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Encyclopedia > Algerian War
Algerian War

Barricade Week in Alger, January 1960.
Date 1 November 195419 March 1962
Location Algeria
Result Algerian independence
Belligerents
Flag of Algeria FLN
(1954-62)
Flag of Algeria MNA
(1954-62)
Flag of France France
(1954-62)
Flag of France FAF
(1960-61)
Flag of France OAS
(1961-62)
Commanders
Mostefa Benboulaïd
Ferhat Abbas
Houari Boumedienne
Hocine Aït Ahmed
Ahmed Ben Bella
Krim Belkacem
Larbi Ben M'Hidi
Rabah Bitat
Mohamed Boudiaf
Messali Hadj
Paul Cherrière (1954-55)
Henri Lorillot (1955-56)
Raoul Salan (1956-58)
Maurice Challe (1958-60)
Jean Crepin (1960-61)
Fernand Gambiez (1961)
Charles Ailleret (1961-62)
Said Boualam
Pierre Lagaillarde
Raoul Salan
Edmond Jouhaud
Strength
40,000 400,000[1]
60,000 Harki
3,000 (OAS)
Casualties and losses
141,000+ dead, 160,000 wounded 28,500 dead
65,000 wounded
100 dead (OAS)
2,000 jailed (OAS)

The Algerian War (French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962), also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria's independence from France. One of the most important decolonization wars, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians, use of torture on both sides and counter-terrorism operations by the French Army. Effectively started on 1 November 1954 during the Toussaint Rouge (Red All Saints day), the conflict shook the French Fourth Republic's (1946–58) foundations and led to its collapse. Under directives from Guy Mollet's (SFIO) government, the French Army initiated a campaign of "pacification" of what was still considered at the time to be fully part of France. This "public order operation" quickly grew to a size where it could be called a full-scale war. Algerians, who at first were mostly in favor of peace and tranquillity, turned increasingly toward the goal of independence, supported by other Arab countries and, more generally, by worldwide public opinion fueled by anti-colonialist ideas. Meanwhile, the French divided themselves on the issues of "French Algeria" (l'Algérie Française), of the maintenance of the status quo, the acceptance of negotiations and of an intermediate status between independence and complete integration in the French Republic, and complete independence. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2806x2031, 5035 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Algerian War of Independence ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The National Liberation Front (French: Front de libération nationale aka FLN, Arabic: Jabhah al-TaḩrÄ«r al-WaÅ£anÄ«) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Mouvement National Algérien is a movement founded by Messali Hadj between the two World Wars. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Front de lAlgérie Française (French Algerian Front, FAF) was a political and militant movement in favour of French Algeria, created in 1960 in Algiers. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... Ferhat Abbas was born in Douar Chemala near Jijel, Algeria on 24 October 1899 and died on 23 December 1985. ... Houari Boumédiènne (original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba) (August 23, 1932 - December 27, 1978) was President of Algeria from 19 June 1965 to 27 December 1978 (Chairman of the Revolutionary Council until 12 December 1976). ... Hocine Aït Ahmed Hocine Ait Ahmed (born 20 August 1926 in Ain El Hammam, Kabylie) is an Algerian politician. ... Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ... Krim Belkacem Krim Belkacem (September 14, 1922 - October 18, 1970) was an Algerian revolutionary fighter and politician. ... Larbi Ben Mhidi (1923 - 1957) was a prominent Algerian leader during the war of independence. ... Rabah Bitat (December 19, 1925 - April 9/10, 2000) was the acting President of Algeria from 27 December 1978 to 9 February 1979. ... Muhammad Boudiaf (June 23, 1919 - June 29, 1992), also called Si Tayeb el Watani, was an Algerian political leader and one of the founders of the revolutionary National Liberation Front (FLN) that led the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962). ... Messali Hadj (مصالي الحاج) was the founder of the Mouvement National Algérien, an early Algerian nationalist group and rival of the Front de Libération Nationale. ... clarified and proofread. ... Maurice Challe (5 September 1905 - 8 January 1979) was a French general during the Algerian War, one of four generals who took part in the Algiers putsch. ... Pierre Lagaillarde (Courbevoie, 15 May 1931) was a founder of the Organisation armée secrète (OAS) French terrorist group, opposed to Algerian independence. ... clarified and proofread. ... Edmond Jouhard (April 2, 1905 – September 4, 1995) was one of four French generals who briefly staged a putch in Algeria in 1961. ... Harki (from the Arabic Haraka: movement) was the generic term for Muslim Algerians serving as auxiliaries with the French Army, during the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 to 1962. ... The Algiers putsch (or Generals putsch) took place on 23 April 1961 in the midst of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962). ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... The term maquis may refer to: The Cameroonian maquis, guerrillas from the outlawed Union des Populations Camerounaises political party; The Corsican maquis democracy of the 18th century; The maquis shrublands found in France, Corsica, and elsewhere around the Mediterranean Sea; The French maquis, who resisted the Nazis during World War... Terrorist redirects here. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 - 3 October 1975) was a French Socialist politician. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ...


Because of the instability of the French parliament the French Fourth Republic was dissolved with Charles de Gaulle's return to power during the May 1958 crisis and his subsequent founding of the Fifth Republic and the establishment of a new Constitution constructed by himself and his Gaullist followers. De Gaulle's return to power was supposed to ensure Algeria's continued occupation and integration with the French Community, which had replaced the French Union which gathered France's colonies. However, De Gaulle progressively shifted in favor of Algerian independence, purportedly seeing it as inevitable. De Gaulle thus engaged in negotiations with the FLN, leading to the March 1962 Evian Accords which resulted in the independence of Algeria. After the failed April 1961 Algiers putsch organized by Generals hostile to the negotiations headed by Michel Debré's Gaullist government, the OAS (Organisation de l'armée secrète), which grouped various opponents of Algerian independence, initiated a campaign of bombings as well as peaceful strikes and demonstrations in Algeria in order to block the implementation of the Evian Accords and the exile of the pieds-noirs. Ahmed Ben Bella, who had been arrested in 1956 along with other FLN leaders, became the first President of Algeria. To this day, the war has provided an important strategy frame for counter-insurgency thinkers, while the use of torture by the French Army has provoked a moral and political debate on the legitimacy and effectiveness of such methods. This debate is far from being settled as torture was used by both sides. This article is about the person. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Gaullism is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... The French Community was the political entity which replaced the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French Empire following the Second World War. ... Established by the French constitution of October 27, 1946, the French Union (French: Union Française) was a political entity created to replace the old French colonial system, the French Empire (Empire français). ... -1... -1... The Algiers putsch (or Generals putsch) took place on 23 April 1961 in the midst of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962). ... Michel Debré (15 January 1912 – 2 August 1996) was a French politician. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ... The President is the head of state and chief executive of Algeria, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Algerian armed forces. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


The Algerian war is a founding event of Algerian history. It left long-standing scars in both French and Algerian society, and still affects some segments of society in both countries to this day. After the 1997 legislative elections, won by the Socialist Party (PS), the National Assembly officially acknowledged in June 1999, a full 37 years after the Evian agreements, that a "war" had taken place (official terminology was a "public order operation");[2] while the Paris massacre of 1961 was recognized by the French state only in October 2001; on the other hand the Oran massacre of 1962 by the FLN has not been recognized yet by the Algerian state. Relations between France and Algeria are still deeply marked by this conflict and its aftermath. French legislative election took place in May 25 and June 1, 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is the largest left-wing political party in France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Évian Accords were signed on March 18, 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the F.L.N. (Front de Libération nationale), putting an end to the Algerian War with a formal cease-fire proclaimed for March 19, and formalizing the idea of cooperative exchange between... In urban planning, the notion of public order refers a city containing relatively empty (and orderly) spaces; which allow for flexibility in redesiging the citys layout; such perceptions played an important role in the establishments of suburbs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Oran massacre of 1962 was a massacre in Oran, Algeria on July 5, 1962, after the end of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). ...

Contents

French Algeria

French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Algerian Nationalism A new generation of Muslim leadership emerged in Algeria at the time of World War I and grew to maturity during the 1920s and 1930s. ...

Conquest of Algeria

On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algiers in 1830.[3] Directed by Marshall Bugeaud, who became the first Governor-General of Algeria, the conquest was violent, marked by a "scorched earth" policy designed to reduce the power of the bey, this included massacres, mass rapes, etc.[4] Applauding Bugeaud's method, liberal thinker Alexis de Tocqueville could declare: "war in Africa is a science. Everyone is familiar with its rules and everyone can apply those rules with almost complete certainty of success. One of the greatest services that Field Marshal Bugeaud has rendered his country is to have spread, perfected and made everyone aware of this new science."[4] Officially annexed in 1834, Algeria was divided the same year into three French departments, Alger, Oran and Constantine. Under the Second Empire (1852-1871), the Code de l'indigénat (Indigenous Code) was implemented by the senatus consulte of July 14, 1865. Its first article stipulated that Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Marshal of France. ... List of Colonial Heads of Algeria Beylerbey: Bey of beys Kalifah: Governor acting in the absence of the Beylerbey Aga (Agha): Military Commander Tenure Incumbent Notes Ottoman Suzerainty Ottomans subsumed the Abd al-Wadid Kingdom c. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties and are now grouped into 22 metropolitan and four overseas régions. ... Oran is a former French département in Algeria existing from 1848 until 1962. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Forced Labor: The construction of the Guinée railway by African sujets of French West Africa, c. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

"The indigenous Muslim is French; however, he will continue to be subjected to Muslim law. He may be admitted to serve in the army (armée de terre) and the navy (armée de mer). He may be called to functions and civil employment in Algeria. He may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoyed the rights of a French citizen; in this case, he is subjected to the political and civil laws of France."[5] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into French nationality law. ...

However, until 1870, fewer than 200 demands were registered by Muslims, and 152 by Jewish Algerians.[6] The 1865 decree was then modified by the 1870 Crémieux decrees, which granted French nationality to Jews living in one of the three Algerian departments. In 1881, the Code de l'Indigénat officialized the discrimination, by creating specific penalities for indigenes and organizing the seizure or appropriation of their lands.[6] Isaac Moïse Crémieux [known as Adolphe] (1796 - February 10, 1880), French statesman, was born at Nîmes, of a rich Jewish family. ... It has been suggested that French citizenship and identity be merged into this article or section. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Gender equality Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action...

Algerian nationalism

Algerians (natives and Europeans altogether) took part in World War I, fighting for France as tirailleurs (such regiments were created as early as 1842.[7]), tabors, goumiers, and spahis. With Wilson's 1918 proclamation of the Fourteen Points, whose fifth point proclaimed that "A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined," some Algerian intellectuals — dubbed oulémas — began to nurture the desire for, if not independence, at least autonomy and self-rule. It is in this context that Hadj Abd el-Kadir (grand-son of Abd el-Kadir, who had spearheaded the resistance against the French in the first half of the 19th century, and a member of the directing committee of the French Communist Party (PCF)), founded in 1926 the North African Star (Etoile nordafricaine) party, to which Messali Hadj, also member of the PCF and of its affiliated trade union, the CGTU, joined the following year. The North African Party broke from the PCF in 1928, before being dissolved in 1929 at Paris' demand. Amid growing discontent from the Algerian population, the Third Republic (1871-1940) acknowledged some demands, and the Popular Front initiated the Blum-Viollette proposalin 1936 which was supposed to enlighten the Indigenous Code by giving French citizenship to a small number of Muslims. The pieds-noirs (Algerians of European origin) however violently demonstrated against it, while the North African Party opposed it, leading to the project's abandonment. The independent party was dissolved in 1937 and its leaders were charged with illegal reconstitution of a dissolved league, leading to Messali Hadj's 1937 foundation of the Parti du peuple algérien (Algerian People's Party, PPA), which this time no longer espoused full independence, but only an extensive autonomy. This new party was again dissolved in 1939. Under Vichy, the French state attempts to abrogate the Crémieux decree in order to suppress the Jews' French citizenship, but the measure was never implemented. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ... Spahis (also spelled as Sipahis, Sepahis or Spakh, in Turkish sipahi) were an elite mounted force within the Six Divisions of Cavalry of the Ottoman Empire. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... ... For other uses, see Autonomy (disambiguation). ... Self rule is used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... Abd el-Kader `Abd al-Qādir al-JazāirÄ« (6 September 1808 - 26 May 1883, in Arabic عبد القادر الجزائري) was an Algerian Islamic scholar, Sufi, political and military leader who led a struggle against the French invasion in the mid-nineteenth century, for which he is seen by the Algerians as... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Messali Hadj (مصالي الحاج) was the founder of the Mouvement National Algérien, an early Algerian nationalist group and rival of the Front de Libération Nationale. ... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... For the generic use of the term see Popular front The Popular Front (French: Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the Socialist SFIO and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period. ... The Blum-Viollette proposal takes its name from Maurice Viollette, who acted as the French premier and governor-general of Algeria, which was the subject of the proposed legislation. ... The Algerian Peoples Party (French, Parti du Peuple Algerien, PPA), was a successor organization of the North African Star (Étoile Nord-Africaine), led by veteran Algerian nationalist Messali Hadj. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval...


On the other hand, independent leader Ferhat Abbas founded the Algerian Popular Union(Union populaire algérienne) in 1938, while writing in 1943 the Algerian People's Manifest (Manifeste du peuple algérien). Arrested after the May 8, 1945 Sétif massacre, during which the French Army and Pied Noir mobs killed about 6,000 Algerians,[8] Abbas founded in 1946 the Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto (UDMA) and was elected as a deputy. Founded in 1954, the National Liberation Front (FLN) succeeded Messali Hadj's Algerian People's Party (PPA), while its leaders created an armed wing, the Armée de Libération Nationale (National Liberation Army) to engage in armed struggle against French authority. Ferhat Abbas was born in Douar Chemala near Jijel, Algeria on 24 October 1899 and died on 23 December 1985. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Map of Algeria showing Sétif province The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945. ... Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto (in French: Union Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien) was an assimilationist political party in colonial Algeria founded in 1945. ... The National Liberation Front , (Arabic: Jabhat al-TaḩrÄ«r al-WaÅ£anÄ«, French: Front de Libération Nationale aka FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ... The Armée de Libération Nationale or ALN (French, National Liberation Army) was the armed wing of the nationalist Front de Libération National (FLN) during the Algerian War of Independence. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ...


Beginning of hostilities

In the early morning hours of November 1, 1954, FLN maquisards — (guerrillas), or "terrorists" as they were called by the French — launched attacks in various parts of Algeria against military and civilian targets, in what became known as the Toussaint Rouge. They also attacked many French civilians, killing several[citation needed]. From Cairo, the FLN broadcast a proclamation calling on Muslims in Algeria to join in a national struggle for the "restoration of the Algerian state - sovereign, democratic and social - within the framework of the principles of Islam." It was the reaction of Premier Pierre Mendès-France (Radical-Socialist Party), who only a few months before had completed the liquidation of France's empire in Indochina, that set the tone of French policy for the next five years. On November 12, he declared in the National Assembly: "One does not compromise when it comes to defending the internal peace of the nation, the unity and integrity of the Republic. The Algerian departments are part of the French Republic. They have been French for a long time, and they are irrevocably French [...] Between them and metropolitan France there can be no conceivable secession." At first, and despite the May 8, 1945 Sétif massacre and pro-Independence struggle before WWII, most Algerians were in favour of a relative status-quo. While Messali Hadj had radicalized by forming the FLN, Ferhat Abbas maintained a more moderate, electoral strategy. Less than 500 fellaghas (pro-Independence) fighters) could be counted at the beginning of the conflict[9] The Algerian population radicalized itself in particular because of the Main Rouge (Red Hand) terrorist attacks.[9] This terrorist group engaged in anti-colonialist actions in all of the Maghreb region (Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria), killing for example Tunisian activist Farhat Hached in 1952. is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Pierre Mendès France Pierre Mendès France (Paris, 11 January 1907 - 18 October 1982), French politician, was born in Paris, into a family of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Map of Algeria showing Sétif province The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945. ... This article is about the region. ...


The FLN

ALN R.A. propaganda poster in Algiers, "The Algerian Revolution, a people at war against colonialist barbarity". (June 29, 1962, Rocher Noir)
ALN R.A. propaganda poster in Algiers, "The Algerian Revolution, a people at war against colonialist barbarity". (June 29, 1962, Rocher Noir)

The FLN uprising presented nationalist groups with the question of whether to adopt armed revolt as the main course of action. During the first year of the war, Ferhat Abbas's UDMA, the ulema, and the PCA maintained a friendly neutrality toward the FLN. The communists, who had made no move to cooperate in the uprising at the start, later tried to infiltrate the FLN, but FLN leaders publicly repudiated the support of the party. In April 1956, Abbas flew to Cairo, where he formally joined the FLN. This action brought in many évolués who had supported the UDMA in the past. The AUMA also threw the full weight of its prestige behind the FLN. Bendjelloul and the pro-integrationist moderates had already abandoned their efforts to mediate between the French and the rebels. Image File history File links 29-juin-1962-rocher-noir-algeria-propaganda. ... Image File history File links 29-juin-1962-rocher-noir-algeria-propaganda. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ferhat Abbas was born in Douar Chemala near Jijel, Algeria on 24 October 1899 and died on 23 December 1985. ... Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto (in French: Union Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien) was an assimilationist political party in colonial Algeria founded in 1945. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... PCA banner Algerian Communist Party (in French: Parti Communiste Algérien) was a communist party in Algeria. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


After the collapse of the MTLD, Messali Hadj formed the leftist Mouvement National Algérien (MNA), which advocated a policy of violent revolution and total independence similar to that of the FLN. The ALN, the military wing of the FLN, subsequently wiped out the MNA guerrilla operation, and Messali Hadj's movement lost what little influence it had had in Algeria. However, the MNA gained the support of many Algerian workers in France through the Union Syndicale des Travailleurs Algériens (Union of Algerian Workers). The FLN also established a strong organization in France to oppose the MNA. "Café wars," resulting in nearly 5,000 deaths, were waged in France between the two rebel groups throughout the years of the War of Independence. The Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTLD) was an alliance between the Algerian Peoples Party (PPA) of Messali Hadj, and members of Ferhat Abbass organization, the Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto. ... Messali Hadj (مصالي الحاج) was the founder of the Mouvement National Algérien, an early Algerian nationalist group and rival of the Front de Libération Nationale. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... The Mouvement National Algérien is a movement founded by Messali Hadj between the two World Wars. ... -1... The Armé de Libération Nationale or ALN (French, National Liberation Army) was the armed wing of the nationalist Front de Libération National (FLN) during the Algerian War of Independence. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... The Café Wars took place during the Algerian War of Independence, as a part of the internal fighting in France between two rival Algerian nationalist movements, the MNA and the FLN (which later became the ruling political party in independent Algeria). ...


On the political front, the FLN worked to persuade — and to coerce — the Algerian masses to support the aims of the Independence movement through contributions. FLN-influenced labour unions, professional associations, and students' and women's organizations were created to lead opinion in diverse segments of the population but here too violent coercion was widely used. Frantz Fanon, a psychiatrist from Martinique who became the FLN's leading political theorist, provided a sophisticated intellectual justification for the use of violence in achieving national liberation[citations needed]. He stated that only through violence could an oppressed people attain human status[citations needed]. From Cairo, Ahmed Ben Bella ordered the liquidation of potential interlocuteurs valables, those independent representatives of the Muslim community acceptable to the French through whom a compromise or reforms within the system might be achieved. Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


As the FLN campaign of influence and terror spread through the countryside, many European farmers in the interior (called Pieds-Noirs) sold their holdings and sought refuge in Algiers and other Algerian cities. After a series of bloody, random massacres and bombings by Muslim Algerians in several towns and cities, the French Pieds-Noirs and urban French population began to demand that the French government engage in sterner countermeasures, including the proclamation of a state of emergency, capital punishment for political crimes, denunciation of all separatists, and most ominously, a call for 'tit-for-tat' reprisal operations by police, military, and para-military forces. Colon vigilante units, whose unauthorized activities were conducted with the passive cooperation of police authorities, carried out ratonnades (literally, raton-hunts, raton being a racist term for designating north african people) against suspected FLN members of the Muslim community. The FLN terror and intimidation campaign gave these hunts strong motivation and starting points. Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... In the standard sense of the phrase, a political crime is an action deemed illegal by a government in order to control real or imagined threats to its survival, at the expense of a range of human rights and freedoms. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... French rule in Algeria, 1830–1962 Most of Frances actions in Algeria, not least the invasion of Algiers, were propelled by contradictory impulses. ... For other uses, see Vigilante (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


By 1955 effective political action groups within the Algerian colonial community succeeded in convincing many of the governors general sent by Paris that the military was not the way to resolve the conflict. A major success was the conversion of Jacques Soustelle, who went to Algeria as governor general in January 1955 determined to restore peace. Soustelle, a one-time leftist and by 1955 an ardent Gaullist, began an ambitious reform program (the Soustelle Plan) aimed at improving economic conditions among the Muslim population" (Library of Congress). Jacques Soustelle was born in Montpellier, France on 3 February 1912 and died 6 August 1990. ... A reform program envisioned by Jacques Soustelle, then governor general of Algeria, for the improvement of several administrative, political, social and economic works with the emphasized integration of Muslim Algerians within the French system. ...


After the Philippeville massacre

ALN guerrillas using mortar across the Algerian-Tunisian border protected by the electrified Morice Line. (1958)
ALN guerrillas using mortar across the Algerian-Tunisian border protected by the electrified Morice Line. (1958)

The FLN adopted tactics similar to those of nationalist groups in Asia, and the French did not realize the seriousness of the challenge they faced until 1955, when the FLN moved into urbanized areas. "An important watershed in the War of Independence was the massacre of Pieds-Noirs civilians by the FLN near the town of Philippeville (now known as Skikda) in August 1955. Before this operation, FLN policy was to attack only military and government-related targets. The commander of the Constantine wilaya/region, however, decided a drastic escalation was needed. The killing by the FLN and its supporters of 123 people, including 71 French,[10] including old women and babies, shocked Jacques Soustelle into calling for more repressive measures against the rebels. The government claimed it killed 1,273 guerrillas in retaliation; according to the FLN and to The Times magazine, 12,000 Algerians were massacred by the armed forces and police, as well as Pieds-Noirs gangs.[11] Soustelle's repression was an early cause of the Algerian population's rallying to the FLN.[10]After Philippeville, Soustelle declared sterner measures and an all-out war began. In 1956 demonstrations of French Algerians forced the French government to abolish an idea of reform. Image File history File links ALN-soldier-mortar. ... Image File history File links ALN-soldier-mortar. ... Skikda is a wilaya of Algeria. ... Skikda (Arabic: ولاية سكيكدة ) is a city in north eastern Algeria and a port on the Gulf of Stora, the ancient Sinus Numidicus. ... Position of Constantine in Algeria. ... Jacques Soustelle was born in Montpellier, France on 3 February 1912 and died 6 August 1990. ... For other uses, see Times. ...


Soustelle's successor, Governor General Lacoste, a socialist, abolished the Algerian Assembly. Lacoste saw the assembly, which was dominated by pieds-noirs, as hindering the work of his administration, and he undertook to rule Algeria by decree. He favored stepping up French military operations and granted the army exceptional police powers — a concession of dubious legality under French law — to deal with the mounting political violence. At the same time, Lacoste proposed a new administrative structure that would give Algeria a degree of autonomy and a decentralized government. Whilst remaining an integral part of France, Algeria was to be divided into five districts, each of which would have a territorial assembly elected from a single slate of candidates. Deputies representing Algerian ridings were able to delay until 1958 passage of the measure by the National Assembly of France. Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ...


In August/September 1956, the internal leadership of the FLN met to organize a formal policy-making body to synchronize the movement's political and military activities. The highest authority of the FLN was vested in the thirty-four-member National Council of the Algerian Revolution (Conseil National de la Révolution Algérienne, CNRA), within which the five-man Committee of Coordination and Enforcement (Comité de Coordination et d'Exécution, CCE) formed the executive. The externals, including Ben Bella, knew the conference was taking place but by chance or design on the part of the internals were unable to attend.


Meanwhile, in October 1956, the French Air Force intercepted a Moroccan DC-3 that was flying to Tunis, carrying Ahmed Ben Bella, Mohammed Boudiaf, Mohamed Khider and Hocine Aït Ahmed, and forced it to land in Algiers. Lacoste had the FLN external political leaders arrested and imprisoned for the duration of the war. This action caused the remaining rebel leaders to harden their stance. The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ... Douglas DC-3 VH-AES at Avalon in 2003. ... Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ... Muhammad Boudiaf (June 23, 1919 - June 29, 1992), also called Si Tayeb el Watani, was an Algerian political leader and one of the founders of the revolutionary National Liberation Front (FLN) that led the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962). ... Mohamed Khider (b. ... Hocine Aït Ahmed Hocine Ait Ahmed (born 20 August 1926 in Ain El Hammam, Kabylie) is an Algerian politician. ...


France took a more openly hostile view of President Gamal Nasser's material and political assistance to the FLN, which some French analysts believed was the most important element in sustaining continued rebel activity in Algeria. This attitude was a factor in persuading France to participate in the November 1956 British attempt to seize the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties and losses 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 1650...


During 1957 support for the FLN weakened as the breach between the internals and externals widened. To halt the drift, the FLN expanded its executive committee to include Abbas, as well as imprisoned political leaders such as Ben Bella. It also convinced communist and Arab members of the United Nations (UN) to put diplomatic pressure on the French government to negotiate a cease-fire. UN redirects here. ...


Writer, philosopher and playwright Albert Camus, native of Algiers, often associated with existentialism, tried unsuccessfully to persuade both sides to at least leave civilians alone, writing editorials against the use of torture in Combat newspaper. The FLN considered him a fool, and some Pieds Noirs considered him a traitor. Nevertheless, in his speech when he received the Literature Nobel Prize in Oslo, Camus said that when faced with a radical choice he would eventually support his community. This statement made him lose his status among the left-wing intellectuals; when he died in 1960 in a car crash, the official thesis of an ordinary accident (a quick open and shut case) has left more than a few observers doubtful. His widow has claimed that Camus, though discreet, was in fact an ardent supporter of French Algeria in the last years of his life. For other uses, see Camus. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Combat (French for fight) was a French newspaper created during the Second World War. ...


Battle of Algiers

To increase international and domestic French attention to their struggle, the FLN decided to bring the conflict to the cities and to call a nationwide general strike. The most notable manifestation of the new urban campaign was the Battle of Algiers, which began on September 30, 1956, when three women placed bombs at three sites including the downtown office of Air France. The FLN carried out an average of 800 shootings and bombings per month through the spring of 1957[citation needed], resulting in many civilian casualties and inviting a crushing response from the authorities. The 1957 general strike, timed to coincide with, and influence, the UN debate on Algeria, was largely observed by Muslim workers and businesses[citation needed]. A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... DVD cover The Battle of Algiers (in Italian, La Battaglia di Algeri) is a 1966 black-and-white film by Gillo Pontecorvo based on the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 until 1962 against the French occupation. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ...


General Jacques Massu was instructed to use whatever methods necessary to restore order in the city. Using paratroopers, he broke the strike and then in the succeeding months systematically destroyed the FLN infrastructure in Algiers. But the FLN had succeeded in showing its ability to strike at the heart of French Algeria and in rallying and forcing a mass response to its demands among urban Muslims. Later Massu's troops punished villages that were suspected of harboring rebels by attacking them with mobile troops or aerial bombardment and gathered 2 million[citation needed] of the rural Muslim population into fortified villages under French military control. The publicity given to the brutal methods used by the army to win the Battle of Algiers, including the systematic use of torture, a strong movement control and curfew called quadrillage and where all authority was under the military, created doubt in France about its role in Algeria. This doubt was strongly communicated to France by French sympathisers in Algiers who supported the idea of independence morally, financially and materially. What had been originally thought of as a simple "Pacification" or "public order operation" had turned into a fully fledged colonial war to block the influence of the guerillas and had resulted in the systematic introduction of torture. Jacques Émile Massu (5 May 1908 – 26 October 2002) was a French general who fought in World War II, First Indochina War, Algerian War and the Suez crisis. ... The word pacification is most often used as a euphemism for counter-insurgency operations by a dominant military force. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Wars of national liberation. ...


Guerrilla war

From its origins in 1954 as ragtag maquisards numbering in the hundreds and armed with a motley assortment of hunting rifles and discarded French, German, and American light weapons, the FLN had evolved by 1957 into a disciplined fighting force of nearly 40,000.[citation needed] More than 30,000 were organized along conventional lines in external units that were stationed in Moroccan and Tunisian sanctuaries near the Algerian border[citation needed], where they served primarily to divert some French manpower from the main theaters of guerrilla activity to guard against infiltration. The brunt of the fighting was borne by the internals in the wilayat; estimates of the numbers of internals range from 6,000 to more than 25,000, with thousands of part-time irregulars.[citation needed] A wilaya is an administrative subdivision of several countries, including Algeria, Morocco, Sudan, and Oman. ...


During 1956 and 1957, the FLN successfully applied hit-and-run tactics in accordance with guerrilla warfare theory, which was at the time being formalized, (in particular by Mao) as "people's war". Whilst some of this was aimed at military targets a significant amount was invested in a terror campaign against those in any way deemed to be supporting or encouraging French authority. This resulted in acts of sadistic torture and the most brutal violence against all including women and children. Specializing in ambushes and night raids and avoiding direct contact with superior French firepower, the internal forces targeted army patrols, military encampments, police posts, and colonial farms, mines, and factories, as well as transportation and communications facilities. Once an engagement was broken off, the guerrillas merged with the population in the countryside, in accordance with Mao's theories. Kidnapping was commonplace, as were the ritual murder and mutilation of captured French military, pied-noirs of both genders and every age, suspected collaborators or traitors[citation needed]. At first, the FLN targeted only Muslim officials of the colonial regime; later, they coerced, maimed (cutting off ears and nose with a douk-douk was a favored torture) or killed village elders, government employees, and even simple peasants who simply refused to support them. Sometimes simply for smoking. Moreover, during the first two years of the conflict, the guerrillas killed about 6,000 Muslims and 1,000 non-Muslims according to a former paratrooper.[12][citation needed] Hit and run is the act of hitting an object with a vehicle and leaving the location of the incident. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... Peoples war (also called protracted peoples war) is a military-political strategy invented by Mao Zedong. ... For the game, see Paratrooper (video game). ...


Although successful in engendering an atmosphere of fear and uncertainty within both communities in Algeria, the revolutionaries' coercive tactics suggested that they had not yet inspired the bulk of the Muslim people to revolt against French colonial rule. Gradually, however, the FLN gained control in certain sectors of the Aurès, the Kabylie, and other mountainous areas around Constantine and south of Algiers and Oran. In these places, the FLN established a simple but effective— although frequently temporary — military administration that was able to collect/extort taxes and food and to recruit manpower. But it was never able to hold large fixed positions. Algerians all over the country also initiated underground social, judicial, and civil organizations, gradually building their own state[citation needed]. Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains across North Africa The Aurès Mountains (In Arabic أوراس) is an extension of the Atlas mountain range that lies to the east of the Saharan Atlas in eastern Algeria and northwestern Tunisia. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ... View of Oran Coat of arms of Oran Oran (Arabic:, pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ...


The loss of competent field commanders both on the battlefield and through defections and political purges created difficulties for the FLN. Moreover, power struggles in the early years of the war split leadership in the wilayat, particularly in the Aurès. Some officers created their own fiefdoms, using units under their command to settle old scores and engage in private wars against military rivals within the FLN.


French counter-insurgency operations

French army paratroopers heading to a transport helicopter. (1958)

Despite complaints from the military command in Algiers, the French government was reluctant for many months to admit that the Algerian situation was out of control and that what was viewed officially as a pacification operation had developed into a major war. By 1956 France had committed more than 400,000 troops to Algeria. Although the elite colonial infantry airborne units and the Foreign Legion bore the brunt of offensive counterinsurgency combat operations, approximately 170,000 Muslim Algerians also served in the regular French army, most of them volunteers. France also sent air force and naval units to the Algerian theater, including rotary-winged craft (helicopters). In addition to service as a flying ambulances and cargo carrier, French forces utilized the helicopter for the first time in a ground attack role in order to pursue and destroy fleeing FLN guerrilla units. The American military would later use the same helicopter combat methods in Vietnam. The French also used napalm,[13] which was depicted for the first time in the 2007 film L'Ennemi intime by Florent Emilio Siri.[13] Image File history File links Algeria-french-paratroopers. ... Image File history File links Algeria-french-paratroopers. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Napalm (disambiguation). ... Florent Siri directing Bruce Willis in the film Hostage. ...


The French army resumed an important role in local Algerian administration through the Special Administration Section (Section Administrative Spécialisée, SAS), created in 1955. The SAS's mission was to establish contact with the Muslim population and weaken nationalist influence in the rural areas by asserting the "French presence" there. SAS officers — called képis bleus (blue caps) — also recruited and trained bands of loyal Muslim irregulars, known as harkis. Armed with shotguns and using guerrilla tactics similar to those of the FLN, the harkis, who eventually numbered about 180,000 volunteers, more than the FLN effectives[14] were an ideal instrument of counterinsurgency warfare. Harki (from the Arabic Haraka: movement) was the generic term for Muslim Algerians serving as auxiliaries with the French Army, during the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 to 1962. ...


Harkis were mostly used in conventional formations, either in all-Algerian units commanded by French officers or in mixed units. Other uses included platoon or smaller size units, attached to French battalions, in a similar way as the Kit Carson Scouts by the US in Vietnam. A third use was an intelligence gathering role, with some reported minor pseudo-operations in support of their intelligence collection.[15] According to US military Lawrence E. Cline, however, "the extent of these pseudo-operations appears to have been very limited both in time and scope... The most widespread use of pseudo type operations was during the 'Battle of Algiers' in 1957. The principal French employer of covert agents in Algiers was the Fifth Bureau, the psychological warfare branch." The Fifth Bureau "made extensive use of "turned" FLN members", one such network being run by Captain Paul-Alain Leger of the 10th Paras. "Persuaded" to work for the French forces, including by the use of torture and threats against their family, these agents "mingled with FLN cadres. They planted incriminating forged documents, spread false rumours of treachery and fomented distrust... As a frenzy of throat-cutting and disemboweling broke out among confused and suspicious FLN cadres, nationalist slaughtered nationalist from April to September 1957 and did France's work for her".[16] But this type of operation involved individual operatives rather than organized covert units. Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... Kit Carson Scouts (Hoi Chanhs in Vietnamese, translated as one who has returned) were a special US Army program during the Vietnam War, involving the use of former Vietcong combattants. ... Intelligence Gathering Disciplines HUMINT - Human Intelligence - gathered from a person on the ground. ... False flag operations are covert operations conducted by governments, corporations, or other organizations, which are designed to appear as if they are being carried out by other entities. ... A covert operation is a military or political activity performed in secrecy that would break specific laws or compromise policy in another country. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ...


One organized pseudo-guerrilla unit however was created in December 1956 by the French DST intelligence agency. The Organization of the French Algerian Resistance (ORAF), a group of counter-terrorists had as mission to carry out false flag terrorist attacks with the aim of quashing any hopes of political compromise.[17] The Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST; Directorate of Territorial Surveillance) is a directorate of the French National Police operating as a domestic intelligence agency. ... False colors redirects here. ...


But it seemed that, as in Indochina, "the French focused on developing native guerrilla groups that would fight against the FLN," one of whom fought in the Southern Atlas Mountains, equipped by the French Army.[18]


The FLN also used pseudo-guerrilla strategies against the French Army on one occasion, with the "Force K," a group of 1,000 Algerians who volunteered to serve in Force K as guerrillas for the French. But most of these members were either already FLN members, or were turned by the FLN, once enlisted. Corpses of purported FLN members displayed by the unit were in fact those of dissidents and members of other Algerian groups killed by the FLN. The French Army finally discovered the war ruse, and tried to hunt down Force K members. However, some 600 managed to escape and join the FLN with weapons and equipment[19]


Late in 1957, General Raoul Salan, commanding the French army in Algeria, instituted a system of quadrillage, or block warden system, dividing the country into sectors, each permanently garrisoned by troops responsible for suppressing rebel operations in their assigned territory. Salan's methods sharply reduced the instances of FLN terrorism but tied down a large number of troops in static defense. Salan also constructed a heavily patrolled system of barriers to limit infiltration from Tunisia and Morocco. The best known of these was the Morice Line (named for the French defense minister, André Morice), which consisted of an electrified fence, barbed wire, and mines over a 320-kilometer stretch of the Tunisian border. clarified and proofread. ... The Morice Line is a defensive line constructed in the 1950s. ...


The French military command ruthlessly applied the principle of collective responsibility to villages suspected of sheltering, supplying, or in any way cooperating with the guerrillas. Villages that could not be reached by mobile units were subject to aerial bombardment. FLN Guerrillas that fled to caves or other remote hiding places were tracked and hunted down. In one episode, FLN guerrillas who refused to surrender and withdraw from a cave complex were dealt with by French Foreign Legion Pioneer troops, who, lacking flamethrowers or explosives, simply bricked up each cave, leaving the residents to die of suffocation.[12]


Finding it impossible to protect all of Algeria's remote farms and villages, the French government also initiated a program of concentrating large segments of the rural population, including whole villages, in camps under military supervision to prevent them from voluntarily aiding the rebels — or to protect them from FLN extortion. In the three years (1957–60) during which the regroupement program was followed, more than 2 million Algerians[citation needed] were removed from their villages, mostly in the mountainous areas, and resettled in the plains, where many found it impossible to re-establish their accustomed economic or social situations. Living conditions in the fortified villages were poor. Hundreds of empty villages were devastated,[citation needed] and in hundreds of others, orchards and croplands not previously burned by French troops went to seed for lack of care. These population transfers were effective in denying the use of remote villages to FLN guerrillas who had used them as a source of rations and manpower, but also caused significant resentment on the part of the displaced villagers. The disruptive social and economic effects of this massive relocation continued to be felt a generation later. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, invariably on the basis of ethnicity or religion. ...


The French army shifted its tactics at the end of 1958 from dependence on quadrillage (block warden system) to the use of mobile forces deployed on massive search-and-destroy missions against FLN strongholds. Within the next year, Salan's successor, General Maurice Challe, appeared to have suppressed major rebel resistance. But political developments had already overtaken the French army's successes. Block warden may refer to: Nazi Blockleiter Block warden system first experimented during the 1957 Battle of Algiers(aka quadrillage), and which would become a common technique of counter-insurgency through-out the 20th century, also used for example during the Dirty War in Argentina. ... Search and Destroy, or Seek and Destroy, or simply S&D, refers to a military strategy that became a notorious element of the Vietnam War. ... Maurice Challe (5 September 1905 - 8 January 1979) was a French general during the Algerian War, one of four generals who took part in the Algiers putsch. ...


Fall of the Fourth Republic

Main article: May 1958 crisis

Recurrent cabinet crises focused attention on the inherent instability of the French Fourth Republic and increased the misgivings of the army and of the pied-noirs that the security of Algeria was being undermined by party politics. Army commanders chafed at what they took to be inadequate and incompetent political initiatives by the government in support of military efforts to end the rebellion. The feeling was widespread that another debacle like that of Indochina in 1954 was in the offing and that the government would order another precipitate pullout and sacrifice French honor to political expediency. Many saw in de Gaulle, who had not held office since 1946, the only public figure capable of rallying the nation and giving direction to the French government. For other uses, see Algiers putsch (disambiguation) The May 1958 crisis (or Algiers putsch or the coup of May 13) was a political crisis in France, during the turmoil of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), which led to the return of Charles de Gaulle to political responsibilites after... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


After his tour as governor general, Soustelle had returned to France to organize support for de Gaulle's return to power, while retaining close ties to the army and the pied-noirs. By early 1958, he had organized a coup d'état, bringing together dissident army officers and pied-noirs with sympathetic Gaullists. An army junta under General Massu seized power in Algiers on the night of May 13, thereafter known as the May 1958 crisis. General Salan assumed leadership of a Committee of Public Safety formed to replace the civil authority and pressed the junta's demands that de Gaulle be named by French president René Coty to head a government of national union invested with extraordinary powers to prevent the "abandonment of Algeria." Coup redirects here. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Algiers putsch (disambiguation) The May 1958 crisis (or Algiers putsch or the coup of May 13) was a political crisis in France, during the turmoil of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), which led to the return of Charles de Gaulle to political responsibilites after... French statesman René Coty René-Jules-Gustave Coty (March 20, 1882 - November 22, 1962) was President of France from 1954 to 1959. ...


On May 24, French paratroopers from the Algerian corps landed on Corsica, taking the French island in a bloodless action, "Operation Corse". Subsequently, preparations were made in Algeria for "Operation Resurrection," which had as objectives the seizure of Paris and the removal of the French government. Resurrection was to be implemented if one of three scenarios occurred: if de Gaulle was not approved as leader of France by Parliament; if de Gaulle asked for military assistance to take power, or if it seemed that communist forces were making any move to take power in France. De Gaulle was approved by the French Parliament on May 29, by 329 votes against 224, fifteen hours before the projected launch of Resurrection. This indicated that the French Fourth Republic by 1958 no longer had any support to the French army in Algeria, and was at its mercy even in civilian political matters. This decisive shift in the balance of power in civil-military relations in France in 1958 and the threat of force was the main immediate factor in the return of de Gaulle to power in France. is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


De Gaulle

Many people, regardless of citizenship, greeted Charles de Gaulle's return to power as the breakthrough needed to end the hostilities. On his June 4 trip to Algeria, de Gaulle calculatedly made an ambiguous and broad emotional appeal to all the inhabitants, declaring "Je vous ai compris" ("I have understood you"). De Gaulle raised the hopes of the pied-noir and the professional military, disaffected by the indecisiveness of previous governments, with his exclamation of "Vive l'Algérie française" ("Long live French Algeria") to cheering crowds in Mostaganem. At the same time, he proposed economic, social, and political reforms to improve the situation of the Muslims. Nonetheless, de Gaulle later admitted to having harbored deep pessimism about the outcome of the Algerian situation even then. Meanwhile, he looked for a "third force" among the population of Algeria, uncontaminated by the FLN or the "ultras"colon extremists — through whom a solution might be found. This article is about the person. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Algérie-française was a slogan used about 1960 by those French people who wanted to keep Algeria ruled by France. ...


De Gaulle immediately appointed a committee to draft a new constitution for France's Fifth Republic, which would be declared early the next year, with which Algeria would be associated but of which it would not form an integral part. All Muslims, including women, were registered for the first time on electoral rolls to participate in a referendum to be held on the new constitution in September 1958.


De Gaulle's initiative threatened the FLN with the prospect of losing the support of the growing numbers of Muslims who were tired of the war and had never been more than lukewarm in their commitment to a totally independent Algeria[citation needed]. In reaction, the FLN set up the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Algérienne, GPRA), a government-in-exile headed by Abbas and based in Tunis. Before the referendum, Abbas lobbied for international support for the GPRA, which was quickly recognized by Morocco, Tunisia, and several other Arab countries, by a number of Asian and African states, and by the Soviet Union and other Eastern European states. The Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (French, Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Algérienne, GPRA) was the government-in-exile of the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) resistance movement, during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). ... The Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (French, Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Algérienne, GPRA) was the government-in-exile of the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) resistance movement, during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). ... The Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (French, Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Algérienne, GPRA) was the government-in-exile of the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) resistance movement, during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62). ...


ALN commandos committed numerous acts of sabotage in France in August, and the FLN mounted a desperate campaign of terror in Algeria to intimidate Muslims into boycotting the referendum. Despite threats of reprisal, however, 80 percent of the Muslim electorate turned out to vote in September, and of these 96 percent approved the constitution. In February 1959, de Gaulle was elected president of the new Fifth Republic. He visited Constantine in October to announce a program to end the war and create an Algeria closely linked to France. De Gaulle's call on the rebel leaders to end hostilities and to participate in elections was met with adamant refusal. "The problem of a cease-fire in Algeria is not simply a military problem," said the GPRA's Abbas. "It is essentially political, and negotiation must cover the whole question of Algeria." Secret discussions that had been underway were broken off. Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1958–59 the French army had won military control in Algeria and was the closest it would be to victory. In late July 1959, during Operation Jumelles Colonel Bigeard — whose elite paratrooper unit fought at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 — told journalist Jean Lartéguy (source): Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Jumelles was a military operation which was part of the Algerian independence war in the Tizi Ouzou Province, Algeria. ... Marcel Bigeard (born 14 February 1916) is a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. ...

"We are not making war for ourselves, not making a colonialist war, Bigeard wears no shirt (he shows his opened uniform) as do my officers. We are fighting right here right now for them, for the evolution, to see the evolution of these people and this war is for them. We are defending their freedom as we are, in my opinion, defending the West's freedom. We are here ambassadors, Crusaders, who are hanging on in order to still be able to talk and to be able to speak for." Col. Bigeard (July 1959)

During that period in France, however, opposition to the conflict was growing among many segments of the population, notably the leftists, with the pro-USSR French Communist Party — then one of the country's strongest political forces — supporting the Algerian Revolution. Thousands of relatives of conscripts and reserve soldiers suffered loss and pain; revelations of torture and the indiscriminate brutality the army visited on the Muslim population prompted widespread revulsion; and a significant constituency supported the principle of national liberation. International pressure was also building on France to grant Algeria independence. Annually since 1955 the UN General Assembly had considered the Algerian question, and the FLN position was gaining support. France's seeming intransigence in settling a colonial war that tied down half the manpower of its armed forces was also a source of concern to its NATO allies. In a September 1959 statement, de Gaulle dramatically reversed his stand and uttered the words "self-determination," which he envisioned as leading to majority rule in an Algeria formally associated with France. In Tunis, Abbas acknowledged that de Gaulle's statement might be accepted as a basis for settlement, but the French government refused to recognize the GPRA as the representative of Algeria's Muslim community. Leftism can refer to: Left-wing politics An album by Leftfield ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ...


The barricades week

Barricades in Algiers. "Long live Massu" (Vive Massu) is written on the banner. (January 1960)
Barricades in Algiers. "Long live Massu" (Vive Massu) is written on the banner. (January 1960)

Convinced Gaulle had betrayed them, some units of European volunteers (Unités Territoriales) in Algiers led by student leaders Pierre Lagaillarde and Jean-Jacques Susini, cafe owner Joseph Ortiz, lawyer Jean-Baptiste Biaggi... staged an insurrection in the Algerian capital starting on January 24, 1960 and known in France as La semaine des barricades ("the barricades week"). The ultras incorrectly believed that they would be supported by General Massu. The insurrection order was given by Colonel Jean Garde of the Ve Bureau militaire. As the army, police and supporters stood by, civilians pied-noirs threw up barricades in the streets and seized government buildings. General Maurice Challe, responsible of the Army in Algeria, declared Algiers under siege, but forbade the troops to open up fire on the insurgees. Twenty rioters were killed during a firing in Laferrière Boulevard. Eight arrest warrants were issued in Paris against the initiators of the insurrection. MP Jean-Marie Le Pen, who called for the barricades to be extended to Paris, and theorician Georges Sauge were then placed under custody.[20] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2806x2031, 5035 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Algerian War of Independence ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2806x2031, 5035 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Algerian War of Independence ... Pierre Lagaillarde (Courbevoie, 15 May 1931) was a founder of the Organisation armée secrète (OAS) French terrorist group, opposed to Algerian independence. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacques Émile Massu (May 5, 1908 – October 26, 2002) in was a French general that fought in World War II, First Indochina War and Algerian War of Independence. ... Maurice Challe (5 September 1905 - 8 January 1979) was a French general during the Algerian War, one of four generals who took part in the Algiers putsch. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a public officer which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual. ... Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ... Custody can refer to: Child custody Police custody (Arrest) Custody account, see either Custodian bank or Clearing house (finance) Banking) Category: ...


In Paris, de Gaulle called on the evening of January 29, 1960 on the army to remain loyal and rallied popular support for his Algerian policy in a televised address: is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

I took, in the name of France, the following decision: the Algerians will have the free choice of their destiny. When, in one way or another - by ceasefire or by complete crushing of the rebels - we will have put an end to the fighting, when, after a prolonged period of appeasement, the populations will have taken consciousness of the stakes and, thanks to us, realised the necessary progress in political, economic, social, educational, etc., domains, then it will be the Algerians who will tell us what they want to be... French of Algeria (Français d'Algérie), how can you listen to the liars and the conspirators who tell you that by granting free choice to the Algerians, France and de Gaulle want to abandon you, retreat from Algeria and deliver you to the rebellion?... I say to all of our soldiers: your mission comprises neither equivocation, nor interpretation. You have to liquidate the rebellious force which want to oust France out of Algeria and impose on this country its dictatorship of misery and sterility... Finally, I address myself to France. Eh bien! my dear and old country, here we face together, once again, a serious ordeal. In virtu of the mandate that the people has given me and of the national legitimacy which I incarn since twenty years, I ask to everyone to support me whatever happens.[21]

Most of the army heeded his call, and the siege of Algiers ended on February 1 with Lagaillarde surrendering to General Challe commanding the French army in Algeria corps. The loss of many ultra leaders who were imprisoned or transferred to other areas did not deter the French Algeria militants. Sent to prison in Paris, Lagaillarde evaded to Spain while left on parole. There with another French army officer, Raoul Salan, who had entered clandestinity, and Jean-Jacques Susini, he created the O.A.S. (Organisation Armée Secrète, lit. Secret Army Organization) on December 3, 1960 with the purpose to follow-up the fight for the French Algeria. Highly organized and well-armed the OAS stepped up its terrorist activities, which were directed against both Algerians and pro-government French citizens, as the move toward negotiated settlement of the war and self-determination gained momentum. To the FLN rebellion against France were added civil wars between extremists in the two communities and between the ultras and the French government in Algeria. is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... clarified and proofread. ... Clandestine is an adjective meaning that its reference is something secret or guerrilla in nature, such as certain activities executed by spies. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Beside Pierre Lagaillarde, Jean-Baptiste Biaggi was also imprisoned, while Alain de Sérigny got arrested, and Joseph Ortiz's FNF dissolved, as well as General Lionel Chassin's MP13. De Gaulle also modified the government, excluding Jacques Soustelle, believed to be too pro-French Algeria, and granting the Minister of Information to Louis Terrenoire, who quit the RTF (French broadcasting TV). Pierre Messmer, who had been member of the Foreign Legion, is named Minister of Defense, and dissolved the Fifth Bureau, the psychological warfare branch which had ordered the rebellion. These units had theorized the principles of "counter-revolutionary war", including the use of torture. During the Indochina War (1947-54), officers such as Roger Trinquier and Lionel-Max Chassin inspired themselves from Mao's strategic doctrine, and considered that to convince the population to support the fight, bodies had to be modeled in order to affect the mind. The 5e Bureaux were organized by Jean Ousset, French representant of the Opus Dei, under the order of Permanent Secretary General of the National Defense (SGPDN) Geoffroy Chodron de Courcel.[20] The officers were initially formed in the Centre d'instruction et de préparation à la contre-guérilla (Arzew). Jacques Chaban-Delmas added to that the Centre d'entraînement à la guerre subversive Jeanne-d'Arc (Center of Training to Subversive War Jeanne-d'Arc) in Philippeville, Algeria, directed by Colonel Marcel Bigeard. According to the Voltaire Network, the Catholic stay-behind Georges Sauge animated conferences there, and one could read on the walls of the center the following maxim: "This Army must be fanatic, despising luxury, animated by the spirit of the Crusades"[22] Pierre Messmer hence dissolved structures which had turned themselves against de Gaulle, leaving the "revolutionary war" to the exclusive responsibility of Gaullist General André Beauffre.[20] Families Need Fathers (FNF) is a registered UK charity, founded in 1974. ... Jacques Soustelle was born in Montpellier, France on 3 February 1912 and died 6 August 1990. ... Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (French Broadcasting-television or RTF) was the French national public broadcasting company between 1949 and June 27, 1964. ... On May 29, 1974 Jacques Chirac (left) replaced Pierre Messmer (right) as prime minister on the steps of the Hôtel Matignon. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... In the context of an occupation or a civil war, counter-insurgency (abbreviated COIN) is a military term for the combat against a political rebellion, termed an insurgency, by forces aligned with the standing government of the territory in which the combat takes place. ... The Indochina War was an almost thirty year war in Vietnam between 1946 and 1975, affecting the three Indochinese nations, namely Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. ... Roger Trinquier (March 20, 1908 - 1986) was a French army officer with an immense impact on the development of Counter-insurgency theory. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... Crowd psychology is a branch of social psychology. ... Jean Ousset was a French ideologist of National Catholicism. ... For other uses, see Opus Dei (disambiguation). ... Jacques Chaban-Delmas (March 7, 1915–November 10, 2000) was a French Gaullist politician. ... Philippeville is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Namur. ... Marcel Bigeard (born 14 February 1916) is a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. ... The Réseau Voltaire (Voltaire Network) is a international non-profit organisation, based in Paris with offices in London and Lima, which states it aims at promoting liberty and laïcité. Chairman : Thierry Meyssan (France) Deputy chairmen : Sandro Cruz (Peru), Issa El-Ayoubi (Lebanon) The Voltaire Network publishes a daily... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


The French army officers uprising can be understood as following, some officers, most notably from the paratroopers corps, felt betrayed by the government for the second time after Indochina (1947-1954). In some aspects the Dien Bien Phu garrison was sacrificed with no metropolitan support, order was given to commanding officer General de Castries to "let the affair die of its own, in serenity" ("laissez mourrir l'affaire d'elle même en sérénité"[23]). The Indochina War was an almost thirty year war in Vietnam between 1946 and 1975, affecting the three Indochinese nations, namely Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. ... Dien Bien Phu (Điện Biên Phủ) is a small town in northwestern Vietnam in the province of Điện Biên. ... Christian de la Croix de Castries (August 11, 1902 - July 29, 1991) was the French commander at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. ...


The opposition of the MNEF student trade-union to the participation of the conscripts to the war led to a scission in May 1960, with the creation of the Fédération des étudiants nationalistes (FEN, Federation of Nationalist Students) around Dominique Venner, a former member of Jeune Nation and of MP-13, François d'Orcival and Alain de Benoist, who would theorize in the 1980s the "New Right" movement. The FEN then published the Manifeste de la classe 60. Template:Politics stub The Celtic Cross, emblm of Jeune Nation later re-used by Far right movements such as Ordre nouveau Jeune Nation was a French nationalist movement founded by Albert Heuclin, and with members including Halles, Jean Marot, Jacques Wagner and the brothers Sidos, François Sidos (president of... Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic, founder of the Nouvelle Droite (English: ) and head of the French think tank GRECE. Benoist is little known outside his native France but his writings have been highly influential on anti-globalist thought, primarily on the political right, with... New Right is used in several countries as a descriptive term for various forms of conservative, right-wing, or self-proclaimed dissident oppositional movements and groups that emerged in the mid- to late twentieth century. ...


A Front national pour l'Algérie française (FNAF, National Front for French Algeria) was created in June 1960 in Paris, gathering around former De Gaulle's Secretary Jacques Soustelle Claude Dumont, Georges Sauge, Yvon Chautard, Jean-Louis Tixier Vignancourt (who would present himself as far-right candidate in the 1965 presidential election), Jacques Isorni, Victor Barthélémy, François Brigneau and Jean-Marie Le Pen. Another ultra rebellion occurred in December 1960, which led de Gaulle to dissolve the FNAF. Jacques Soustelle was born in Montpellier, France on 3 February 1912 and died 6 August 1990. ... The 1965 French presidential election was the first presidential election by direct universal suffrage of the French Fifth Republic. ...


After the publication of the Manifeste des 121 against the use of torture and the war,[24] the opponents to the war created the Rassemblement de la gauche démocratique, which included the SFIO socialist party, the Radical-Socialist Party, FO trade union, CFTC trade-union, FEN trade-union, etc., which supported de Gaulle against the ultras. De Gaulle then convoked a referendum on the independence of Algeria on January 8, 1961, which gave 75% of "yes" in metropolitan France, but only 40% in Algeria. The Manifesto of the 121 (French: Manifeste des 121, full title: Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie or Declaration on the right of unsubordination in the Algerian War) was an open letter signed by 121 intellectuals and published on 6 January 1960 in... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... The Radical Party (Parti Radical or Républicains Radicaux et Radicaux-Socialistes, Radical Republicans and Radical Socialists), was a major French political party of the early to mid 20th century, originally considered radical due to its anti-clericalism. ... The General Confederation of Labor - Workers Force (French: Confédération Générale du Travail - Force Ouvrière, or simply Force Ouvrière) is one of the five major union federations in France. ... The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the United States Government, created by Congress in 1974. ... A fen is a sere, a phase in the natural ecological succession from the open water of a lake to (for example) woodland. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


End of the war

Main articles: Algiers putsch of 1961 and Evian agreements
Civil war situation, French army in Algiers. (March 26, 1962)

The "generals' putsch" in April 1961, aimed at cancelling Michel Debré's government's secret peace negotiations with the FLN, marked the turning point in the official attitude toward the Algerian war. De Gaulle was now prepared to abandon the pieds-noirs, the group that no previous French government was willing to write off. The army had been discredited by the putsch and kept a low profile politically throughout the rest of France's involvement with Algeria. Talks with the FLN reopened at Evian in May 1961; after several false starts, the French government decreed that a ceasefire would take effect on March 19, 1962. In their final form, the Evian Accords allowed the pieds-noirs equal legal protection with Algerians over a three year period. These rights included respect for property, participation in public affairs, and a full range of civil and cultural rights. At the end of that period, however, all Algerian residents would be obliged to become Algerian citizens or be classified as aliens with the attendant loss of rights. The French electorate approved the Evian Accords by an overwhelming 91 percent vote in a referendum held in June 1962. For other uses, see Algiers putsch (disambiguation) The Algiers putsch (French: Le Putsch dAlger or Coup détat dAlger), also known as the Generals putsch (Le Putsch des Généraux), took place from the 21 April PM to the 26 April 1961 in the midst of the... The Évian Accords were signed on March 18, 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the F.L.N. (Front de Libération nationale), putting an end to the Algerian War with a formal cease-fire proclaimed for March 19, and formalizing the idea of cooperative exchange between... Image File history File links Tank-26mars-1962-alger. ... Image File history File links Tank-26mars-1962-alger. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Algiers putsch (or Generals putsch) took place on 23 April 1961 in the midst of the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962). ... Michel Debré (15 January 1912 – 2 August 1996) was a French politician. ... This article is about the person. ... The National Liberation Front (French: Front de libération nationale aka FLN, Arabic: Jabhah al-TaḩrÄ«r al-WaÅ£anÄ«) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ... A street in Évian. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1...


During the three months between the cease-fire and the French referendum on Algeria, the OAS (Organisation armée secrète) unleashed a new terrorist campaign. The OAS sought to provoke a major breach in the ceasefire by the FLN but the terrorism now was aimed also against the French army and police enforcing the accords as well as against Muslims. It was the most wanton carnage that Algeria had witnessed in eight years of savage warfare. OAS operatives set off an average of 120 bombs per day in March, with targets including hospitals and schools. Ultimately, the terrorism failed in its objectives, and the OAS and the FLN concluded a truce on June 17, 1962. In the same month, more than 350,000 Pied-noirs left Algeria. The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ...


On July 1, 1962, some 6 million of a total Algerian electorate of 6.5 million cast their ballots in the referendum on independence. The vote was nearly unanimous. De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country on July 3. The Provisional Executive, however, proclaimed July 5, the 132nd anniversary of the French entry into Algeria, as the day of national independence. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite the Evian Accords guarantees towards the French citizens, after the end of June civilians became the target of systematic FLN attacks. It quickly became apparent to Europeans that the new government would not ensure their safety or enforce their rights. The Oran massacre of 1962, four days after the vote, is the main example of deliberate strategy of killing to terrorize pieds-noirs and push them to leave. These tactics proved effective. Summer 1962 saw a rush to France. Within a year, 1.4 million refugees, including almost the entire Jewish community and some pro-French Muslims, had joined the exodus to France. The vast majority left, as detailed below. The Oran massacre of 1962 was a massacre in Oran, Algeria on July 5, 1962, after the end of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


Pieds-Noirs' and Harkis' exodus

Pieds-Noirs (including Sephardi Jews) and Harkis accounted for 13% of the total population of Algeria in 1962. For the sake of clarity, each group's exodus is described separately here, although their fate shared many common elements. Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Harki (from the Arabic Harka: troop or band of warriors) was the generic Algerian term for Muslim Algerians serving as auxiliaries with the French Army, during the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 to 1962. ...


Pieds-noirs

French Algerians (Algiers, January 1960)

Pied-noir (literally "black foot") is a term used to name the European-descended population (mostly Catholic) that had been in Algeria for generations; it is sometimes used to include the Sephardi Jewish population as well, which likewise emigrated after 1962. The Europeans had arrived as immigrants from all over the western Mediterranean (particularly France, Spain, and Malta), starting in 1830. The Jews had arrived in several waves, some coming in Roman times while most had arrived as refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, and had largely embraced French citizenship after the decret Crémieux in 1871. In 1959, the pieds-noirs numbered 1,025,000 (85% of European descent, and 15% of Sephardi Jewish descent), and accounted for 10.4% of the total population of Algeria. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 of them fled or left the country, the first third prior to the referendum, in the most massive relocation of population to Europe since the Second World War. A motto used in the FLN propaganda designating the Pied-noirs community was "Suitcase or coffin" ("La valise ou le cercueil"). Image File history File links Pied-noir-barricade. ... Image File history File links Pied-noir-barricade. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Isaac Moïse Crémieux, better known as Adolphe Crémieux (April 30, 1796 - February 10, 1880), was a French statesman. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The French government claimed to not have anticipated that such a massive number would leave; at the most it said it estimated that perhaps 200-300,000 might choose to go to metropolitan France temporarily. Nothing was planned for their move to France, and many had to sleep in streets or abandoned farms on their arrival. A minority of departing pieds-noirs, including soldiers, destroyed their possessions before departure, applying scorched earth policy in a sign of protestation and as a desperate symbolic try to leave no trace of over a century of European presence, but the vast majority of their goods and houses were left intact and abandoned to Algerians. Scenes of thousands of panicked people camping for weeks on the docks of Algerian harbors waiting for a space on a boat to France were common from April to August 1962. About 100,000 pieds-noirs chose to remain, but most of those gradually left over the 1960s and 1970s, primarily due to residual hostility against them, including machine-gunning of public places in Oran.[25] For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... View of Oran Coat of arms of Oran Oran (Arabic:, pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ...


Harkis

Harkis veterans and Pied-Noirs joint protest in support to the French Algeria during the barricades week in Algiers. (January 27, 1960)

The so-called Harkis, from the Arabic word harki (soldier), were the Muslim indigenous Algerians (as opposed to European-descended or Sephardi Jews) who fought as auxiliaries on the side of the French army. Some of these were veterans of the Free French Forces who participated in the liberation of France during World War II or in the Indochina War. The term also came to include civilian indigenous Algerians who supported a French Algeria. According to French government figures, there were 236,000 Algerian Muslims serving in the French Army in 1962, either in regular units (Spahis and Tirailleurs) or as irregulars (harkis and moghaznis). Some estimates suggest that, with their families, the indigenous Muslim loyalists may have numbered as many as 1 million, but 400,000 is more commonly cited. Image File history File links Harkis-anciens-combattants-pied-noirs-joint-protest-algiers. ... Image File history File links Harkis-anciens-combattants-pied-noirs-joint-protest-algiers. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harki (from the Arabic Harka: troop or band of warriors) was the generic Algerian term for Muslim Algerians serving as auxiliaries with the French Army, during the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 to 1962. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Indochina War was an almost thirty year war in Vietnam between 1946 and 1975, affecting the three Indochinese nations, namely Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. ... Holzschnitt nach Melchior Lorch, 1646. ... Tirailleur means sharpshooter in French. ...


In 1962, around 91,000 Harkis fled or sailed to France, despite French policy against this. Pierre Messmer, minister of the armies and Louis Joxe, minister for Algerian affairs gave orders to this effect. The Harkis were seen as traitors by many Algerians, and many of those who stayed behind suffered severe reprisals after independence. French historians estimate that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and members of their families were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria, often in atrocious circumstances or after torture, a climax being reached at the Oran massacre of 1962. The abandonment of the "Harkis" both in terms of non-recognition of those who died defending a French Algeria and the neglect of those who escaped to France, remains an issue that France has not fully resolved — although the government of Jacques Chirac made efforts to give recognition to the suffering of these former allies. The National Liberation Front , (Arabic: Jabhat al-TaḩrÄ«r al-WaÅ£anÄ«, French: Front de Libération Nationale aka FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria. ... The Oran massacre of 1962 was a massacre in Oran, Algeria on July 5, 1962, after the end of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). ... “Chirac” redirects here. ...


Death toll

The FLN estimated in 1962 that nearly eight years of revolution had cost 1.5 million dead from war-related causes. Some other Algerian sources later put the figure at approximately 1 million dead, while French officials estimated it at 350,000. French military authorities listed their losses at nearly 18,000 dead (6,000 from non-combat-related causes) and 65,000 wounded. European-descended civilian casualties exceeded 10,000 (including 3,000 dead) in 42,000 recorded terrorist incidents. According to French figures, security forces killed 141,000 rebel combatants, and more than 12,000 Algerians died in internal FLN purges during the war. An additional 5,000 died in the "café wars" in France between the FLN and rival Algerian groups. French sources also estimated that 70,000 Muslim civilians were killed, or abducted and presumed killed, by the FLN.


Historians, like Alistair Horne and Raymond Aron, consider the actual figure of war dead to be far higher than the original FLN and official French estimates, but below the 1 million adopted by the Algerian government. Horne has estimated Algerian casualties during the span of eight years to be around 700,000. Uncounted thousands of Muslim civilians lost their lives in French army ratissages, bombing raids, and vigilante reprisals. The war uprooted more than 2 million Algerians, who were forced to relocate in French camps or to flee to Morocco, Tunisia, and into the Algerian hinterland, where many thousands died of starvation, disease, and exposure. In addition large numbers of pro-French Muslims were murdered when the FLN settled accounts after independence. Sir Alistair Allan Horne (November 9, 1925-) is a British historian of modern France. ... Raymond-Claude-Ferdinand Aron (March 14, 1905 — October 17, 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist and political scientist. ...


Lasting effects in Algerian politics

Main article: History of Algeria since 1962

After Algeria's independence was recognised, Ahmed Ben Bella quickly became more popular, and thereby more powerful. In June 1962, he challenged the leadership of Premier Benyoucef Ben Khedda; this led to several disputes among his rivals in the FLN, which were quickly suppressed by Ben Bella's rapidly growing support, most notably within the armed forces. By September, Bella was in control of Algeria by all but name, and was elected as premier in a one-sided election on 20 September, and was recognised by the United States on September 29. Algeria was admitted as the 109th member of the United Nations on 8 October 1962. Afterwards, Ben Bella declared that Algeria would follow a neutral course in world politics; within a week he met with U.S. President John F. Kennedy requesting more aid for Algeria, with Fidel Castro, expressing approval of Castro's demands for the abandonment of Guantanamo Bay and returned to Algeria requesting that France withdraw from its bases there. In November, Ben Bella's government banned the party, providing that the only party allowed to overtly function was the FLN. Shortly thereafter in 1965 Bella was deposed and placed under house arrest (and later exiled) by Houari Boumédiènne, who served as president until his death in 1978. Algeria remained stable, though in a one-party state, until violent civil war broke out in the 1990s. // History of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria, 1962–present In preparation for independence, the CNRA (Conseil National de la Révolution Algérienne) had met in Tripoli in May 1962 to work out a plan for the FLNs (Front de Libération Nationale) transition from a liberation... Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ... Bold textItalic textlink title Headline text Media:Example. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ... Houari Boumédienne (original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba) (August 23, 1932 - December 27, 1978) was President of Algeria from 19 June 1965 to 27 December 1978 (Chairman of the Revolutionary Council until 12 December 1976). ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ...


For Algerians of many political factions, the legacy of their War of Independence acted to legitimise and virtually sanctify the unrestricted use of force in achieving a goal deemed to be justified. Once invoked against foreign colonialists, the same principle could be turned with relative ease also against fellow Algerians. The determination of the French to hold on to Algeria and of the FLN to overthrow that colonial rule, and the ruthlessness exhibited by both sides in that struggle, were to be mirrored thirty years later by the determination of the FLN government to hold on to power and of the Islamist opposition to overthrow that rule, and the brutal struggle which ensued.


Torture

Torture was a frequent process in use since the beginning of the colonization of Algeria, which started in 1830. Claude Bourdet had denounced these acts on December 6, 1951 in L'Observateur: "Is there a Gestapo in Algeria?" Torture had also been used -on both sides- during the First Indochina War (1946-54) and in all the French colonies[26][27][28] The French Army made a systemic use of torture during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), which was theorized as a counter-insurgency tactic by Roger Trinquier in Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency (1961). ... French rule in Algeria, 1830–1962 Most of Frances actions in Algeria, not least the invasion of Algiers, were propelled by contradictory impulses. ... Claude Bourdet, son of the dramatic author Édouard Bourdet, was a writer, journalist, polemist, and a militant French politician, who was born in 1909 and died in 1996 in Paris. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... -1...


General Paul Aussaresses admitted in 2000 the use of torture during the war and justified it. He also recognized the assassination of lawyer Ali Boumendjel and head of FLN in Algiers, Larbi Ben M'Hidi, which had been disguised as "suicides".[29] Paul Aussaresses (b. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Larbi Ben Mhidi (1923 - 1957) was a prominent Algerian leader during the war of independence. ...


General Marcel Bigeard, who had denied it for forty years, finally also admitted that it had been used, although he claimed he personally had not engaged in torture. Bigeard, who qualified FLN activists as "savages", claimed torture was a "necessary evil".[30][31] To the contrary, General Jacques Massu denounced it, following Aussaresses' revelations, and before his death pronounced himself in favor of an official condemnation of the use of torture during the war.[32] Marcel Bigeard (born 14 February 1916) is a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. ... Jacques Émile Massu (5 May 1908 – 26 October 2002) was a French general who fought in World War II, First Indochina War, Algerian War and the Suez crisis. ...


Bigeard's justification of torture has been criticized by various persons, among whom Joseph Doré, archbishop of Strasbourg, and Marc Lienhard, president of the Lutherian Church of Augsbourg confession in Alsace-Lorraine.[33]


In June 2000, Bigeard declared that he was based in Sidi Ferruch, known as a torture center and from where many Algerians never left alive. Bigeard qualified Louisette Ighilahriz's revelations, published in Le Monde on June 20, 2000, as "lies". An ALN activist, Louisette Ighilahriz had been tortured by General Massu. She herself called Bigeard a "liar", and criticized him for continuing to deny the use of torture 40 years later.[34][35] However, since General Massu's revelations, Bigeard has now admitted the use of torture, although he denies having personally used it. He then declared: "You are striking the heart of an 84 years-old man." Bigeard also recognized that Larbi Ben M’Hidi had been assassinated, and his death disguised as a "suicide". Paul Teitgen, prefect of Algiers, also revealed that Bigeard's troop threw Algerians in the sea from helicopters, a tactic later theorized in Argentina by Admiral Luis Maria Mendia, as the infamous "death flights."[36] Sidi Ferruch is a coastal town in Algiers Province, Algeria. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... ALN may refer to The military wing of the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale), during the Algerian War of Independence A Brazilian guerrillas movement - Ação Libertadora Nacional The National Rail code for Althorne railway station, United Kingdom. ... Larbi Ben Mhidi (1923–1957) was a prominent Algerian leader during the war of independence. ... Luis Maria Mendia (1925-) was the Argentine former chief of naval operations in 1976-77, with the grade of vice-Admiral. ...


"French school"

Counter-insurgency tactics developed during the war were used afterward in other contexts, including the Argentine "Dirty War" in the 1970s. Journalist Marie-Monique Robin wrote a book alleging that French secret agents had taught Argentine intelligence agents counter-insurgency tactics, including the systemic use of torture, block warden system, etc, all techniques employed during the 1957 Battle of Algiers. The film itself on The Battle of Algiers has been screened and seen by many militaries from different nations afterwards. She found in the Quai d'Orsay, head of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the document proving that a secret military agreement tied France to Argentina from 1959 until 1981, date of the election of President François Mitterrand. General Bigeard's troops threw Algerians from helicopters into the sea: this form of "disappearance" by death flights (their victims were named "Bigeard's shrimps", or crevettes Bigeard) was later theorized by Argentine Admiral Luis Maria Mendia in the infamous "death flights". Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ... Marie-Monique Robin (1960-) is a French journalist, who was awarded the Albert Londres prize in 1995 for Voleurs dyeux, on organ theft. ... France has various intelligence agencies: the Direction centrale des renseignements généraux (RG) is the intelligence agency of the French police, directed by the Minister of Interior. ... Sistema de Inteligencia Nacional (National Intelligence System, SIN) is the official denomination of the Argentine national intelligence community. ... DVD cover The Battle of Algiers (in Italian, La Battaglia di Algeri) is a 1966 black-and-white film by Gillo Pontecorvo based on the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 until 1962 against the French occupation. ... The Battle of Algiers (in Italian, La Battaglia di Algeri) is a 1965 black-and-white film directed by Gilles Pontecorvo. ... Quai dOrsay is a Parisian quay situated on the Ile de la Cité. Its name is commonly associated with the French Ministry of External Affairs, whose building is situated on the quay. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Disappear redirects here. ... The so-called death flights (Spanish: vuelos de la muerte) were a form of forced disappearance routinely practiced during the Argentine Dirty War, theorized by Admiral Luis Maria Mendia. ... Luis Maria Mendia (1925-) was the Argentine former chief of naval operations in 1976-77, with the grade of vice-Admiral. ...


Historiography of the war and of colonialism

Although the opening of the archives after a 30 years lock-up has enabled some new historical research on the war, including Jean-Charles Jauffret's book titled La Guerre d'Algérie par les documents (The Algerian War according to the documents), many remain unaccessible.[37] This contrary to the engagement of Prime minister Lionel Jospin's (Socialist Party, PS) engagement on July 27, 1997. The recognition in 1999 by the National Assembly, in which the PS had obtained a majority during the 1997 legislative elections, permitted the Algerian War to, at last, enter the syllabus of French school. The [[Paris massacre of 1961|October 17, 1961 massacre]] in Paris has only begun to emerge in the nation's memory, although access to the archives remains strongly restricted. The French state, who finally recognized 40 deaths, is a far way from giving free access to the archives (there is no such law as the US Freedom of Information Act in France). However, it has been proved, including with David Assouline's limited access to the Paris archives (granted by Socialist Minister of Culture Catherine Trautmann) that at least 70 Algerians died during these events — and 90 persons by the second half of October 1961.[38] Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... French legislative election took place in May 25 and June 1, 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ... The Minister of Culture and Communications is, in the Government of France, the cabinet member in charge of national museums and monuments; promoting and protecting the arts (visual, plastic, theatrical, musical, dance, architectural, literary, televisual and cinematographic) in France and abroad; and managing the national archives and regional maisons de... Catherine Trautmann. ...


The Algerian War remains a contentious event today. According to historian Benjamin Stora, doctor in history and sociology and teacher at Paris VII, and one of the leading historians of the Algerian war, memories concerning the war remain fragmented with no common ground to speak on:

"There is no such thing as a History of the Algerian War, there is just a multitude of histories and personal paths through it. Everyone involved considers that they lived through it in their own way, and any attempt to take in the Algerian War globally is immediately thrown out by the protagonists."[39]

Not to speak about Franco-Algerian history: although Benjamin Stora has counted 3,000 works in French on the Algerian war, there still is not one single work made in cooperation between a French and an Algerian citizen. Although we can "no longer talk about a 'War without a name'... a number of problems remain, especially the absence of sites in France to commemorate" the war.[39] Furthermore, conflicts arise on the commemoration date to end the war. Although most place it in the March 19, 1962 Evian agreements, which is the French state's official version, others point out that massacres of harkis and kidnapping of pied-noirs took place afterwards. is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Évian Accords were signed on March 18, 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the F.L.N. (Front de Libération nationale), putting an end to the Algerian War with a formal cease-fire proclaimed for March 19, and formalizing the idea of cooperative exchange between...


Stora further points out that "The phase of memorial reconciliation between the two sides of the sea is still a long way off."[39] This was recently illustrated by the UMP's vote of the February 23, 2005 law on colonialism, which asserted that colonialism had globally been "positive." Thus, a teacher in one of the elite's high school of Paris can declare: The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The February 23, 2005 French law on colonialism was an act passed by the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) conservative majority, which imposed to high-school teachers to teach the positive values of colonialism to their students (article 4). ...

"Yes, colonisation has had positive effects. After all, we did give to Algeria modern infrastructures, a system of education, libraries, social centers... There were only 10% Algerian students in 1962? This is not much, of course, but it is not nothing either!"[40]

Beside a heated debate in France, the February 23, 2005 law had the effect of jeopardizing the treaty of friendship that President Jacques Chirac was supposed to sign with President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, a treaty which is not any more in the agenda. Following this controversial law, Bouteflika has talked about a "cultural genocide", in particular in reference to the 1945 Sétif massacre. Chirac finally had the law repealed through a complex institutional mechanism. is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Map of Algeria showing Sétif province The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945. ...


Another matter concerns the teaching of the war, as well as of colonialism and decolonization, in particular in French secondary schools[41] Hence, there is no reference to racism in any textbook, excepting one published by Bréal editing house and for Terminales students (those passing their baccalauréat). This, despite an institutional racism still pregnant in French society, as demonstrated by SOS Racisme's various tests concerning racial discrimination. Textbooks still refers to "them" as "Muslims" and "us" as "French," despite the fact that Algerians were, de jure, French citizens (albeit half-class citizens), and that many French citizens today come from a Muslim background. Henceforth, it does not come as a surprise to see that some of the first to speak about the October 17, 1961 massacre were music bands, including (but not only), hip hop bands such as famous Suprême NTM ("les Arabes dans la Seine") or politically-engaged La Rumeur. Indeed, the Algerian War is not even the subject of a specific chapter in textbook for Terminales[37] Henceforth, Benjamin Stora can state that: Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... For other uses of Baccalaureate, see Baccalaureate (disambiguation). ... Institutional racism (or structural racism or systemic racism) refers to a form of racism which occurs specifically in institutions such as public bodies, corporations, and universities. ... SOS Racisme is a French association whose stated objective is to fight racism. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Suprême NTM (or simply NTM) is a French hip hop group formed in 1989 in the Seine-Saint-Denis département. ... La Rumeur is a french-language rap group from Élancourt (Yvelines, France). ...

"As Algerians do not appear in their "indigenous" conditions and their sub-citizens status, as the history of nationalist movement is never evoqued, as none of the great figures of the resistance — Messali Hadj, Ferhat Abbas — emerge nor retain attention, in one word, as no one explains to students what has been colonisation, we make them unable to understand why the decolonisation took place."[37] Algerian Nationalism A new generation of Muslim leadership emerged in Algeria at the time of World War I and grew to maturity during the 1920s and 1930s. ... Messali Hadj (مصالي الحاج) was the founder of the Mouvement National Algérien, an early Algerian nationalist group and rival of the Front de Libération Nationale. ... Ferhat Abbas was born in Douar Chemala near Jijel, Algeria on 24 October 1899 and died on 23 December 1985. ...

The Algerian War and its consequences are thus fundamental to any understanding of the state of XXIst century France, as well as the social situation in the French suburbs, which were brought to world attention during the civil unrest in autumn 2005. For the first time since the Algerian war, the head of the state, President Jacques Chirac (UMP) proclaimed the state of emergency, which was confirmed a few weeks later by the National Assembly (the only parties to vote against its extension were the Communist Party and the Greens, who explicitly referred to this dark period of French history that had been the Algerian War). The social situation in the French suburbs, known as banlieues, is a complex topic. ... French riots and French civil unrest redirect here. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... List in alphabetical order of the deputies of the 12th French National Assembly (2002- present). ... Les Verts (the Greens) is a Green Party in France. ...


For example, in metropolitan France, in 1963, 43% of French Algerians lived in bidonvilles (shanty towns).[42] Thus, Azouz Begag, Delegate Minister for Equal Opportunities in the government of current Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin (UMP), wrote an autobiographic novel, Le Gone du Chaâba, about his experience living in a bidonville in the outskirts of Lyon. It is impossible to understand the third-generation of Algerian immigrants to France without recalling this bicultural experience. An official parliamentary report on "prevention of criminality", commanded by then Interior Minister Dominique de Villepin (UMP), and made by MP Jacques-Alain Bénisti, went as far as claiming that "Multilingualism (bilinguisme) was a factor of criminality." (sic[43]). Following outcries from many NGOs and left-wing sectors, the definitive version of the Bénisti report finally made of multilingualism an asset instead of a default.[44] Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... A homeless man in Paris. ... Azouz Begag in 2007 Azouz Begag, (Arabic: ) (born 5 February 1957 in Lyon, Rhône, France) from a Kabyle background is a French writer and researcher in economics and sociology at the CNRS. He was the delegate minister for equal opportunities of France in the government of French Prime Minister... Dominique de Villepin (born Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (IPA: —  ) on 14 November 1953 in Rabat, Morocco) served as the Prime Minister of France from May 31, 2005 to May 17, 2007. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... A policy of biculturalism is typically adopted in nations that have emerged from a history of national or ethnic conflict in which neither side has gained complete victory. ... Bilingual redirects here. ...


Thus, the stakes of the contemporary debate on torture clearly appear in full light: after having denied its use during 40 years, the French state finally recognized it, although it never did any official proclamation about it. At least, General Aussaresses was condemned following his justification of the use of torture for "apology of war crimes." But, in the same way that during the "events", the French state claimed torture was an isolated act, instead of admitting its responsibility in the institutionalization of torture as a standard counter-insurgency method, used to break the population's morale (and not, as Aussaresses has claimed, to "save lives" by gaining short-term information which would enable to stop "terrorists"[45]), it now claims that it was a regrettable incident due to the context of the war. But various historical researches have proved both thesis false: "Torture in Algeria was engraved in the colonial act, it is the "normal" illustration of an abnormal system," wrote Nicolas Bancel, Pascal Blanchard and Sandrine Lemaire, who have published decisive work on the phenomena of "human zoos."[46] From the smokings (enfumades) of the Darha caves in 1844 by Pélissier to the 1945 riots in Sétif, Guelma and Kherrata," the repression in Algeria has used the same methods. Following the May 9, 1945 Sétif massacres, other riots against European presence occurred in Guelma, Batna, Biskra and Kherrata, making 103 deaths among the pied-noirs. The repression of these riots officially made 1,500 deaths, but N. Bancel, P. Blanchard and S. Lemaire estimate it to be rather between 6 and 8,000 deaths[46] Paul Aussaresses (b. ... Human Zoo (Völkerschau) in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1928 For other uses, see Human zoo (disambiguation). ... Aimable Jean Jacques Pélissier, duke of Malakoff (November 6, 1794 - May 22, 1864), was a marshal of France. ... Guelma (Arabic:ولاية قالمة ) is a wilaya in eastern Algeria. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


References

  1. ^ Martin Windrow, The Algerian War 1954-62. p. 17
  2. ^ Colonialism, a dangerous war of memories begins, by Benjamin Stora, in L'Humanité, translated from December 6, 2005 article (English)
  3. ^ Alistair Horne, (2006). A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-1962, New York
  4. ^ a b Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison. "Torture in Algeria: Past Acts That Haunt France - Liberty, Equality and Colony", Le Monde diplomatique, June 2001.  (quoting Alexis de Tocqueville, Travail sur l’Algérie in Œuvres complètes, Paris, Gallimard, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 1991, pp 704 and 705.(English)/(French)
  5. ^ « L’indigène musulman est français ; néanmoins il continuera à être régi par la loi musulmane. Il peut être admis à servir dans les armées de terre et de mer. Il peut être appelé à des fonctions et emplois civils en Algérie. Il peut, sur sa demande, être admis à jouir des droits de citoyen français ; dans ce cas, il est régi par les lois civiles et politiques de la France » (article 1 of the 1865 Code de l'indigénat)
  6. ^ a b le code de l’indigénat dans l’Algérie coloniale, Human Rights League (LDH), March 6, 2005 - URL accessed on January 17, 2007 (French)
  7. ^ les tirailleurs, bras armé de la France coloniale, Human Rights League (LDH), August 25, 2004 - URL accessed on January 17, 2007 (French)
  8. ^ Horne, Alistair, A Savage War of Peace, s. 27
  9. ^ a b "Alger-Bagdad", account of Yves Boisset's film documentary, La Bataille d'Algers (2006), in Le Canard enchaîné, January 10, 2007, n°4498, p.7
  10. ^ a b Number given by the Préfecture du Gers, French governmental site - URL accessed on February 17, 2007
  11. ^ Philippeville Massacre, The Times Report published on August 22, 1955
  12. ^ a b Leulliette, Pierre, St. Michael and the Dragon: Memoirs of a Paratrooper, Houghton Mifflin, 1964
  13. ^ a b Benjamin Stora, "Avoir 20 ans en Kabylie", in L'Histoire n°324, October 2007, pp.28-29 (French)
  14. ^ Major Gregory D. Peterson, The French Experience in Algeria, 1954-62: Blueprint for U.S. Operations in Iraq, Ft Leavenworth, KS: School of Advanced Military Studies, p.33
  15. ^ John Pimlott, "The French Army: From Indochina to Chad, 1946-1984," in Ian F. W. Beckett and John Pimlott, Armed Forces & Modern Counter-Insurgency, New York: St Martin's Press, 1985, p.66
  16. ^ Martin S. Alexander and J. F. V. Kieger, "France and the Algerian War: Strategy, Operations, and Diplomacy," Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol.25, No. 2, June 2002, pp.6-7
  17. ^ Roger Faligot and Pascal Krop, DST, Police Secrète, Flammarion, 1999, p.174
  18. ^ Lawrence E. Cline, "Pseudo Operations and Counterinsurgency: Lessons From Other Countries", p.8 June 2005, ISBN 1584871997, Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) (available here)
  19. ^ Lawrence E. Cline, "Pseudo Operations and Counterinsurgency: Lessons From Other Countries", p.8 June 2005, ISBN 1584871997, Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) (available here Cline sends for more details to Alistair Horne, A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-62, London: Mac Millan, 1977, pp.255-257)
  20. ^ a b c Quand le stay-behind voulait remplacer De Gaulle, Thierry Meyssan, September 10, 2001, Voltaire Network (French)
  21. ^ French: "J’ai pris, au nom de la France, la décision que voici: les Algériens auront le libre choix de leur destin. Quand d’une manière ou d’une autre - conclusion d’un cessez-le-feu ou écrasement total des rebelles - nous aurons mis un terme aux combats, quand, ensuite, après une période prolongée d’apaisement, les populations auront pu prendre conscience de l’enjeu et, d’autre part, accomplir, grâce à nous, les progrès nécessaires dans les domaines, politique, économique, social, scolaire, etc., alors ce seront les Algériens qui diront ce qu’ils veulent être (...) Français d’Algérie, comment pouvez-vous écouter les menteurs et les conspirateurs qui vous disent qu’en accordant le libre choix aux Algériens, la France et De Gaulle veulent vous abandonner, se retirer de l’Algérie et vous livrer à la rébellion ? (...) Je dis à tous nos soldats: votre mission ne comporte ni équivoque, ni interprétation. Vous avez à liquider la force rebelle qui veut chasser la France de l’Algérie et faire régner sur ce pays sa dictature de misère et de stérilité (...) Enfin, je m’adresse à la France. Eh bien! mon cher et vieux pays, nous voici donc ensemble, encore une fois, face à une lourde épreuve. En vertu du mandat que le peuple m’a donné et de la légitimité nationale que j’incarne depuis vingt ans (sic), je demande à tous et à toutes de me soutenir quoi qu’il arrive".
  22. ^ French: "Cette Armée doit être fanatique, méprisant le luxe, animée de l’esprit des croisés".
  23. ^ French Army audio archives
  24. ^ Manifeste des 121, transl. in English
  25. ^ ALGER PANSE SES PLAIES
  26. ^ Mohamed Harbi, La guerre d'Algérie
  27. ^ Benjamin Stora, La torture pendant la guerre d'Algérie
  28. ^ Raphaëlle Branche, La torture et l’armée pendant la guerre d'Algérie, 1954-1962, Paris, Gallimard, 2001 See also THE FRENCH ARMY AND TORTURE DURING THE ALGERIAN WAR (1954- 1962), Raphaëlle Branche, Université de Rennes, 18 November 2004 (English)
  29. ^ L'accablante confession du général Aussaresses sur la torture en Algérie, Le Monde, May 3, 2001 (French)
  30. ^ GUERRE D'ALGÉRIE : le général Bigeard et la pratique de la torture, Le Monde, July 4, 2000 (French)
  31. ^ Torture Bigeard: " La presse en parle trop ", L'Humanité, May 12, 2000 (French)
  32. ^ La torture pendant la guerre d’Algérie / 1954 – 1962 40 ans après, l’exigence de vérité, AIDH
  33. ^ GUERRE D'ALGÉRIE : Mgr Joseph Doré et Marc Lienhard réagissent aux déclarations du général Bigeard justifiant la pratique de la torture par l'armée française, Le Monde, July 15, 2000 (French)
  34. ^ « Le témoignage de cette femme est un tissu de mensonges. Tout est faux, c'est une manoeuvre », Le Monde, June 22, 2000 (French)
  35. ^ Louisette Ighilahriz: "Massu ne pouvait plus nier l’évidence", L'Humanité, November 23, 2000 (French)
  36. ^ Prise de tête Marcel Bigeard, un soldat propre ?, L'Humanité, June 24, 2000 (French)
  37. ^ a b c COLONIALISM THROUGH THE SCHOOL BOOKS - The hidden history of the Algerian war, Le Monde diplomatique, April 2001 (English)/(French)
  38. ^ . Concerning David Assouline's access to part of the Paris' Archives and the Monde quoting the director, see "17 octobre 1961 : la longue liste de morts des archives de Paris", L'Humanité, 23 October 1997.  (French)
  39. ^ a b c Bringing down the barriers - people's memories of the Algerian War, interview with Benjamin Stora published on the INA archive website (English)
  40. ^ French: « Oui, la colonisation a eu du positif... On a quand même légué à l’Algérie des infrastructures modernes, un système éducatif, des bibliothèques, des centres sociaux... Il n’y avait que 10% d’étudiants algériens en 1962 ? C’est peu, bien sûr, mais ce n’est pas rien! », quoted in COLONIALISM THROUGH THE SCHOOL BOOKS - The hidden history of the Algerian war, Le Monde diplomatique, April 2001 (English)/(French)
  41. ^ Terminale history class: teaching about torture during the Algerian war, McCormack J. in Modern & Contemporary France review, Volume 12, Number 1, February 2004, pp. 75-86(12) (English)
  42. ^ Le Gone du Chaâba (French)
  43. ^ Rapport préliminaire de la commission prévention du groupe d'études parlementaire sur la sécurité intérieure - Sur la prévention de la délinquance, presided by MP Jacques-Alain Bénisti, October 2004 (French)
  44. ^ Analyse de la version finale du rapport Benisti, Ligue des droits de l'homme (LDH, Human Rights League), and Final version of the Bénisti report given to Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy (French)
  45. ^ THE FRENCH ARMY AND TORTURE DURING THE ALGERIAN WAR (1954- 1962), Raphaëlle Branche, Université de Rennes, 18 November 2004 (English)
  46. ^ a b TORTURE IN ALGERIA: PAST ACTS THAT HAUNT FRANCE - False memory, Le Monde diplomatique, June 2001 (English)/(French)
  • Original text: Library of Congress Country Study of Algeria

LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Olivier LeCour Grandmaison (September 19, 1960, Paris) is a French historian. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... Cover of the edition of the works of C.F. Ramuz in Bibliothèque de la Pléiade The Bibliothèque de la Pléiade is a prestigious French collection of books which has been created in the thirties by Gallimard under the impulsion of André Gide. ... The Ligue des droits de lhomme (LDH, Human Rights League) is a French NGO founded on June 4, 1898, by the republican Ludovic Trarieux to defend captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew wrongly accused of treason - this would be known as the Dreyfus Affair. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Ligue des droits de lhomme (LDH, Human Rights League) is a French NGO founded on June 4, 1898, by the republican Ludovic Trarieux to defend captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew wrongly accused of treason - this would be known as the Dreyfus Affair. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Battle of Algiers (in Italian, La Battaglia di Algeri) is a 1965 black-and-white film directed by Gilles Pontecorvo. ... Le Canard enchaîné is a satirical newspaper published weekly in France, founded in 1915, featuring investigative journalism and leaks from sources inside the French government, the French political world and the French business world, as well as a large number of jokes and humorous cartoons. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... In France, a préfecture is the administrative town of a département. ... Gers (Occitan: Gers) is a department in the southwest of France named after the Gers River. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Times. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... The U.S. Armys School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS) is an elite training ground and think tank at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. ... St. ... The Journal of Strategic Studies, first published in 1978, is a multi-disciplinary review of forward-looking articles on military and diplomatic strategy. ... Roger Faligot is a French journalist, who started working in Ireland in 1973 before working as freelance investigative journalist for Britton, Parisian or foreign newspapers and magazines (Ireland, England, Japan). ... The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI)[1] is the U.S. Armys institute for geostrategic and national security research and analysis. ... The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI)[1] is the U.S. Armys institute for geostrategic and national security research and analysis. ... Sir Alistair Allan Horne (November 9, 1925-) is a British historian of modern France. ... Thierry Meyssan Thierry Meyssan is a French journalist and extreme left political activist. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Réseau Voltaire (Voltaire Network) is a international non-profit organisation, based in Paris with offices in London and Lima, which states it aims at promoting liberty and laïcité. Chairman : Thierry Meyssan (France) Deputy chairmen : Sandro Cruz (Peru), Issa El-Ayoubi (Lebanon) The Voltaire Network publishes a daily... Mohamed Harbi (born 1933) is an Algerian historian who was a member of the FLN during the Algerian War of Independence. ... For other uses, see Rennes (disambiguation). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Institut national de laudiovisuel is a French repository of all the audiovisual archives of the French television and radio. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... The Ligue des droits de lhomme (Human Rights League) is a French NGO founded on June 4, 1898, by the republican Ludovic Trarieux to defend captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew wrongly accused of treason - this would be known as the Dreyfus Affair. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... For other uses, see Rennes (disambiguation). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ...

INA archives

Note: concerning the audio and film archives from the Institut national de l'audiovisuel (INA), see Benjamin Stora's comments on their politically-oriented creation.[1] The Institut national de laudiovisuel is a French repository of all the audiovisual archives of the French television and radio. ...

  • Cinq Colonnes à la une, Rushes Interview Pied-Noir, ORTF, July 1, 1962
  • Cinq Colonnes à la une, Rétrospective Algérie, ORTF, June 9, 1963 (concerning these INA archives, see also Benjamin Stora's warning about the conditions of creation of these images)

is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... In Polynesian mythology, Ina is a lunar deity (daughter of Kui or Vaitere) Ina, also known as Ine, was king of Wessex from 688 to 726. ...

Contemporary works

  • Trinquier, Roger. Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency (1961)
  • Leulliette, Pierre, St. Michael and the Dragon: Memoirs of a Paratrooper, Houghton Mifflin, 1964
  • Galula, David, Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice (1964)
  • Jouhaud, Edmond. O Mon Pays Perdu: De Bou-Sfer a Tulle. Paris: Librarie Artheme Fayard, 1969.
  • Maignen, Etienne Treillis au djebel - Les Piliers de Tiahmaïne Yellow Concept, 2004.

Roger Trinquier (March 20, 1908 - 1986) was a French army officer with an immense impact on the development of Counter-insurgency theory. ... David Galula (1919-1967) was a French military officer born in Tunisia to French parents. ... Edmond Jouhard (April 2, 1905 – September 4, 1995) was one of four French generals who briefly staged a putch in Algeria in 1961. ...

Historians works

English language

  • Aussaresses, Gen. Paul. The Battle of the Casbah, New York: Enigma Books, 2006, ISBN 1-929631-30-8.
  • Horne, Alistair (1978). A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-1962. Viking. ISBN 0-670-61964-7. 
  • Maran, Rita (1989). Torture. The role of ideology in the French-Algerian war, New York: Prager Publishers.
  • Windrow, Martin. The Algerian War 1954-62. London: Osprey Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-85532-658-2

Sir Alistair Allan Horne (November 9, 1925-) is a British historian of modern France. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Martin Windrow (1944- ) is a British historian, editor and author of several hundred[1] books, articles and monographs, particularly those on organisational or physical details of military history, and the history of the post-war French Foreign Legion[2][3]. His most notable work is The last valley, an account...

French language

Translations may be available for some of these works. See specific cases.

  • Benot, Yves (1994). Massacres coloniaux, La Découverte, coll. « Textes à l’appui », Paris.
  • Jauffret, Jean-Charles. La Guerre d'Algérie par les documents (first tome, 1990; second tome, 1998; account here)
  • Rey-Goldzeiguer, Annie (2001). Aux origines de la guerre d’Algérie, La Découverte, Paris.
  • Robin, Marie-Monique. Escadrons de la mort, l'école française,453 pages. La Découverte (15 September 2004). Collection: Cahiers libres. (ISBN 2707141631) (Spanish transl.: Los Escuadrones De La Muerte/ the Death Squadron,539 pages. Sudamericana; Édition : Translatio (October 2005). (ISBN 950072684X)
  • Mekhaled, Boucif (1995). Chroniques d’un massacre. 8 mai 1945. Sétif, Guelma, Kherrata, Syros, Paris, 1995.
  • Slama, Alain-Gérard (1996). La Guerre d’Algérie. Histoire d’une déchirure, Gallimard, coll. « Découvertes », Paris.
  • Vidal-Naquet, Pierre. La Torture sous la République (1970) & many others, more recent (see entry).
  • Roy, Jules (1960). "La guerre d'Algérie" ("The War in Algeria", 1961, Grove Press)
  • Etienne Maignen. Treillis au djebel- Les Piliers de Tiahmaïne Yellow Concept 2004.

Marie-Monique Robin (1960-) is a French journalist, who was awarded the Albert Londres prize in 1995 for Voleurs dyeux, on organ theft. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Syros (Greek: Σύρος), or Siros or Syra is a Greek island in the Cyclades, in the Aegean Sea. ... Éditions Gallimard is the second most important French publisher, and probably the most respected. ... Pierre Vidal-Naquet (1930, Paris) is a French historian, teacher at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS). ... Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1951. ...

Films

Le Petit Soldat (1960), which was banned in France until 1963, was the second feature film made by French filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... It has been suggested that Freedom of information in France be merged into this article or section. ... The French Army made a systemic use of torture during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), which was theorized as a counter-insurgency tactic by Roger Trinquier in Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency (1961). ... Alain Resnais (born June 3, 1922 ) is a French film director whose early works are often grouped within the New Wave or Nouvelle Vague film movement. ... The Battle of Algiers (in Italian, La Battaglia di Algeri) is a 1965 black-and-white film directed by Gilles Pontecorvo. ... Gillo Pontecorvo (November 19, 1919 — October 12, 2006) was an Italian filmmaker, best known for La battaglia di Algeri (The Battle of Algiers), but directed several movies before its release in 1966, such as the drama Kapò (1960), which takes place in a World War II concentration camp. ... It has been suggested that Freedom of information in France be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Florent Siri directing Bruce Willis in the film Hostage. ...

See also

For other uses, see Algiers putsch (disambiguation) The Algiers putsch (French: Le Putsch dAlger or Coup détat dAlger), also known as the Generals putsch (Le Putsch des Généraux), took place from the 21 April PM to the 26 April 1961 in the midst of the... Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ... There have been comparisons in public debate comparing the Iraq War to the Algerian War of Independence[1]. Henry Kissinger advised President George W. Bush read A Savage War of Peace about the Algerian War of Independence for advice on how to handle the war in Iraq. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Algerian Nationalism A new generation of Muslim leadership emerged in Algeria at the time of World War I and grew to maturity during the 1920s and 1930s. ... There were 210 French nuclear tests from 1960 until 1996. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Oran massacre of 1962 was a massacre in Oran, Algeria on July 5, 1962, after the end of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). ... The Manifesto of the 121 (French: Manifeste des 121, full title: Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie or Declaration on the right of unsubordination in the Algerian War) was an open letter signed by 121 intellectuals and published on 6 January 1960 in... Pierre Vidal-Naquet (1930, Paris) is a French historian, teacher at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS). ... La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... The Manifesto of the 121 (French: Manifeste des 121, full title: Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie or Declaration on the right of unsubordination in the Algerian War) was an open letter signed by 121 intellectuals and published on 6 January 1960 in... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... The French Army made a systemic use of torture during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-62), which was theorized as a counter-insurgency tactic by Roger Trinquier in Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency (1961). ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... // History of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria, 1962–present In preparation for independence, the CNRA (Conseil National de la Révolution Algérienne) had met in Tripoli in May 1962 to work out a plan for the FLNs (Front de Libération Nationale) transition from a liberation... The fertile coastal plain of North Africa, especially west of Tunisia, is often called the Maghreb (or Maghrib). ... Algeria has a long history of revolution and regime change, making the political climate dynamic and often in a state of change. ... French rule in Algeria, 1830–1962 Most of Frances actions in Algeria, not least the invasion of Algiers, were propelled by contradictory impulses. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... The Évian Accords were signed on March 18, 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the F.L.N. (Front de Libération nationale), putting an end to the Algerian War with a formal cease-fire proclaimed for March 19, and formalizing the idea of cooperative exchange between...

External links

  • Algerian War Reading
  • Photos of the Algerian War of Independence (in French)
  • Algerian National Liberation
  • Pacification in Algeria: 1956–1958 by David Galula
  • Audiovisual National Institute's declassified Algeria War archives (hundreds of free video: news rushes, interviews, official speeches, retrospectives, etc.)
  • Algerian War Retrospective


  Results from FactBites:
 
Algeria Independence France 1954-1962 (1414 words)
Algerian sources later put the figure at approximately 1.5 million dead, while French officials estimated it at 350,000.
The actual figure of war dead may be far higher than the original FLN and official French estimates, even if it does not reach the 1 million adopted by the Algerian government.
The war uprooted more than 2 million Algerians, who were forced to relocate in French concentration camps or to flee to Morocco, Tunisia, and into the Algerian hinterland, where many thousands died of starvation, disease, and exposure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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