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Encyclopedia > Algonquian languages
Algonquian
Algonkian
Geographic
distribution:
North America
Genetic
classification
:
Algic
 Algonquian
Subdivisions:
Plains Algonquian
Central Algonquian
Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages

The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). Speakers of Algonquian languages stretch from the east coast of North America all the way to the Rocky Mountains. The proto-language from which all of the languages of the family descend, Proto-Algonquian, was spoken at least 3,000 years ago, though there is still no scholarly consensus as to where this language was spoken. Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Algic (also Algonquian-Wiyot-Yurok or Algonquian-Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... The Eastern Algonquian languages are a subgroup of the larger Algonquian family, itself a member of the Algic family; prior to European contact, the family consisted of around 17 languages, which streched from Newfoundland south into North Carolina. ... Image File history File links Algonquian_langs. ... Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ... The Algic (also Algonquian-Wiyot-Yurok or Algonquian-Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... Wiyot (also Wishosk) is an extinct Algic language. ... Yurok (also Weitspekan) is a moribund Algic language. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Confectionary Company, see Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory. ... Proto-language may refer to either: a language that is the common ancestor of a set of related languages (a language family), or a system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ... Proto-Algonquian (commonly abbreviated PA) is the name given to the posited proto-language of the languages of the Algonquian family. ...


The Algonquian language family should be carefully distinguished from Algonquin, which is only one language of the family. Algonquin (or Algonkin) is an Algonquian language closely related to Ojibwe. ...

Contents

Family division

This large family of 27 languages can be divided roughly into three major groupings — Central, Plains, and Eastern Algonquian. The languages are listed below along with dialects and subdialects. This classification follows Goddard (1996) and Mithun (1999).


A. Central and Plains

I. Plains
1. Arapahoan
  • Arapaho (also known as Arapahoe or Arapafoe)
  • Besawunena
  • Gros Ventre (also known as Atsina, Aáni, Ahahnelin, Ahe, A'aninin, A'ane, A'ananin)
  • Nawathinehena
  • Haʔanahawunena
2. Blackfoot (also known as Blackfeet)
3. Cheyenne
  • Cheyenne
  • Sutaio (also known as Soʔtaaʔe)
II. Central
4. Cree (also known as Cree-Montagnais or Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi)
Eastern:
  • East Cree (also known as James Bay Cree or Eastern Cree)
  • Naskapi
  • Montagnais (also known as Innu-aimun or Innu)
Western:
  • Atikamekw (also known as Attikamek, Attikamekw, Atikamek or Tête de Boule)
  • Bungee (also known as Bungi, Bungie, Bungay, or Red River Dialect) (mixed language based on Plains Cree and Scottish Gaelic)
  • Eastern Swampy & Moose Cree
  • Western Swampy Cree
  • Woods Cree
  • Plains Cree
  • Michif (also known as Mitchif, Métif, or Métchif) (mixed language based on Plains Cree and French)
5. Fox (also known as Fox-Sauk-Kickapoo or Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo)
6. Menominee (also known as Menomimi)
7. Miami-Illinois
8. Ojibwa (also known as Ojibway, Ojibwe, Chippeway, Ojibwa-Potawatomi, Ojibwa-Potawatomi-Ottawa, or Anishinaabemowin)
9. Potawatomi (also known as Ojibwa-Potawatomi)
10. Shawnee

B. Eastern The Arapaho language (also Arapahoe) language is a Plains Algonquian language spoken almost entirely by elders in Wyoming. ... The Gros Ventres (French for Big Bellies) is a name given to two distinct Native American groups in North America. ... Blackfoot is the name of any of the Algonquian languages spoken by the Blackfoot tribe of Native Americans, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America. ... The Cheyenne language (Tsėhesenėstsestotse or, in easier spelling, Tsisinstsistots) is a Native American language spoken in present-day Montana and Oklahoma, USA. It is part of the Algonquian language family. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of the Quebec-Labrador peninsula in Eastern Canada. ... The Atikamekw language (also spelled Attikamek) is an Algonquian language, and is a dialect of the Cree language complex. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Plains Cree is an Algonquian language, often considered a dialect of Cree, spoken by about 34,000 people in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Montana. ... Michif (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif) is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the northern United States, who are the descendants of First Nations women (mainly Cree, Nakota and Ojibwe) and fur trade workers of European ancestry (mainly French Canadians). ... Fox (known by a variety of different names, including Mesquakie, Meskwaki, Mesquakie-Sauk, Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo, Sac and Fox, and others) is an Algonquian Indian language, spoken by around 1000 Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo in various locations in the Midwestern United States. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... For the Tenacious D song, see Kickapoo. ... The Mascouten were an American Indian tribe, originally from what is now the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The Menominee language is an Algonquian language spoken on the Menominee (Menomini) Nation lands in Northern Wisconsin in the United States. ... The Miami language is a Native American language formerly spoken in the United States, primarily in northern Indiana and Ohio by members of the Miami tribe. ... The Peoria tribe was one of the Native American tribes that formed the Illiniwek tribal group in what is now the Midwest of the United States of America. ... The Wea were a Native American tribe of the Ohio Country, sometimes considered a subdivision of the Miami tribe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Miami language. ... The Anishinaabe language or the Ojibwe group of languages or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ... The Saulteaux are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Anishininimowin (also known as Oji-Cree or Severn Ojibwa) is the language of the Nishnawbe-Aski (or Oji-Cree) First Nation of Ontario. ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Mississaugas are a native people located in Southern Ontario. ... Algonquin (or Algonkin) is an Algonquian language closely related to Ojibwe. ... Potawatomi (also spelled Pottawatomie; in Potawatomi Bodéwadmimwen or Bodéwadmi Zheshmowen or Neshnabémwen) is a Central Algonquian language and is spoken around the Great Lakes in Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as in Kansas in the United States, and in southern Ontario in Canada, by fewer than 50... Distribution of the Shawnee language around 1650 The Shawnee language is a Central Algonquian language spoken in parts of central and northeastern Oklahoma by only around 200 Shawnee, making it very endangered. ... The Eastern Algonquian languages are a subgroup of the larger Algonquian family, itself a member of the Algic family; prior to European contact, the family consisted of around 17 languages, which streched from Newfoundland south into North Carolina. ...

11. Eastern Abenaki (also known as Abenaki or Abenaki-Penobscot)
  • Penobscot (also known as Old Town or Old Town Penobscot)
  • Caniba
  • Aroosagunticook
  • Pigwacket
12. Western Abenaki (also known as Abnaki, St. Francis, Abenaki, or Abenaki-Penobscot)
13. Etchemin (uncertain - See Note 1)
14. Lenape (also known as Delaware)
  • Munsee
  • Northern Unami
  • Southern Unami
15. Loup A (probably Nipmuck) (uncertain - See Note 1)
16. Loup B (uncertain - See Note 1)
17. Mahican (also known as Mohican)
  • Stockbridge
  • Moravian
18. Maliseet (also known as Maliseet-Passamquoddy or Malecite-Passamquoddy)
19. Massachusett (also known as Natick)
  • North Shore
  • Natick
  • Wampanoag
  • Nauset
  • Cowesit
20. Míkmaq (also known as Micmac, Mi’kmaq, Mi’gmaq, or Mi’kmaw)
21. Mohegan-Pequot
22. Nanticoke (also known as Nanticoke-Conoy)
  • Nanticoke
  • Choptank
  • Piscataway (also known as Conoy)
23. Narragansett
24. Pamlico (also known as Carolina Algonquian, Pamtico, Pampticough, Christianna Algonquian)
25. Powhatan (also known as Virginia Algonquian)
26. Quiripi-Naugatuck-Unquachog
27. Shinnecock (uncertain)

Abenaki is the cover term for a complex of dialects of one of the Eastern Algonquian languages, originally spoken in what is now Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine. ... ¢ Seal of the Penobscot Indian Nation of Maine For other uses, see Penobscot (disambiguation). ... Western Abnaki is an indigenous language spoken by around 20 individuals along the St. ... Etchemin was a language of the Algonquian language family, spoken in early colonial times on the coast of Maine. ... Lenape (also called Delaware) is a language in the Algonquian language family spoken by the Lenape people. ... Mahicans settled the Hudson River south of the Mohawk River, moved east to Massachusetts, then to Wisconsin. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ... The Massachusett language was a Native American language, a member of the Algonquian language family. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... The Míkmaq language (also spelled Mi’kmaq, Mi’gmaq, and Micmac) is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by around 7,300 Míkmaq in Canada, and another 1,200 in United States, out of a total ethnic Míkmaq population of roughly 20,000. ... The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] who were jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ... The Pequot are a tribal nation of Native Americans who, in the 17th century, inhabited much of what is now Connecticut. ... Nanticoke is the name of several places in North America: Nanticoke in New York, United States Nanticoke in Pennsylvania, United States Nanticoke in Ontario, Canada Nanticoke could also refer to: Nanticoke, an Algonquian language. ... Tribal flag // The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... The Pamlico were a Native American people of North Carolina, U.S.A.. They spoke Algonquian. ... The Powhatan language, also known as Virginia Algonquian is an extinct language spoken by the Powhatan people of tidewater Virginia in the late 16th and early 17th century. ... Quiripi is the name of a Native American language of the Algonquin language family, specifically the Algonquin-Mosan branch. ... Naugatuck is a borough located in New Haven County, Connecticut. ... The Shinnecock Indian Nation is an Algonquian tribe in Southampton (town), New York on the east end of Long Island in the Hamptons. ...

Notes

  1. Etchemin and Loup were ethnographic terms used inconsistently by French colonists and missionaries. There is some debate whether distinct groups could ever have been identified with those names.

    Etchemin is only known from a list of numbers from people living between the St. John and Kennebec Rivers recorded in 1609 by Marc Lescarbot. The numbers in this list share features in common with different Algonquian languages from Massachusetts to New Brunswick, but as a set do not match any other known Algonquian language. Certain intriguiguing similarities between the Etchimin list and Wampanoag might suggest that languages closely related to Wampanoag might have been spoken as far north as the coast of Maine in the precontact period. The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... The course of the Kennebec River The Kennebec River is a river, 150 mi (240 km) long, in the state of Maine in the northeastern United States. ... Marc Lescarbot (c. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ...

The name Etchemin has also been applied to other material from what many scholars of Algonquian ethnography and linguistics believe to be Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, or Eastern Abenaki. The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ...


Some of the attested Loup vocabulary can be identified with different eastern Algonquian communities, including the Mahican, Maliseet, Passamaquoddy and other groups. Loup A and Loup B refer to two vocabulary lists which cannot be conclusively identified with another known community. Loup A is most likely Nipmuck, and is also somewhat similar to the handful of words attested for Agawam. Loup B seems like a composite of different dialects. It is closest to Mahican and Western Abenaki. They also may represent unknown tribes or bands, or may have been interethnic trade pidgins of some kind. Documentary evidence for Loup B is very thin (14 pages); the documentary evidence for Loup A is much more extensive (124 pages), being documented in a manuscript dictionary from the French missionary period. See Uncertain/Extinct Algonquian Languages. Mahicans settled the Hudson River south of the Mohawk River, moved east to Massachusetts, then to Wisconsin. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ... Nipmuck emblem The Nipmuck are an aboriginal North American people, belonging to the family of Algonquian peoples, currently living in and around the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation of Webster, Massachusetts. ... Agawam is a city located in Hampden County, Massachusetts Agawam (grape) is a hybrid grape variety Camp Agawam is a boys summer camp in Raymond. ... Mahicans settled the Hudson River south of the Mohawk River, moved east to Massachusetts, then to Wisconsin. ...


Genetic and areal relationships

It is important to note that only Eastern Algonquian is a true genetic subgrouping. The Plains Algonquian and the Central Algonquian groups are not genetic groupings but rather areal groupings. This means that Blackfoot is no more closely related to Cheyenne than it is to Menominee. However, these areal groups often do have certain shared linguistic features, but the features in question are attributed to language contact. While Paul Proulx recently argued that this traditional view is incorrect, and that Central Algonquian (in which he includes the Plains Algonquian languages) is a genetic subgroup, with Eastern Algonquian now being seen as several different subgroups, this point of view has failed to gain acceptance by any other specialists in the Algonquian languages. Language contact occurs when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. ...


Instead, the commonly-accepted subgrouping scheme is that proposed by Ives Goddard (1994); the essence of this proposal is that Proto-Algonquian originated to the west, perhaps in the Plateau region of Idaho and Oregon, and then moved east, dropping off subgroups as it went along. By this scenario, Blackfoot was the first language to branch off, which coincides well with its position as the most divergent language of Algonquian. In west-to-east order, the subsequent branchings were Arapaho-Gros Ventre, Cree-Montagnais, Menominee, Cheyenne, then the core Great Lakes languages (Ojibwe-Potawatomi, Shawnee, Sauk-Fox-Kickapoo, and Miami-Illinois), then finally, Proto-Eastern Algonquian. This historical reconstruction accords best with the observed levels of divergence within the family, whereby the most divergent languages are found furthest west (since they constitute the earliest branchings), and the shallowest subgroupings are found furthest to the east (Eastern Algonquian, and arguably Core Central). Goddard also points out that there is clear evidence for pre-historical contact between Eastern Algonquian and Cree-Montagnais as well as between Cheyenne and Arapaho-Gros Ventre, and that there has long been especially extensive back-and-forth influence between Cree and Ojibwe. R. H. Ives Goddard, III is curator and senior linguist in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution. ...


Algonquian is sometimes said to have included the extinct Beothuk language of Newfoundland, although evidence is scarce and poorly recorded, and the claim is mainly based on geographic proximity. Etchimin and the pre-colonial language of the Lumbees may also have been Algonquian languages, but in both cases documentary evidence is at best very weak. There is no documentary evidence whatsoever of an aboriginal Lumbee language. Pre-contact distribution of Beothuk language The Beothuk language (also Beothukan) was the language spoken by the Beothuk indigenous people of Newfoundland. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... The Lumbee are a Native American tribe of North Carolina, though their origins are disputed. ...


Grammatical features

The Algonquian language family is renowned for its complex polysynthetic morphology and sophisticated verb system. Statements that take many words to say in English can be expressed with a single "word". Ex: (Menominee) enae:ni:hae:w "He is heard by higher powers" or (Plains Cree) kāstāhikoyahk "it frightens us". Languages in this family typically mark at least two distinct third persons, so that speakers can keep track of central characters in narrative. These languages have been famously studied in the structuralist tradition by Leonard Bloomfield and Edward Sapir among others. Many of these languages are extremely endangered today, while others have died completely. Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Menominee language is an Algonquian language spoken on the Menominee (Menomini) Nation lands in Northern Wisconsin in the United States. ... Plains Cree is an Algonquian language, often considered a dialect of Cree, spoken by about 34,000 people in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Montana. ... Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 - April 18, 1949) was an American linguist, whose influence dominated the development of structural linguistics in America between the 1930s and the 1950s. ... Edward Sapir. ...


For information on the peoples speaking Algonquian languages, see Algonquian peoples. Algonquian Indians are one of the most populous and widespread North American Native groups, with tribes originally numbering in the hundreds, and hundreds of thousands who still identify with various Algonquian peoples. ...


Vocabulary

See the lists of words in the Algonquian languages and the list of words of Algonquian origin at Wiktionary, the free dictionary and Wikipedia's sibling project.

Loan words It has been suggested that French Wiktionary be merged into this article or section. ...

Main article: List of English words of Algonquian origin

Because Algonquian languages were some of the first that Europeans came in contact with in North America, the language family has given many words to English. Many eastern and midwestern U.S. states have names of Algonquian origin (Massachusetts, Connecticut, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, etc.), as do many cities: Milwaukee, Chicago, et al. The capital of Canada is named after an Algonquian nation - the Odawa. For a more detailed treatment of geographical names in three Algonquian languages see the external link to the book by Trumbull. This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42°30N to 47°3N  - Longitude 86°49W to 92°54W Population  Ranked... Nickname: Cream City, Brew City, Mil Town, The City of Festivals Location of Milwaukee in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin Coordinates: County Milwaukee Government  - Mayor Tom Barrett Area  - City  97 sq mi (251. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government... The Ottawa (also Odawa or Odaawa) are a Native American people. ...


Bibliography

  • Bloomfield, Leonard. (1946) "Algonquian". Linguistic Structures of Native America, ed. Harry Hoijer. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology: 6. New York.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Goddard, Ives. 1994. The West-to-East Cline in Algonquian Dialectology. In William Cowan, ed., Papers of the 25th Algonquian Conference 187-211. Ottawa: Carleton University.
  • Grimes, Barbara F. (Ed.). (2000). Ethnologue: Languages of the world, (14th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-106-9. Online edition: http://www.ethnologue.com/, accessed on Mar. 3, 2005.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Proulx, Paul (2003). "The Evidence on Algonquian Genetic Grouping: A Matter of Relative Chronology." Anthropological Linguistics 45:201-25.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Algonquian languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1234 words)
The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California).
Algonquian is sometimes said to have included the extinct Beothuk language of Newfoundland, although evidence is scarce and poorly recorded, and the claim is mainly based on geographic proximity.
The Algonquian language family is renowned for its complex polysynthetic morphology and sophisticated verb system.
Native American Languages - Search View - MSN Encarta (3303 words)
Languages that have switch reference indicate whether a subject or object of a clause is the same as or different from the subject or object of an earlier clause.
Algonquian languages, Southern Paiute, O’Odham, and Yuman languages have this trait in North America, Jicaque (Tol) in Middle America, and Ecuadorian Quechua (Napo Quichua) in South America.
Languages such as Russian and Latin, which distinguish the role of a noun (such as subject, direct object, or indirect object) by case marking are said to have nominal case systems.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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