all the plazas and meeting places of all cities and in the major cities and villages of the diocese, that it be done by the town crier in the presence of the public scribe, and that no one nor anybody do the contrary of what has been defined, subject to the punishment by our sovereign grace and annulation of their offices and confiscation of their goods to whosoever does the contrary.


And we order that it be evidenced and proven to the court with signed testimony specifying the manner in which the edict has been carried out.


Given in this city of Granada the thirty first day of March in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1492.


Signed, I, the King, I the Queen, and Juan de Coloma, Secretary of the King and Queen who has written it by order of our Majesties.


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Alhambra decree

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alhambra decree - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (753 words)
Alhambra Decree was issued in 1492 by the Catholic monarchs, ( Isabella of Castile married to Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469), of Spain, following the final triumph over the Moors after the fall of Granada.
The decree ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Spain and its territories and possessions by July 31, 1492.
The Alhambra Decree was accepted in due course by much of the community, a notable exception being Rabbi Don Isaac Abravanel, who vigorously opposed it, seeking to have the monarchs annul it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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